Searchable Index of Genera and Species Referenced in A Snail's Odyssey

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Macoma balthica: [predation] 1. seasonally eaten by scaups Aythya spp.. Poulton et al. 2002 [Text only]

Macoma balthica: [introduction, invasive, shell, size, survival] 1. one of 38 introductions of bivalve species along with shipments of eastern oysters for culture on the west coast that was successful; study of relationship of body size and success at invading. 2. other successful species are Gemma gemma, Geukensia demissa, Mya arenaria, and Petricolaria pholadiformis. Miller et al. 2002 [Graph]

Macoma inconspicua: [distribution] 1. types of Macoma clams. [Photo]

Macoma inquinata: [map, population, recruitment, survival] 1. one of 5 major clam species monitored in clam recruitment/survival study in Puget Sound, Washington. Dethier et al. 2012 [Text only]

Macoma inquinata: [distribution] 1. types of Macoma clams. [Photo]

Macoma inquinata: [distribution, photo courtesy] 1. types of Macoma clams. Schroeder [Photo]

Macoma nasuta: [activity, behaviour] 1. burrowing and other activities compared for several invertebrates. Wethey & Woodin 2005 [Graph]

Macoma nasuta: [ctenidia, pumping, scaling, size] 1. comparison of pumping rates with dry mass and surface area with mussels Mytilus californianus, cockles Clinocardium nuttallii, and scallops Chlamys hastata. Meyhofer 1985 [Photo, Graph]

Macoma nasuta: [distribution] 1. paleoecology of postglacial colonisation. Hetherington & Reid 2002 [Photo, Drawing]

Macoma secta: [photo courtesy] 1. photo courtesy R. Perry and Univ Calif Los Angleses OceanGLOBE. Perry [Photo]

Macoma secta: [deposit feeding, water flow] 1. degree of extension of siphons during feeding depends upon water velocity and other factors. Levinton 1991 [Graph]

Macoma secta: [deposit feeding] 1. description of deposit feeding. 2. rate of production of pseudofeces. Hylleberg & Gallucci 1975 [Drawing]

Macoma secta: [distribution] 1. types of Macoma clams. [Photo]

Macoma  inquinata: [predation, vulnerability] 1. comparison of 8 species of clams for vulnerability to predators. Boulding 1984 [Photo, Drawing]

Macoma  nasuta: [predation, vulnerability] 1. comparison of 8 species of clams for vulnerability to predators. Boulding 1984 [Photo, Drawing]

Macoma  secta: [deposit feeding] 1. feeds primarily on bacterial films on sand grains. Reid & Reid 1969 [Photo, Drawing]

Macoma  spp.: [deposit feeding] 1. description of deposit feeding in 8 species. Reid & Reid 1969 [Photo, Drawing]

Macoma  spp.: [deposit feeding, digestion] 1. process of digestion in a deposit-feeding clam. Reid & Reid 1969 [Text only]

Macoma  spp.: [predation] 1. comparative flesh yield to sea-otter predators of several species of bivalves. Kvitek et al. 1992 [Drawing, Graph]

Macoma  nasuta: [deposit feeding, suspension feeding] 1. has split siphons. 2. feeds facultatively on either deposits or suspended matter. Reid & Reid 1969 [Photo]

Macrocystis pyrifera: [community, herbivory, mortality] 1. mass mortality of red urchins Strongylocentrotus franciscanus leads to increase in nearby kelp stocks, especially Macrocystis pyrifera. Pearse & Hines 1979 [Photo, Drawing, Graph]

Macrocystis pyrifera: [community, herbivory, mortality] 1. mass mortality in the Point Loma area of California may have been caused by storms and warm-water El NIno events. Tegner & Dayton 1991 [Photo, Drawing, Graph]

Macrocystis pyrifera: [community, herbivory, settlement] 1. interactions of sea urchins and kelp beds. Watanae & Harrold 1991 [Photo, Graph]

Macrocystis pyrifera: [behaviour, feeding] 1. behaviour of sea-urchin species when eating kelp. Tegner et al. 1995 [Photo, Graph]

Macrocystis pyrifera: [community, composition, map] 1. effect of storms on composition of kelp-forest community including sea-urchin survival. Ebeling et al. 1985 [Drawing]

Macrocystis spp.: [community] 1. interactions between sea urchins, kelp, and sea otters. McLean 1962 [Drawing]

Maeotias marginata: [preferred, prey] 1. in that preferred prey in the San Francisco estuary are calanoid copepods, potential competition with local shad fishes . 2. introduced species, along with Moerisia sp., from the Caspian Sea area. Wintzer et al. 2011 [Photo]

Magaptera novaeangliae: [parasitism] 1. dead whale lice on skin. Rowntree 1996 [Photo]

Manania gwilliami: [life cycle, reproduction] 1. development only to start of metamorphosis. Otto 1978 [Photo]

Margarites pupillus: [coiling, shell] 1. factors involved in initiation of shell coiling. Collin & Voltzow 1998 [Photo]

Margarites pupillus: [photo courtesy] 1. photo courtesy Linda Schroeder, Pacific Northwest Shell Club, Seattle, Washington. Schroeder [Photo]

Margarites spp.: [behaviour, defense] 1. escape response to sea stars. Hoffman 1980 [Text only]

Margarites spp.: [predation] 1. eaten by cottids Artedius spp. and other fishes. Norton 1988 [Photo]

Mazzaella parksii: [photo courtesy] 1. photo courtesy Mike Hawkes, University of British Columbia. Hawkes [Photo]

Mediaster aequalis: [larva, metamorphosis, oxygen consumption, physiology] 1. oxygen consumption through metamorphosis in the larva. 2. larval development fueled by lipids. Bryan 2004 [Photo, Graph]

Mediaster aequalis: [development, life cycle] 1. description of life cycle. 2. larvae settle preferentially on tubiculous worms Phyllochaetopterus prolifica. Birkeland et al. 1971 [Photo, Drawing]

Mediaster aequalis: [development, life cycle] 1. description of life cycle. 2. larvae settle preferentially on tubiculous worms Phyllochaetopterus prolifica. Birkeland et al. 1971 [Photo, Drawing]

Mediaster aequalis: [development, life cycle] 1. description of life cycle. 2. larvae settle preferentially on tubiculous worms Phyllochaetopterus prolifica. Birkeland et al. 1971 [Photo, Drawing]

Mediaster aequalis: [abundance, photo courtesy] 1. photos courtesy Chuck Birkeland, University of Guam. Birkeland [Photo]

Mediaster aequalis: [preferences, prey] 1. preferred prey in Puget Sound, Washington are sea pens Ptilosarcus guernyi. Mauzey et al. 1968 [Photo]

Medusoid : [] 1. creation of an artificial swimming jellyfish named "Medusoid". Nawroth et al. 2012 [Photo]

Megabalanus californicus: [fouling] 1. barnacle fouling protects snails from octopuses. Schmitt 1983 [Photo]

Megabalanus californicus: [development, larva, reproduction] 1. description of larval development. Miller & Roughgarden 1994 [Drawing]

Megalorchestia californiana: [burrowing] 1. burrowing dynamics. 2. competition for burrows. Bowers 1964 [Photo, Drawing]

Megalorchestia californiana: [photo courtesy] 1. photo courtesy Dave Cowles, Walla Walla University, Washington. Cowles [Photo]

Megalorchestia californiana: [photo courtesy] 1. photo courtesy Ingrid Taylar, Seattle, Washington. Taylar [Photo]

Megalorchestia californiana: [burrowing] 1. photo sequence showing burrowing in sand. [Photo]

Megalorchestia californiana: [preferences] 1. preference for wrack seaweeds over fresh seaweeds as food. Pennings et al. 2000 [Photo, Graph]

Megalorchestia californiana: [photo courtesy] 1. photo courtesy Laura Richards, DFO, Nanaimo, British Columbia. Richards [Photo]

Megalorchestia californiana: [habitat, preferences] 1. comparison of habitat preferences of 2 species. Bowers 1964 [Graph]

Megalorchestia californiana: [behaviour, habitat] 1. habitat and behaviour. Craig 1973 [Photo]

Megalorchestia californiana: [photo courtesy] 1. photo courtesy Dave Cowles, Walla Walla University, Washington. Cowles [Photo]

Megalorchestia californiana: [parasitism] 1. data on nematode and mite parasites being carried. Rigby 1996 [Drawing]

Megalorchestia californiana: [habitat, preferences] 1. comparison of habitat preferences with Traskorchestia traskiana. Pelletier et al. 2011 [Photo, Graph]

Megalorchestia californiana: [] 1. description of mating, burrow digging, and mate competition. Iyengar & Starks 2008 [Photo, Graph]

Megalorchestia californiana: [] 1. photo courtesy Dave Cowles, Walla Walla University, Washington. Cowles [Photo]

Megalorchestia californiana: [] 1. 3 photos courtesy Ingrid Taylar, Seattle, Washington. 2. process of digging a burrow. Taylar [Photo]

Megalorchestia californiana: [gas exchange] 1. mechanism of gas exchange in sandhoppers. Moore & Taylor 1984 [Drawing, Graph]

Megalorchestia californiana: [gas exchange] 1. mechanism of gas exchange in sandhoppers. Spicer & Taylor 1986 [Drawing, Graph]

Megalorchestia californiana: [gas exchange] 1. mechanism of gas exchange in sandhoppers. Spicer & McMahon 1994 [Drawing, Graph]

Megalorchestia californiana: [photo courtesy] 1. photo courtesy Laura Richards, DFO, Nanaimo, British Columbia. Richards [Photo]

Megalorchestia californiana: [predation] 1. preyed upon by rove beetles Thinopinus pictus. 2. description of predatory tactics. Richards 1983 [Photo, Graph]

Megalorchestia californiana: [predation] 1. preyed upon by rove beetles Thinopinus pictus. 2. description of predatory tactics. Richards 1984 [Photo, Graph]

Megalorchestia californiana: [locomotion, tidal rhythm] 1. introduction to topic of locomotion and tidal rhythms in amphipods. [Photo]

Megalorchestia californiana: [photo courtesy] 1. photo courtesy Ingrid Taylar, Seattle. Taylar [Photo]

Megalorchestia corniculata: [navigation] 1. introductory comments regarding celestial navigation in amphipods. [Text only]

Megalorchestia corniculata: [navigation, lunar] 1. studies on navigation in California amphipods. Enright 1961 [Drawing, Graph]

Megalorchestia corniculata: [navigation] 1. study fails to confirm presence of lunar navigation . Craig 1971 [Text only]

Megalorchestia corniculata: [navigation] 1. use of visually obvious landforms in navigation. Craig 1973 [Drawing]

Megalorchestia corniculata: [navigation] 1. ability to discriminate slope angle of beach. Craig 1973 [Graph]

Megalorchestia corniculata: [navigation, orientation] 1. beach orientation of amphipods translocated to different areas. Hartwick 1976 [Graph]

Megalorchestia corniculata: [habitat, preferences] 1. comparison of habitat preferences of 2 species. Bowers 1964 [Graph]

Megalorchestia corniculata: [behaviour, habitat] 1. habitat and behaviour. Craig 1973 [Photo]

Megalorchestia sp.: [locomotion, jumping] 1. mechanism of jumping. Hurley 1959 [Photo]

Megalorchestia spp.: [predation] 1. amphipods preyed on by rove beetles Thinopinus pictus. Craig 1970 [Photo]

Megalorchestia spp.: [burrowing] 1. photograph of burrows of amphipods beneath a stipe of bull kelp. [Photo]

Megaptera novaeangliae: [host] 1. humpback whales host barnacle parasites. Nogata & Matsumura 2006 [Photo]

Megathura crenulata: [reproduction, spawning] 1. may be a year-round dribble-spawner. Beninger et al. 2001 [Photo]

Melanitta perspicillata: [photo courtesy] 1. photograph courtesy Mike Danzenbaker. Danzenbaker [Photo]

Melibe leonina: [autotomy, cerata, mechanism] 1. describes process of ceratal autotomy. Page 1989 [Drawing]

Melibe leonina: [behaviour, dispersal, reproduction, swimming] 1. seasonal swimming by reproductive individuals may aid in dispersal. Mills 1994 [Photo]

Melibe leonina: [behaviour] 1. describe several behavioural states. Schivell et al. 1997 [Photo, Drawing]

Melibe leonina: [photo courtesy] 1. photo courtesy Charles Seabourne, Malibu, California. Seabourne [Photo]

Melibe leonina: [dynamics, reproduction, egg-laying] 1. description of development in egg capsule. Kjerschow-Agersborg 1921 [Drawing]

Melibe leonina: [development, egg-laying, reproduction] 1. early development. Hurst 1967 [Drawing]

Melibe leonina: [aggression, feeding, food, gut, morphology] 1. feeds on planktonic crustaceans using its sieving hood. 2. description of gut system. Kjerschow Agersborg 1921 [Photo, Drawing]

Melibe leonina: [photo courtesy] 1. photo courtesy Charles Seabourne, Malibu, California. Seabourne [Photo]

Melibe leonina: [feeding, food, functional morphology, gut] 1. aspects of feeding and gut function. Kjerschow Agersborg 1923 [Photo, Drawing]

Melibe leonina: [feeding, food, ontogenetic shift] 1. foods include mostly copepods, both on kelp surfaces and from the plankton. 2. some suggestion of ontogenetic (age-related) shift in dietary preferences. Ajeska & Nybakken 1976 [Photo, Graph]

Melibe leonina: [photo courtesy] 1. photo courtesy Kevin Lee, Fullerton, California. Lee [Photo]

Melibe leonina: [behaviour, feeding] 1. 3 feeding modes depending upon habitat and water conditions. Watson & Trimarchi 1992 [Drawing, Graph]

Melibe leonina: [feeding, nervous system] 1. role of nervous system in feeding. Trimarchi & Watson 1992 [Drawing, Graph]

Melibe leonina: [behaviour, feeding] 1. factors involved in initiating hood closure examined. Watson & Chester 1992 [Graph]

Melibe leonina: [behaviour, development, ontogenetic shift] 1. describes changes in behaviours during larval development that presage the same or similar behaviours in adulthood. 2. ontogenetic change in behaviours. Page 1993 [Drawing, Graph]

Melibe leonina: [photo courtesy] 1. photo courtesy Charles Seabourne, Malibu, California. Seabourne [Photo]

Melibe leonina: [costs, crawling, energetics, physiology, swimming] 1. compare energy costs of crawling and swimming. Caldwell & Donovan 2003 [Photo, Graph]

Melibe leonina: [defense, secondary metabolite] 1. secretions released from ectodermal glands smell like oil of bergamot. Kjerschow Agersborg 1921 [Photo]

Melibe leonina: [photo courtesy] 1. photo courtesy Charles Seabourne, Malibu, California. Seabourne [Photo]

Melibe leonina: [defense, predator, secondary metabolite] 1. observe kelp crabs Pugettia producta eating Melibe. Ajeska & Nybakken 1976 [Photo]

Melibe leonina: [defense, secondary metabolite] 1. glass probe with Melibe mucus touched to sunflower star Pycnopodia helianthoides causes it to curl its arms. Ajeska & Nybakken 1976 [Photo]

Melibe leonina: [defense, secondary metabolite] 1. monoterpenes in the skin are responsible for fragrant odour. Ayer & Andersen 1983 [Text only]

Melibe leonina: [defense, secondary metabolite, gland] 1. description of repugnatorial glands in skiin. 2. secretion is repugnant to sea stars including Pycnopodia helianthoides and other species. Bickell-Page 1991 [Drawing]

Melibe leonina: [defense, gland, secondary metabolite] 1. fruity odour originates from the epidermal repugnatorial glands. 2. terpenoids are manufactured de novo by the nudibranch. Barsby et al. 2002 [Text only]

Melibe leonina: [defense, swimming] 1. test various stimuli on swimming response. 2. swimming duration may be as long as 25min. Lawrence & Watson 2002 [Drawing, Graph]

Melibe leonina: [behaviour] 1. describe unusual behaviour of lying motionless at the surface as "feigned death". Kjerschow Agersborg 1921 [Drawing, Graph]

Melibe leonina: [behaviour, neural, swimming] 1. describe neural components of swimming. Watson et al. 2002 [Text only]

Melibe leonina: [behaviour, neural, swimming] 1. describe neural components of swimming. Thompson & Watson 2005 [Text only]

Melibe leonina: [swimming] 1. video of Melibe swimming. [Video]

Melibe  leonina: [development, metamorphosis, reproduction] 1. detailed description of development through metamorphosis. Bickell & Kempf 1983 [Photo, Graph]

Membranipora membranacea: [photo courtesy] 1. photo courtesy Harvell 1992 Ecology 73: 1567. Harvell 1992 []

Mercenaria  mercenaria: [non-indigenous, survival] 1. introduced to west coast in the 1930s, may now be extinct. 2. replaced by another non-indigenous species Venerupis philippinarum. Burnaford et al. 2011 [Photo]

Mercenaria  mercenaria: [predation] 1. predators sense clam's odour plume from a distance. Zimmer & Butman 2000 [Photo]

Metandrocarpa taylori: [growth form] 1. describes early growth form in this social species. Haven 1971 [Photo, Drawing]

Metridium exilis: [asexual, reproduction] 1. sexual reproduction is rare in this species. Bucklin 1987 [Drawing, Graph]

Metridium farcimen: [asexual, reproduction] 1. poor regeneration & asexual reproduction unlikely. Bucklin 1987 [Drawing, Graph]

Metridium farcimen: [acontia, defense] 1. comparison of acontial nematocysts in Metridium species. Kramer & Francis 2004 [Photo, Graph]

Metridium farcimen: [behaviour, feeding] 1. comparison of body shape with another squat-shaped anemone Anthopleura xanthogrammica in water currents. Koehl 1977 [Photo]

Metridium farcimen: [energetics, feeding, preferences] 1. comparison of prey size selected with other sea anemones Anthopleura xanthogammica and A. elegantissima. Sebens 1981 [Drawing, Graph]

Metridium farcimen: [habitat, preferences] 1. habitat specialisation comparison with Anthopleura xanthogrammica. Koehl 1977 [Drawing, Graph]

Metridium farcimen: [habitat, preferences] 1. habitat specialisation of sea anemones. Koehl 1977 [Graph]

Metridium farcimen: [] 1. video of sea anemones on a sunken ship. [Video]

Metridium senile: [aggression] 1. introduction to aggressive behaviour in sea anemones. [Photo]

Metridium senile: [aggression, fighting tentacles] 1. use of fighting tentacles in intraspecific aggression. Purcell 1977 [Photo]

Metridium senile: [aggression, intraspecific] 1. sex-mediated territorial spacing. Kaplan 1983 [Photo]

Metridium senile: [aggression, habituation] 1. different levels of habituation. Purcell & Kitting 1982 [Photo]

Metridium senile: [quiz] 1. quiz on clonal aggregations. [Text only]

Metridium senile: [asexual, reproduction] 1. photographs showing examples of pedal laceration. [Photo]

Metridium senile: [Q10, pedal laceration] 1. increased rate on mussels. Bucklin 1987 [Photo]

Metridium senile: [pedal laceration] 1. increased rate on mussels. Anthony & Svane 1995 [Text only]

Metridium senile: [asexual, reproduction] 1. effect of nutrition on rate of pedal laceration. Bucklin 1987 [Drawing, Graph]

Metridium senile: [acontia, defense] 1. photograph of an anemone extruding defensive acontia from mouth. [Photo]

Metridium senile: [acontia, defense] 1. comparison of acontial nematocysts in Metridium species. Kramer & Francis 2004 [Photo, Graph]

Metridium senile: [behaviour, feeding] 1. description of feeding behaviour in the laboratory. Batham & Pantin 1950 [Photo, Drawing]

Metridium senile: [filter-feeding, DOM] 1. feeding behaviour and uptake of Dissolved Organic Matter. Robbins & Shick 1980 [Photo]

Metridium senile: [behaviour, feeding, water flow] 1. positional behaviour in water currents. Anthony & Svane 1995 [Drawing, Graph]

Metridium senile: [] 1. description of feeding and foods eaten. Koehl 1977 [Photo]

Metridium senile: [oxygen consumption] 1. oxygen uptake compared in air and water. Shick 1981 [Photo, Graph]

Metridium senile: [predator, preferences] 1. small individuals preferred by predator Aeolidia papillosa. Harris 1986 [Photo]

Metridium senile: [gonad growth, reproduction, sexual] 1. seasonal cycle of gonad growth. Bucklin 1982 [Photo]

Metridium senile: [acontia, defense, predation] 1. only defense against predation by the aeolid nudibranch Aeolidia papillosa is extrusion of acontia, but this is not very effective. Edmunds et al. 1974 [Photo]

Metridium senile: [predation] 1. photo series showing an attack by a predatory sea slug Aeolidia papillosa. [Photo]

Metridium sp.: [] 1. quiz on benefits to a sea anemone by being in areas of high currents. Robbins & Shick 1980 [Text only]

Metridium spp.: [acontia] 1. description of acontia. Williams 1991 [Photo, Text only]

Metridium  giganteum: [classification] 1. description of the species. Fautin et al. 1989 [Text only]

Metridium  spp.: [genetics, morphology] 1. morphological, biochemical, and genetical analysis of the Metridium spp. complex. Bucklin & Hedgecock 1982 [Text only]

Mexacanthina lugubris: [predator] 1. in laboratory experiments finds oval-aperture morph of Chthamalus fissus easier to drill and eat than the narrow-morph varieties. Jarrett 2008 [Photo, Graph]

mimicry : [defense] 1. discussion of aposematic or warning coloration and different forms of mimicry that may evolve from its presence. Gosliner & Behrens 1990 [Text only]

Mimulus foliatus: [camouflage, colour] 1. photo courtesy Iain McGaw, Memorial University, Newfoundland. 2. example of camouflage coloration. McGaw [Photo]

Mimulus foliatus: [epibiont] 1. comparison of camouflaging in 3 species of kelp crabs. Hultgren & Stachowicz 2006 [Photo]

Mirounga angustirostris: [predation] 1. eat over 30 species of cephalopods during spring/summer foraging at San Miguel Island, California . Antonelis et al. 1994 [Text only]

Mirounga sp.: [predator] 1. on San Miguel Island, California eat 12 species of cephalopods. Condit & Le Boeuf 1984 [Text only]

Mitrocoma cellularia: [development, life cycle] 1. description of life stages of this hydroid. Widmer 2004 [Drawing]

Modiolus modiolus: [byssus, production, thread, water flow] 1. comparison with Mytilus californianus, M. trossulus, and M. galloprovincialis. Carrington et al. 2008 [Photo, Graph]

Modiolus modiolus: [anchor, byssus] 1. photo courtesy Dave Cowles, Walla Walla University, Washington. 2. byssus filaments form a kind of "sand anchor" for stability. Cowles [Photo]

Modiolus rectus: [defense, hair] 1. periostracal hairs may deter boring predators, boring sponges, and settlement by other unwanted invertebrates. 2. the threads may also form a posterior-directed "early-warning" system against sea-star and crab predators. Bottjer & Carter 1980 [Photo]

Moerisia  spp.: [habitat, preferences] 1. relationship of distribution of several species of hydroids in the San Francisco Estuary to environmental factors such as oxygen, temperature, salinity, and so on. Wintzer et al. 2011 [Graph]

Molgula pacifica: [dispersal, egg, larva, life cycle, reproduction] 1. larval stage is absent, so dispersal potential is low. Young et al. 1988 [Photo, Drawing]

Molgula pacifica: [dispersal, egg, larva, life cycle, reproduction] 1. details of early development. Bates & Mallett 1991 [Photo, Drawing]

Molgula pacifica: [dispersal, egg, larva, life cycle, reproduction] 1. drawing of life cycle. Bates 1994 [Drawing]

Molgula sp.: [metamorphosis] 1. comparison of tail resorption in 4 genera including Distaplia, Botryllus, and Boltenia. Cloney 1982 [Drawing]

moon snail : [map] 1. snail's map with moon snail highlighted. []

Moonsnail : [home] 1. introduction to moon snails and relatives in home file for moon snail part of the ODYSSEY. [Text only]

Moonsnail : [] 1. snail meets moon snail animation. [Animation]

Moonsnail : [classification] 1. classification of SubClass Orthogastropoda with moon snails highlighted. []

Mopalia ciliata: [photo courtesy] 1. photo courtesy Lovell & Libby Langstroth, California. Langstroth [Photo]

Mopalia hindsii: [photo courtesy] 1. photo courtesy Linda Schroeder, Pacific Northwest Shell Club, Seattle, Washington. Schroeder [Photo]

Mopalia muscosa: [competition, food, space] 1. competes for space and food with limpets Lottia pelta. Connor 1975 [Photo]

Mopalia muscosa: [ion regulation, osmotic regulation, volume] 1. experiments on volume and ion regulation. Moran & Tullis 1980 [Photo, Graph]

Mopalia muscosa: [growth, mineralisation, radula] 1. details of radular growth and iron mineralisation in the radula cusps. Nesson 1969 [Photo]

Mopalia muscosa: [defense, sensory, hair] 1. morphological study of sensory hairs on the girdle. 2. possible defensive role. Leise & Cloney 1982 [Photo, Drawing]

Mopalia muscosa: [development, metamorphosis, reproduction, settlement] 1. provides a way to define metamorphosis . Leise 1984 [Drawing]

Mopalia spp.: [photo courtesy] 1. photos of Mopalia species courtesy Linda Schoeder, Pacific Northwest Shell Club, Seattle. Schroeder [Photo]

Mopalia spp.: [aesthete, classification, morphology] 1. detailed comparison of several genera of chitons within and without Family Mopaliidae, with respect to their classification. Vendrasco et al. 2008 [Drawing]

Mopalia  ciliata: [diet] 1. compares diets of 4 species of Mopalia from San Francisco Bay. Barnawell 1960 [Photo, Graph]

Mopalia  ciliata: [diet] 1. compares diets of 6 species of chitons at Deception Island, Washington. Piercy 1987 [Graph]

Mopalia  ciliata: [egg, morphology] 1. cupule morphology in several chiton species. 2. cupule function may relate to fertilisation and/or buoyancy. Buckland-Nicks 1993 [Photo]

Mopalia  ciliata: [homing] 1. no homing behaviour present. Fitzgerald 1975 [Photo, Drawing]

Mopalia  ciliata: [gonad index, season] 1. spawn in springtime coincidental with phytoplankton bloom. Himmelman 1980 [Photo, Graph]

Mopalia  ciliata: [photo courtesy] 1. photo courtesy Lovell & Libby Langstroth, California. Langstroth [Photo]

Mopalia  ciliata: [development, larva] 1. larvae are photonegative when swimming. Thorpe 1961 [Photo, Table of Data]

Mopalia  hindsii: [diet] 1. compares diets of 4 Mopalia species from San Francisco Bay. Barnawell 1960 [Photo, Graph]

Mopalia  hindsii: [diet] 1. compares diets of 6 species of chitons at Deception Island, Washington. Piercy 1987 [Graph]

Mopalia  hindsii: [diet] 1. compares diets of 6 species of chitons at Deception Island, Washington. Piercy 1987 [Graph]

Mopalia  hindsii: [development, mineralisation] 1. histological study of mineralisation in the cusps of the radula. 2. deposition of magnetite. Carefoot 1965 [Photo]

Mopalia  hindsii: [gonad index, season, spawning] 1. spawn in autumn/winter. Giese et al. 1959 [Graph]

Mopalia  hindsii: [energetics, gonad growth] 1. lipid involved in gonad growth. Giese & Araki 1962 [Photo]

Mopalia  hindsii (var.): [diet] 1. compares diets in 4 Mopalia species from San Francisco Bay. 2. photo shown is M. hindsii, but author uses another related type referred to as a "variety". Barnawell 1960 [Photo, Graph]

Mopalia  lignosa: [habitat, water flow] 1. distributions of 5 species of chitons in relation to degree of water movement. Linsenmeyer 1975 [Graph]

Mopalia  lignosa: [diet] 1. several species of algae eaten. Fulton 1975 [Photo]

Mopalia  lignosa: [photo courtesy] 1. photo courtesy Linda Schroeder, Pacific Northwest Shell Club, Seattle. Schroeder [Photo]

Mopalia  lignosa: [morphology, egg] 1. description of cupule surrounding egg in several chiton species. 2. cupule morphology may relate to fertilisation and/or buoyancy. Buckland-Nicks 1993 [Photo]

Mopalia  lignosa: [metamorphosis] 1. comparison of development in 2 species: M. lignosa and M. muscosa. Watamabe & Cox 1975 [Photo, Drawing]

Mopalia  lignosa: [photo courtesy] 1. photo courtesy Linda Schroeder, Pacific Northwest Shell Club, Seattle, Washington. Schroeder [Photo]

Mopalia  lignosa: [photo courtesy] 1. photo courtesy Linda Schroeder, Pacific Northwest Shell Club, Seattle, Washington. Schroeder [Photo]

Mopalia  muscosa: [habitat, water flow] 1. distributions of 5 species of chitons in relation to degree of water movement. Linsenmeyer 1975 []

Mopalia  muscosa: [fossilisation, shell, taphonomy] 1. comparison of fossilisation of shell valves with those of Katharina tunicata. Puchalski & Johnson 2009 [Photo]

Mopalia  muscosa: [competition, food, space] 1. competes for food and space with limpets. Smith 1975 [Photo]

Mopalia  muscosa: [aesthete, electronmicrography] 1. description of eye-like features of aesthetes in 12 species of Californian polyplacophorans. Fernandez et al. 2007 [Photo, Drawing]

Mopalia  muscosa: [acontia, desiccation, aggregation] 1. does clustering with black turban shells Chlorostoma funebralis reduce desiccation?. Fitzgerald 1975 [Photo]

Mopalia  muscosa: [acontia, desiccation, aggregation] 1. does clustering with black turban shells Chlorostoma funebralis reduce desiccation?. Fitzgerald 1975 [Photo]

Mopalia  muscosa: [freshwater, osmotic regulation] 1. comparison of osmoregulatory capabilities with Katharina tunicata. 2. both species are osmoconformers. Rostal & Simpson 1988 [Text only]

Mopalia  muscosa: [diet] 1. compares diets in 4 Mopalia species from San Francisco Bay. Barnawell 1960 [Photo, Graph]

Mopalia  muscosa: [diet] 1. compares diets of 6 species of chitons at Deception Island, Washington. Piercy 1987 [Graph]

Mopalia  muscosa: [homing, mechanism] 1. describes trail-following to and from a home site. Smith 1975 [Photo, Drawing]

Mopalia  muscosa: [home] 1. no homing as such, but does have a home range. Fitzgerald 1975 [Photo, Drawing]

Mopalia  muscosa: [locomotion, tides] 1. moves less during low-tide periods. Westersund 1975 [Graph]

Mopalia  muscosa: [compass, orientation] 1. orientation to magnetic north. Tomlinson 1980 [Graph]

Mopalia  muscosa: [gonad growth, season] 1. spawns in winter/early spring. Boolootian 1964 [Graph]

Mopalia  muscosa: [metamorphosis] 1. comparison with M. lignosa. Watamabe & Cox 1975 [Photo, Drawing]

Mopalia  muscosa: [development, metamorphosis, temperature ] 1. temperature effects on metamorphic competency. Pechenik 1984 [Photo]

Mopalia  sp.: [defense] 1. curls up in protective posture. [Video]

Mopalia  sp.: [inducer, spawning, hormone] 1. injection of vertebrate gonadotropin-releasing hormone shows mld effect. Gorbman et al. 2003 [Photo]

Mopalia  sp.: [photo courtesy] 1. photo courtesy Ron Long, Simon Fraser University, Burnaby. Long [Photo]

Mopalia  spp.: [light, aesthete] 1. tests of aesthete function. 2. 2 sizes of aesthetes. Omelich 1967 [Photo, Drawing]

Moroteuthis robusta: [locomotion, ventilation] 1. photograph showing how the flapper valve interlocks to allow ventilation for gas exchange and also jet propulsion. [Photo]

Moroteuthis robusta: [predation] 1. eaten by sperm whales Physeter macrocephalus off the coast of Vancouver Island, British Columbia. Pike 1950 [Drawing]

Moroteuthis robusta: [predation] 1. by far the most dominant prey item for sperm whales Physeter macrocephalus harvested off Vancouver Island during 1963-67. Finn et al. 2002 [Text only]

Moroteuthis robusta: [behaviour, prey capture] 1. description of tentacle operation in catching fish prey. 2. large red snappers in gut have had their spinal cords severed by the beak. [Photo, Drawing]

Moroteuthis robusta: [diet] 1. presence of a heart urchin and by-the-wind-sailors in the gut contents . Smith 1963 [Photo]

Moroteuthis robusta: [ecology, habitat] 1. account of sightings and strandings in Puget Sound since the late 1940s. Anderson 1996 [Photo]

Moroteuthis robusta: [habitat, sighting] 1. three SCUBA-divers catch a live specimen in shallow water near Carmel, California. Phillips 1961 [Text only]

Moroteuthis robusta: [habitat] 1. three specimens caught by fishers at 200-300 fathoms in the Trinidad Head area of California. Smith 1963 [Text only]

Moroteuthis robusta: [habitat] 1. seven specimens caught by commercial fishing boats from 1967-74 at depths of 200-300m in the Santa Barbara Channel. Hochberg 1974 [Text only]

Moroteuthis robusta: [habitat, sighting] 1. first documentation of a stranding in British Columbia , but other specimens have been caught by fishing boats. Green 1989 [Text only]

Murex sp.: [defense, shell, sculpturing] 1. general review of shell sculpturing in gastropods. Palmer 1979 [Photo]

Musculista senhousia: [genetics, connectivity] 1. measure of genetic connectivity at 6 estuarine sites from northern Washington to southern California. Asif & Krug 2012 [Photo, Drawing]

Musculista senhousia: [photo courtesy] 1. photo courtesy Mel Lin, Singapore. [Photo]

Mussel : [home] 1. introduction to mussels in home file for MUSSEL part of the Odyssey. [Text only]

Mussel : [] 1. animation of snail meeting mussel. [Animation]

Mussel : [map] 1. snail's map with mussel highlighted. [Drawing]

Mussel : [classification] 1. classification of mussels . [Text only]

mussels : [adaptation, genetics, review, temperature ] 1. general review of temperature adaptations and genetic modifications in marine invertebrates in general. Somero 2010 [Text only]

Mussels : [biologging, climate change, model, temperature ] 1. use biomimetic mussels as proxies to assess environmental effects on body temperatures of mussels. Helmuth et al. 2011 [Photo]

Mustela vison: [photo courtesy] 1. photo of mink stealing butter clam courtesy Dave Hatler, British Columbia. Hatler [Photo]

Mya arenaria: [predation, vulnerability] 1. comparison of 8 species of clams for vulnerability to predators. Boulding 1984 [Photo, Drawing]

Mya arenaria: [burrowing, defense, stimulus] 1. tests of various stimuli on burial depth. Zakian & Ydenberg 1997 [Graph]

Mya arenaria: [growth, substratum] 1. growth rate depends upon substratum. Swan 1952 [Photo]

Mya arenaria: [ecology, population] 1. compare extant populations with historical population. Palacios et al. 2000 [Photo, Graph]

Mya arenaria: [predation, preferences, prey] 1. in southwestern Alaska are eaten by brown bears Ursus arctos. Smith & Partridge 2004 [Photo]

Mya arenaria: [introduction, invasive, shell, size, survival] 1. one of 38 introductions of bivalve species along with shipments of eastern oysters for culture on the west coast that was successful; study of relationship of body size and success at invading . 2. other successful species are Gemma gemma, Geukensia demissa, Macoma balthica, and Petricolaria pholadiformis. Miller et al. 2002 [Graph]

Mya arenaria: [] 1. comparison of abundances within and without 3 marine reserves in Washington. Byers 2005 [Text only]

Mya arenaria: [distribution, map] 1. distribution throughout British Columbia. Gillespie et al. 2007 [Photo]

Mya arenaria: [photo courtesy] 1. photograph courtesy Gillespie et al. 2007, and Department of Fisheries and Oceans, Government of Canada. Department of Fisheries and Oceans, Government of Canada 2007 [Photo]

Mya arenaria: [gene flow, genetics, introduction] 1. comparison of genetic structure in 3 population, including introduced ones in Europe and the west coast of North America. Strasser & Barber 2009 [Text only]

Mya truncata: [energetics, suspension feeding] 1. energy cost of pumping. Bernard & Noakes 1990 [Text only]

Mya  arenaria: [predator, preferences] 1. involved in test of predator preference with 2 other clam species. Boulding 1984 [Photo, Graph]

Mycale adhaerens: [mutualism] 1. experiments on sponge/scallop mutualisms from the sponge's point of view. Burns & Bingham 2002 [Graph]

Mycale adhaerens: [costs, drag, energetics] 1. energetic costs to scallop hosts of load of sponge to be carried when swimming. Donovan et al. 2002 [Photo, Graph]

Mycale sp.: [predation, prey] 1. at least 10 species of sponges eaten in Barkley Sound, of which this type is one of the 2 most common. Penney 2013 [Photo]

Myoxocephalus polyacanthocephalus: [predator] 1. important siphon-cropping sculpin predator of clams. Meyer & Byers 2005 [Photo]

Mysticotalitrus cryptus: [osmotic regulation] 1. behavioural and physiological processes of osmotic regulation. 2. terrestrial species. Morritt & Richardson 1998 [Graph]

Mytilicola orientalis: [parasitism] 1. infests intestinal regions of bivalves, including mussels Mytilus. Goater & Weber 1996 [Photo]

Mytilicola sp.: [symbiont] 1. found commonly in varnish clams Nuttallia obscurata. Marshall et al. 2003 [Photo]

Mytilus : [climate change, species richness] 1. historical comparison of species richness, including Mytilus species, along the California coast . 2. 1960s -2002. Smith et al. 2006 [Graph]

Mytilus californianus: [competition, space] 1. competes for space on the shore with goose barnacles Pollicipes poymerus and sea palms Postelsia palmaeformis. Dayton 1971 [Photo, Drawing]

Mytilus californianus: [competition, interspecific] 1. competition with barnacles Balanus glandula and Semibalanus cariosus. Lee & Ambrose 1989 [Photo]

Mytilus californianus: [adhesion, byssus, force] 1. force required to detach is 3 times greater than for Mytilus trossulus. Harger 1970 [Photo, Graph]

Mytilus californianus: [attachment, byssus] 1. steps in attachment of byssus pad to substratum. Tamarin et al. 1974 [Photo]

Mytilus californianus: [byssus] 1. description of attachment of byssus pad to substratum. Tamarin et al. 1976 [Photo]

Mytilus californianus: [attachment, strength] 1. individuals are more strongly attached at edge of bed as compared with centre. 2. order of magnitude stronger attachment than for Mytilus trossulus. Witman & Suchanek 1984 [Graph]

Mytilus californianus: [byssus, chemical, composition] 1. chemical composition of byssus glue. Waite 1986 [Photo, Drawing]

Mytilus californianus: [byssus, thread] 1. produce less threads than Mytilus trossulus, but thicker and stronger. Bell & Gosline 1997 [Photo, Graph]

Mytilus californianus: [byssus, composition, thread] 1. detailed composition of threads and plaque. Zhao et al. 2006 [Photo]

Mytilus californianus: [byssus, production, thread, water flow] 1. comparison with M. trossulus, M. galloprovincialis, and Modiolus modiolus. Carrington et al. 2008 [Photo, Graph]

Mytilus californianus: [chemical, composition, shell] 1. use ratios of isotopic carbon and oxygen in shells to track historical changes in seawater pH. Pfister et al. 2011 [Graph]

Mytilus californianus: [growth, parasitism, survival] 1. observations on different parasitic crabs in gill region. [Photo]

Mytilus californianus: [feeding] 1. window in shell allows feeding process to be observed. MacGinitie 1941 [Text only]

Mytilus californianus: [feeding, food] 1. details of water filtration, pumping, and feeding. 2. foods in La Jolla region are flagellates, other protists, diatoms, bacteria, micr-algae, algal spores, and detritus. Fox & Coe 1943 [Photo]

Mytilus californianus: [pumping] 1. pumping rhythm in laboratory. Rao 1954 [Graph]

Mytilus californianus: [chemical] 1. investigation of carotenoid pigments in flesh. Campbell 1970 [Photo]

Mytilus californianus: [chemical, pigments] 1. biology of carotenoid pigments. Scheer 19 [Photo]

Mytilus californianus: [emersion, physiology] 1. effects of air exposure on oxygen consumption, heart rate, and ammonia levels. Bayne et al. 1976 [Graph]

Mytilus californianus: [genetics] 1. comparison of genetic differentiation along the west coast with that of M. trossulus. Levinton & Suchanek 1978 [Drawing, Graph]

Mytilus californianus: [genetics, structure] 1. genetic structure at sites from Alaska to Baja California. Addison et al. 2008 [Photo, Drawing]

Mytilus californianus: [genetics, structure] 1. genetic structure at sites from Alaska to Baja California. Addison et al. 2008 [Photo, Drawing]

Mytilus californianus: [plasticity, phenotypic] 1. comparison of metabolic capacities at sites from northern Washington to Baja California. Logan et al. 2012 [Drawing, Graph]

Mytilus californianus: [community, succession] 1. describes successional events in a mussel bed. Dayton 1971 [Photo, Drawing]

Mytilus californianus: [community, succession] 1. aspects of succession in a mussel-bed community. Paine & Levin 1981 [Photo, Drawing]

Mytilus californianus: [community, succession] 1. aspects of succession in a mussel-bed community. Wooton 2002 [Photo, Drawing]

Mytilus californianus: [community, succession] 1. mechanisms of succession. Suchanek 1981 [Photo]

Mytilus californianus: [community, succession] 1. mechanisms of succession in a mussel-bed community. Paine 1984 [Photo]

Mytilus californianus: [growth] 1. presence favourably influences growth of red algae Odonthalia flocculosa. Bracken 2004 [Photo, Graph]

Mytilus californianus: [quiz] 1. quiz on growth-enhancement of red algae in presence of sea mussels. [Text only]

Mytilus californianus: [community, dynamics] 1. community dynamics in a mussel bed relating to sea stars Pisaster ochraceus and kelp Hedophyllum sessile. Paine & Trimble 2004 [Graph]

Mytilus californianus: [community] 1. observations on community persistence. Smith et al. 2006 [Drawing]

Mytilus californianus: [wave exposure, colonise] 1. patch colonisation in relation to wav exposure. O'Donnell 2008 [Photo]

Mytilus californianus: [perturbation] 1. effects of foot-trampling on survival. Smith & Murray 2005 [Drawing, Graph]

Mytilus californianus: [succession] 1. new insights into successional events. Wooton 2010 [Photo, Graph]

Mytilus californianus: [growth] 1. growth measured over 4yr period. Coe & Fox 1942 [Graph]

Mytilus californianus: [growth, habitat] 1. comparison of growth on rocks and pier. Fox & Coe 1943 [Photo, Graph]

Mytilus californianus: [food, growth] 1. seasonal growth in relation to food availability. Fox & Coe 1944 [Graph]

Mytilus californianus: [latitudinal, pumping] 1. latitudinal compensation in pumping rates. Rao 1953 [Graph]

Mytilus californianus: [acclimation experiments, growth] 1. latitudinal compensation . Dehnel 1956 [Graph]

Mytilus californianus: [growth, wave exposure] 1. effects of wave exposure on growth on Vancouver Island. Emmett et al. 1987 [Drawing, Graph]

Mytilus californianus: [age, growth] 1. life span in Alaska over 10yr. Blanchard & Feder 2000 [Graph]

Mytilus californianus: [current velocity, feeding] 1. comparison with M. trossulus of effect of current velocity on clearance rates of particles. Ackerman & Nishizaki 2004 [Graph]

Mytilus californianus: [growth, upwelling] 1. effect of upwelling intensity on growth around Point Conception, California. Phillips 2005 [Drawing, Graph]

Mytilus californianus: [growth, upwelling] 1. effect of upwelling intensity on growth at sites around Point Conception, California. Blanchette et al. 2007 [Photo, Graph]

Mytilus californianus: [food, growth, temperature ] 1. effects of food and temperature on growth . Menge et al. 2008 [Graph]

Mytilus californianus: [growth, morphology, shell] 1. labial-palp discoloration related to strontium/calcium ratios in seawater may affect shell shape during growth. Blythe & Lea 2008 [Photo]

Mytilus californianus: [growth, abundance] 1. comparative study on latitudinal effects on growth and abundance in California. Smith et al. 2009 [Drawing]

Mytilus californianus: [identification, juvenile] 1. provide several morphological characters to separate from M. galloprovincialis as juveniles. Martel et al. 1999 [Photo, Drawing]

Mytilus californianus: [heat-shock proteins, stress] 1. relationship of HSP production to growth and reproduction in animals at different intertidal heights and seasons. Roberts et al. 1997 [Graph]

Mytilus californianus: [habitat, heat-shock proteins, temperature stress] 1. relationship of temperature, aspect, submersion, and other potential stress-inducing features on HSP production. Helmuth & Hofmann 2001 [Graph]

Mytilus californianus: [heat-shock proteins, intertidal level] 1. effect of intertidal height and season on HSP levels. Halpin et al. 2004 [Photo, Graph]

Mytilus californianus: [heat-shock proteins, latitudinal] 1. latitudinal and density effects on HSPs. Sagarin & Somero 2006 [Drawing, Graph]

Mytilus californianus: [density, latitudinal] 1. density of mussels at different latitudes along the west coast. Sagarin & Gaines 2002 [Drawing, Graph]

Mytilus californianus: [heat-shock proteins, metabolic cost] 1. metabolic costs of producing HSPs. Fitzgerald-Dehoog et al. 2012 [Text only]

Mytilus californianus: [identification] 1. features enabling differentiation from M. trossulus. Suchanek 1981 [Photo]

Mytilus californianus: [photo courtesy] 1. photo courtesy Linda Schroeder, Pacific Northwest Shell Club, Seattle, Washington. Schroeder [Photo]

Mytilus californianus: [competitive exclusion, interspecific, survival] 1. competition with M. galloprovincialis in California. Harger 1970 [Graph]

Mytilus californianus: [competition, interspecific] 1. interaction with sea palms Postelsia palmaeformis. Dayton 1973 [Photo]

Mytilus californianus: [competition, interactions] 1. review of intertidal interactions of a competitive nature. Paine 1979 [Photo]

Mytilus californianus: [competition, interspecific] 1. competitive interactions with Mytilus trossulus and other organisms on shores of Tatoosh Island, Washington. Suchanek 1978 [Photo, Drawing]

Mytilus californianus: [competition, growth, seaweeds] 1. deleterious or beneficial effects of seaweed competitive overgrowth. Dittman & Robles 1991 [Photo, Graph]

Mytilus californianus: [competition, diversity, space] 1. close growth in beds creates multi-dimensions for greater diversity. Lohse 1993 [Photo]

Mytilus californianus: [competition, space] 1. interaction with sea palms Postelsia palmaeformis. Blanchette et al. 1996 [Photo, Drawing]

Mytilus californianus: [predation, shell-breaking, survival] 1. low-level individuals have flatte shell-shape making it easier for lobster Panulirus interruptus to crack them open than fatter high-level ones. Robles 1987 [Photo]

Mytilus californianus: [predation] 1. aspects of lobster Panulirus interruptus predation on mussels Mytilus californianus. Robles et al. 1990 [Photo]

Mytilus californianus: [community, predator, prey, seaweeds] 1. community interactions with sea mussels, bay mussels, and lobsters on Santa Catalina Island, California. 2. question whether lobsters in Santa Catalina Island, California are acting as keystone predators. Robles 1997 [Graph]

Mytilus californianus: [interactions, predator, prey] 1. aspects of predator-prey interactions with lobsters Panulirus interruptus in Santa Catalina Island, California. Robles et al. 2001 [Photo]

Mytilus californianus: [community, diversity] 1. mussel-bed diversity. Suchanek 1992 [Drawing]

Mytilus californianus: [predation, PSPs] 1. shorebird predators switch from mussel to limpet prey when paralytic shellfish poisons reach seasonal highs. Kvitek & Bretz 2005 [Graph]

Mytilus californianus: [reproduction, season, spawning] 1. generally spawn throughout the year around San Francisco, California. Whedon 1936 [Text only]

Mytilus californianus: [reproduction, season, spawning] 1. in southern California spawning occurs Oct-Apr, but sometimes throughout the year. Young 1946 [Graph]

Mytilus californianus: [reproduction, spawning] 1. season of spawning in southern California. Young 1942 [Graph]

Mytilus californianus: [reproduction, spawning] 1. season of spawning in southern California. Young 1945 [Graph]

Mytilus californianus: [larva, reproduction, lipids] 1. measures seasonal condition index of larvae in terms of lipid content. Phillips 2006 [Graph]

Mytilus californianus: [egg, energetics, habitat, size] 1. compares egg size and energy content at sites north and south of Point Conception, California. Phillips 2007 [Text only]

Mytilus californianus: [colour, reproduction, gonad] 1. gonad colour relates to carotenoid content that varies with stress levels. 2. male gonads may also be orange-coloured. Petes et al. 2008 [Photo, Drawing]

Mytilus californianus: [survival] 1. tests of survival in different salinities. Young 1941 [Text only]

Mytilus californianus: [predation, spatial refuge] 1. deeper populations may be in spatial refuge from sea-star predators Pisaster ochraceus. Paine 1976 [Photo]

Mytilus californianus: [predator, preferences, size-selective] 1. study of size-selection predation by sea stars Pisaster ochraceus . Paine 1976 [Photo, Graph]

Mytilus californianus: [intertidal level, predator] 1. long-term removal of sea-star predators causes marked shift of lower limits of mussel distribution. Paine 1984 [Graph]

Mytilus californianus: [costs, energetics, predation, size-selective] 1. cost-benefit analysis of sea-stars Pisaster ochraceus preying on mussels. McClintock & Robnett 1986 [Photo, Graph]

Mytilus californianus: [predation, productivity] 1. effects of changing productivity of the mussel bed on impacts of predation by sea stars and birds. Garza 2005 [Photo, Graph]

Mytilus californianus: [environmental physiology, heat-shock proteins, stress] 1. different effects of stressful factors intertidally on sea-mussel prey and seastar predators Pisaster ochraceus. Petes et al. 2008 [Graph]

Mytilus californianus: [settlement, veliger] 1. juveniles, unlike in bay musses such as M. trossulus and M. galloprovincialis, tend not to employ byssus threads for transport in currents. Petersen 1984 [Photo]

Mytilus californianus: [chemical fingerprint, distribution, veliger] 1. use of chemical fingerprinting methods to monitor distribution of larvae from different source populations. 2. comparison with M. galloprovincialis. Becker et al. 2007 [Drawing, Graph]

Mytilus californianus: [distribution, food, recruitment, temperature , upwelling] 1. effect of upwelling and other water conditions on recruitment and distribution on either side of Point Conception, California. Blanchette & Gaines 2007 [Drawing, Graph]

Mytilus californianus: [abundance, climate change, larva, recruitment] 1. relationship of recruitment to phytoplankton abundance along the Oregon coastline over nearly 2 decades. Menge 2009 [Text only]

Mytilus californianus: [patch formation, wave exposure, hydrodynamics] 1. smooth hydrodynamics of a mussel bed interrupted by formation of patches through log strikes or feeding by predators. Denny 1987 [Photo]

Mytilus californianus: [metabolic rate, physiology, transcriptome] 1. detailed study of physiological rhythms through complete tidal cycles and at different intertidal levels. Gracey et al. 2008 [Graph]

Mytilus californianus: [food, genetics, temperature , transcriptome] 1. comparison of physiological variation at 2 sites in Oregon. Place et al. 2012 [Text only]

Mytilus californianus: [temperature , tides] 1. thermistor record of body temperature during emersion over daytime low tide. Carefoot 1977 [Photo]

Mytilus californianus: [acclimation experiments, season, temperature ] 1. record of seasonal body temperatures during a year. Elvin & Gonor 1979 [Graph]

Mytilus californianus: [abundance, temperature stress, adaptation] 1. integrity of phospholipid vesicles in the ctenidia used to assess temperature adaptation. Williams & Somero 1996 [Photo, Graph]

Mytilus californianus: [temperature stress, tidal level] 1. temperature landscapes for mussels in relation to tidal level. Roberts et al. 1997 [Graph]

Mytilus californianus: [model, temperature ] 1. use of heat-budget model to compare thermal stresses on mussels during short- and long-scale periods. Helmuth 1999 [Photo]

Mytilus californianus: [temperature , evaporation] 1. use thermistor records during simulated low-tide periods in the laboratory to determine extent of evaporative cooling. 2. gaping does not have much effect on body temperature. Fitzhenry et al. 2001 [Photo]

Mytilus californianus: [evaporation, temperature stress] 1. experiments on temperature stress . Fitzhenry et al. 2004 [Photo]

Mytilus californianus: [technique, temperature ] 1. use temperature-loggers to develop a 5yr record of temperatures along the west coast of the U.S.. Helmuth et al. 2006 [Drawing, Graph]

Mytilus californianus: [gonad index, stress] 1. effects on gonadal indices of stresses such as drying and thermal at 2 sites in Oregon. Petes et al. 2008 [Graph]

Mytilus californianus: [emersion, genetics, heat-shock proteins, stress] 1. investigate genetic variability in physiological responses to air exposure at several sites from British Columbia to Baja California. Place et al. 2008 [Photo, Drawing, Graph]

Mytilus californianus: [chemical fingerprint, emersion, intertidal level, shell] 1. use chemical components of shell as a proxy for temperature to assess emersion stress at high- and low-intertidal levels. Ford et al. 2010 [Drawing, Graph]

Mytilus californianus: [chemical fingerprint, shell, pH] 1. uses shell chemistry as a proxy for past pH levels. McCoy et al. 2011 [Text only]

Mytilus californianus: [climate change, habitat, population, temperature stress, thermal maxima] 1. proxy mussels used in experiments to assess effects of thermal stresses on persistence of mussel-bed populations. Denny et al. 2011 [Photo, Graph]

Mytilus californianus: [genetics, light, tides, transcriptome] 1. compare effects of daily light-dark cycle with tidal cycles for most effect on gene expression. Connor & Gracey 2011 [Graph]

Mytilus californianus: [chemical, emersion, stress, tidal rhythm] 1. unique approach to quantifying stresses of intertidal life using change in levels of 169 gill-tissue metabolites. Connor & Gracey 2012 [Graph]

Mytilus californianus: [reproduction] 1. compares total reproductive outputs of individuals at sites north and south of Point Conception, California. Phillips 2007 [Text only]

Mytilus californianus: [distribution, keystone, predation] 1. effects on distribution of adding or removing the top predator, the sea star Pisaster ochraceus. Robles et al. 2009 [Photo, Graph]

Mytilus californianus: [diversity, effects, predation, size] 1. compare effects of sea-otter predation on size and diversity of mussel beds at different sites along the west coast. Singh et al. 2013 [Photo, Drawing, Graph]

Mytilus californianus: [succession] 1. new insights into successional events in mussel-bed communities. Wooton 2013 [Photo, Graph]

Mytilus californianus: [community, effects, predator] 1. large, comprehensive study on the effect of predation by whelks Nucella canaliculata and N. ostrina on community structure including 6 prey barnacle and mussel species, and a sea-anemone species. Navarrete 1996 [Graph]

Mytilus californianus: [growth, habitat, survival] 1. study of habitat complexity in relation to interactions with prey whelks Nucella emarginata and predatory sea stars Pisaster ochraceus in Santa Barbara area. Gosnell et al. 2012 [Photo]

Mytilus californianus: [photo courtesy] 1. photo courtesy Biology Department, California State University, Fullerton. Biology Department 2012 [Photo]

Mytilus californianus: [aerial, shell, temperature stress, withdrawal] 1. comparison of valve-closing times in face of air and water exposure at different temperatures for 3 mussel species M. californianus, M. trossulus, and M. galloprovincialis. Dowd & Somero 2013 [Graph]

Mytilus edulis: [anchor, byssus] 1. description of thread production. Allen et al. 1976 [Photo, Drawing]

Mytilus edulis: [chemical] 1. . 2. chemistry of byssus threadd. Crisp et al. 1985 [Photo, Drawing]

Mytilus edulis: [chemical, composition] 1. chemical make-up of byssus threads. Qin & Waite 1995 [Photo]

Mytilus edulis: [adhesion, chemical, composition] 1. description of different proteins making up the threads and adhesive discs. Wiegemann 2005 [Drawing]

Mytilus edulis: [reproduction, spawning] 1. overview of factors involved with initiating spawning . [Photo]

Mytilus edulis: [larva, predation] 1. larvae may be eaten by adults or bound up in pseudofeces. Bayne 1964 [Text only]

Mytilus edulis: [larva, predation] 1. larvae may be eaten by adults. Mileikovsky 1974 [Text only]

Mytilus edulis: [defense, predator] 1. anemones growing on shells provide protection against potential sea-star predators. Kaplan 1984 [Text only]

Mytilus galloprovincialis: [byssus, production, thread, water flow] 1. comparison with M. trossulus, M. californianus, and Modiolus modiolus. Carrington et al. 2008 [Photo, Graph]

Mytilus galloprovincialis: [diversity, genetics] 1. comparison of 7 populations in southern California. Ma et al. 2000 [Graph]

Mytilus galloprovincialis: [genetics, hybridisation] 1. extent of occurrence with M. trossulus in central California. Braby & Somero 2006 [Drawing, Graph]

Mytilus galloprovincialis: [food, growth, temperature ] 1. effects of food and temperature on growth in southern California. Page & Hubbard 1987 [Photo]

Mytilus galloprovincialis: [identification, juvenile] 1. provide several morphological characters to separate from M. californianus in the juvenile stages. Martel et al. 1999 [Photo, Drawing]

Mytilus galloprovincialis: [heat-shock proteins] 1. comparison of expression of HSPs with M. trossulus. Hofmann & Somero 1996 [Photo, Graph]

Mytilus galloprovincialis: [competitive exclusion, interspecific] 1. competition with M. californianus in California. Harger 1970 []

Mytilus galloprovincialis: [community, predator, prey, protection] 1. involved in questions as to whether lobsters Panulirus interruptus in Santa Catalina Island, California are acting as keystone predators . Robles 1997 [Graph]

Mytilus galloprovincialis: [acclimation experiments, genetics, hybridisation] 1. hybridisation with M. trossulus. McDonald & Koehn 1988 [Graph]

Mytilus galloprovincialis: [distribution] 1. review of distribution. Wonham 2004 [Text only]

Mytilus galloprovincialis: [genetics] 1. more information on its invasion into west-coast localities. Geller et al. 1994 [Drawing]

Mytilus galloprovincialis: [reproduction, season, spawning] 1. mature sperm present throughout the year, but mature eggs only from Nov-May. Moore & Reish 1969 [Text only]

Mytilus galloprovincialis: [physiology, tolerance] 1. compare tolerances of temperature and salinity with M. trossulus. Braby & Somero 2006 [Graph]

Mytilus galloprovincialis: [condition, metamorphosis, ration, settlement] 1. experiments on food ration in relation to size of veliger larvae an success in settlement and metamorphosis. Phillips 2002 [Graph]

Mytilus galloprovincialis: [chemical fingerprint, distribution, veliger] 1. use of chemical fingerprinting to monitor distribution of larvae from different source populations. 2. comparison with M. californianus. Becker et al. 2007 [Drawing, Graph]

Mytilus galloprovincialis: [predation] 1. compare responses of native predatory whelk Nucella ostrina to this introduced mussel vs. native mussels M. californianus and M. trossulus. Shinen et al. 2009 [Graph]

Mytilus galloprovincialis: [genetics, heat-shock proteins, temperature stress] 1. use species-specific heat-stress genes to explain invasion success over native M. trossulus. Lockwood et al. 2010 [Text only]

Mytilus galloprovincialis: [genetics, heat-shock proteins, temperature stress, proteomics] 1. monitor several dozen proteins in the ctenidia that respond to heat stress and compare with M. trossulus. 2. comparison of thermal stresses in the 2 species. Tomanek & Zuzow 2010 [Table of Data]

Mytilus galloprovincialis: [heat-shock proteins, physiology, stress, temperature ] 1. compare seasonal physiological stresses with congenor species M. trossulus using ubiquitin-conjugated proteins. Dutton & Hofmann 2008 [Drawing]

Mytilus galloprovincialis: [acclimation experiments, competition, distribution, invasive, proteomics, temperature ] 1. temperature-acclimation experiments to assess proteomic changes in ctenidial tissues . 2. attempt to explain competitive superiority of invasive mussels M. galloprovincialis over native bay mussels in California. Fields et al. 2012 [Text only]

Mytilus galloprovincialis: [competition, distribution, global warming, proteomics, salinity] 1. comparison of proteomic responses to low salinity with Mytilus trossulus. 2. the invasive species M. galloprovincialis is less tolerant of low salinity than the native M. trossulus. Tomanek et al. 2012 [Text only]

Mytilus galloprovincialis: [aerial, shell, temperature stress, withdrawal] 1. comparison of valve-closing times in face of air and water exposure at different temperatures for 3 mussel species M. californianus, M. trossulus, and M. galloprovincialis. Dowd & Somero 2013 [Graph]

Mytilus sp.: [antennule] 1. compares contemporary drillhole features with those from fossillised shells. 2. finds similar morphology in shells from 14-17mya. Schiffbauer et al. 2008 [Photo]

Mytilus sp.: [predation] 1. in Nelson Lagoon, Alaska are preferentially eaten by Steller's eiders Polysticta stelleri. Petersen 1980 [Photo]

Mytilus spp.: [anchor, byssus] 1. introductory remarks about byssus-thread anchoring in mussels. [Photo]

Mytilus spp.: [anchor, morphology] 1. description of threads and terminal pads. Smeathers & Vincent 1979 [Drawing]

Mytilus spp.: [morphology, adhesion] 1. morphology of adhesive pads on different substrata. Meadows & Shand 1989 [Drawing]

Mytilus spp.: [byssus, composition, thread] 1. composition of threads in M. californianus is mechanically superior to that in M. edulis and M. galloprovincialis. Harrington & Waite 2007 [Drawing]

Mytilus spp.: [hybridisation, fitness] 1. fitness of hybrids between M. trossulus and M. galloprovincialis along west coast. Springer & Heath 2007 [Photo, Drawing, Graph]

Mytilus spp.: [fitness, hybridisation] 1. hybrid fitness M. trossulus and M. galloprovincialis. Shields et al. 2008 [Drawing, Graph]

Mytilus spp.: [genetics, structure] 1. . Shields et al. 2010 [Drawing, Graph]

Mytilus spp.: [photo courtesy] 1. photos of M. trossulus, M. galloprovincialis, and M. edulis courtesy Linda Schroeder, Pacific Northwest Shell Club, Seattle. Schroeder [Photo]

Mytilus spp.: [growth] 1. comparison of growth of 3 species in relation to aquaculture potential. Behrens-Yamada & Dunham 1989 [Photo]

Mytilus spp.: [identification] 1. use multivariate analysis of 18 morphological features to separate the species galloprovincialis, trossulus, and edulis. McDonald et al. 1991 [Drawing, Graph]

Mytilus spp.: [identification] 1. morphological characters to separate the species M. californianus and M. trossulus/galloprovincialis at the post-larval stage. Martel et al. 2000 [Photo, Drawing]

Mytilus spp.: [heat-shock proteins] 1. review of HSPs. Halpin et al. 2002 [Photo, Graph]

Mytilus spp.: [heat-shock proteins] 1. aspects of HSPs in mussels. Hofmann & Somero 1995 [Photo, Graph]

Mytilus spp.: [photo courtesy] 1. photos of mussels Mytilus trossulus and M. galloprovincialis courtesy Linda Schroeder, Pacific Northwest Shell Club, Seattle, Washington. Schroeder [Photo]

Mytilus spp.: [competition, connective tissue, interspecific] 1. studies on interspecific competition between M. californianus, M. trossulus, and M. galloprovincialis. Harger 1972 [Photo]

Mytilus spp.: [coexistence] 1. reference to factors permitting coexistence of mussels M. californianus and M. galloprovincialis. Harger 1972 [Text only]

Mytilus spp.: [quiz] 1. quiz on factors permitting coexistence of mussel species M. californianus and M. galloprovincialis. [Text only]

Mytilus spp.: [competition, growth, interspecific] 1. use growth as a measure of competitive superiority in polyculture experiments with mussel species M. trossulus and M. californianus. Shinen & Morgan 2009 [Photo, Graph]

Mytilus spp.: [competition, intraspecific] 1. there appear to be no studies specifically on intraspecific competition in west-coast mussels. [Text only]

Mytilus spp.: [competition, intraspecific] 1. there appears to have been no studies done specifically on this topic for west-coast species. [Text only]

Mytilus spp.: [genetics, hybridisation] 1. hybridisation between M. trossulus and M. galloprovincialis. Sarver & Loudenslager 1991 [Graph]

Mytilus spp.: [genetics, hybridisation] 1. hybridisation of M. trossulus and M. galloprovincialis in California. Sarver & Foltz 1993 [Drawing]

Mytilus spp.: [genetics] 1. distribution of M. trossulus and M. galloprovincialis and their hybrids in California. Rawson & Hilbish 1995 [Drawing]

Mytilus spp.: [genetics] 1. develop PCR markers to discriminate between mussels M. trossulus, M. edulis, and M. galloprovincialis. Heath et al. 1995 [Text only]

Mytilus spp.: [genetics, habitat] 1. develop PCR markers to distinguish between mussels M. trossulus and M. galloprovincialis in different habitats on Vancouver Island. Heath et al. 1996 [Photo, Graph]

Mytilus spp.: [genetics] 1. use a PCR marker for byssus-adhesive protein to distinguish between mussels M. trossulus and M. galloprovincialis. Suchanek et al. 1997 [Text only]

Mytilus spp.: [genetics, historical] 1. genetics analyses of historical samples of bay mussels from museums around California show the presence only of M. trossulus prior to the invasion of M. galloprovincialis. Geller 1999 [Text only]

Mytilus spp.: [genetics, hybridisation] 1. extent of hybridisation between M. trossulus and M. galloprovincialis in Oregon and California. Rawson et al. 1999 [Drawing, Graph]

Mytilus spp.: [genetics] 1. information on types of genetic markers used to distinguish Mytilus species. Rawson et al. 1996 [Drawing, Graph]

Mytilus spp.: [genetics, growth, salinity] 1. hybrids of bay mussels M. trossulus and M. galloprovincialis show little evidence of hybrid vigour. 2. compare growth of both species and hybrids in different salinities. Matson et al. 2003 [Text only]

Mytilus spp.: [genetics, habitat, preferences] 1. habitat preference of bay mussels M. trossulus and M. galloprovincialis, and their hybrids. Elliott et al. 2008 [Drawing, Graph]

Mytilus spp.: [genetics, habitat, preferences] 1. habitat preference of bay mussels M. trossulus and M. galloprovincialis, and their hybrids. Elliott et al. 2008 [Drawing, Graph]

Mytilus spp.: [community, diversity] 1. description of diversity of communities inhabiting offshore drill-rigs in southern California. Bomkamp et al. 2004 [Photo, Drawing]

Mytilus spp.: [photo courtesy] 1. photo courtesy Kevin Lee, Fullerton, California. Lee [Photo]

Mytilus spp.: [community, conservation] 1. conservation issues regarding marine reserves along the California coast. Smith et al 2008 [Photo]

Mytilus spp.: [community, diversity] 1. study of diversity and abundance of invertebrates on and below oil- and gas-drilling rigs in southern California. Goddard & Love 2010 [Photo, Drawing]

Mytilus spp.: [predator] 1. introduction to bird- and fish-predator section for mussels. [Photo]

Mytilus spp.: [energetics, reproduction, season, spawning] 1. mussels Mytilus californianus spawn year-round, while M. trossulus and M. galloprovincialis tend to spawn in winter-early spring. 2. consideration of energy input to ecosystem from eggs of mussels and other invertebrates. Gosselin 2004 [Photo]

Mytilus spp.: [reproduction, spawning] 1. aspects of mussel spawning. Curiel-Ramirez & Caceres-Martinez 2004 [Photo]

Mytilus spp.: [physiology, tolerance] 1. review of physiological differences between M. galloprovincialis and M. trossulus. Lockwood & Somero 2011 [Graph]

Mytilus spp.: [settlement, veliger] 1. general observations on settlement, including byssus-thread transport of the juveniles in currents. Bayne 1964 [Photo]

Mytilus spp.: [juvenile, settlement] 1. aspects of settlement. Sigurdsson et al. 1976 [Photo]

Mytilus spp.: [veliger] 1. experiments on inter-speciific competition by veliger larvae of Mytilus californianus and M. galloprovincialis. Petraitis 1978 [Graph]

Mytilus spp.: [competition, preferences, settlement, veliger] 1. settlement strategies of mussels Mytilus californianus and M. trossulus . Petersen 1984 [Text only]

Mytilus spp.: [food, food quality, settlement, upwelling, veliger] 1. comparison of settlement success of mussel veligers on either side of Point Conception, California where upwelling conditions and food availability differ. Phillips & Gaines 2002 [Drawing, Graph]

Mytilus spp.: [oceanic processes, settlement, stimulus] 1. retarding effect of ocean fronts on settlement of veligers within Sunset Bay in Oregon. McCulloch & Shanks 2003 [Drawing]

Mytilus spp.: [chemical fingerprint] 1. feasibility considerations in use of technique on mussels. Becker et al. 2005 [Drawing, Graph]

Mytilus spp.: [chemical fingerprint, technique, veliger] 1. feasibility of using technique of chemical fingerprinting on mussel larvae. Fodrie et al. 2011 [Drawing, Graph]

Mytilus spp.: [distribution, settlement, survival] 1. relationship of adult distributions of 3 species of mussels Mytilus californianus, M. trossulus, and M. galloprovincialis to preferential larval settlement and post-settlement survival. Johnson & Geller 2006 [Graph]

Mytilus spp.: [abundance, larva, recruitment] 1. relationship of inshore abundance of larvae to rate of intertidal recruitment in mussels Mytilus californianus and M. trossulus. Rilov et al. 2008 [Drawing]

Mytilus spp.: [chemical fingerprint, distribution, larval dispersal, recruitment] 1. investigation of larval exchange between regions along the California coast. Carson et al. 2010 [Photo, Drawing, Graph]

Mytilus spp.: [chemical fingerprint, larval dispersal] 1. use of chemical fingerprinting of larvae of mussels Mytilus to follow dispersal along areas of the west coast. Carson et al. 2011 [Photo, Drawing, Graph]

Mytilus spp.: [larval dispersal] 1. efficacy of byssus-thread dispersal in species of mussels Mytilus californianus and M. trossulus along the Oregon coast. Shanks & Shearman 2011 [Text only]

Mytilus spp.: [stress, wave exposure] 1. growth of kelps on mussel can greatly exacerbate the stressful effects of wave forces. Witman & Suchanek 1984 [Photo]

Mytilus spp.: [model, technique, temperature ] 1. development of a model mussel for use as a proxy in heat-budget and thermal-stress studies in the field. Helmuth 1998 [Drawing]

Mytilus spp.: [review, temperature stress, time budget] 1. general review of effects of temperature on mussels Mytilus. Zippay & Helmuth 2012 [Drawing, Graph]

Mytilus spp.: [distribution, emersion, temperature stress] 1. effects of temperature on distribution of mussels M. trossulus and M. galloprovincialis when air-exposed. Schneider & Helmuth 2007 [Graph]

Mytilus spp.: [aggregation, predation] 1. high recruitment by prey mussels attracts aggregations of predatory sea stars Pisaster ochraceus. Robles et al. 1995 [Photo, Graph]

Mytilus spp.: [predation] 1. in Sitka Sound, Alaska mussels M. trossulus and M. californianus comprise about 35% of the bulk of an oyster-catcher's yearly diet. Webster 1941 [Photo]

Mytilus spp.: [chemical fingerprint, distribution, larva] 1. use of chemical fingerprinting in studies on distribution of mussel larvae. Carson et al. 2013 []

Mytilus spp.: [abundance, chemical, distribution, pH] 1. attempt to correlate changes in intertidal abundances and distributions of mussels and other organisms on Tatoosh Island, Washington with declining pH values in seawater. Wooton et al. 2008 [Graph]

Mytilus trossulus: [energetics, suspension feeding] 1. calculate energy cost of pumping. Bernard & Noakes [Text only]

Mytilus trossulus: [anchor, byssus, force] 1. detachment force is 3 times less than for Mytilus californianus. Harger 1970 [Photo, Graph]

Mytilus trossulus: [attachment, strength] 1. slight tendency for stronger attachment at edge of mussel bed. 2. order of magnitude less strong attachment than Mytilus californianus. Witman & Suchanek 1984 [Graph]

Mytilus trossulus: [byssus, thread] 1. produce more threads than Mytilus californianus, but thinner and weaker. Bell & Gosline 1997 [Photo, Graph]

Mytilus trossulus: [behaviour, locomotion] 1. maximum movement by 9% of population in a month is 9cm. Hunt & Scheibling 2002 [Photo]

Mytilus trossulus: [byssus, thread, water flow, production] 1. comparison with M. californianus, M. galloprovincialis, and Modiolus modiolus. Carrington et al. 2008 [Photo, Graph]

Mytilus trossulus: [parasitism] 1. 80% infestation of copepod parasites in summer in Barkley Sound, British Columbia. Goater & Weber 1996 [Photo]

Mytilus trossulus: [genetics] 1. comparison of genetic differentiation along the west coast with that of M. californianus. Levinton & Suchanek 1978 [Drawing, Graph]

Mytilus trossulus: [polyploidy] 1. identify "summer mortality syndrome" as a possible consequence of polyploidy. Gonzalez-Tizon et al. 2000 [Photo]

Mytilus trossulus: [genetics, hybridisation] 1. extent of hybridisation with M. galloprovincialis. Braby & Somero 2006 [Drawing, Graph]

Mytilus trossulus: [age, growth line] 1. uses acetate-peel method to estimate age and growth. Millstein & O'Clair 2001 [Photo, Graph]

Mytilus trossulus: [feeding, water flow] 1. comparison with M. californianus of effect of current velocity on clearance rate of particles. Ackerman & Nishizaki 2004 [Graph]

Mytilus trossulus: [photo courtesy] 1. photo courtesy Dave Cowles, Walla Walla University, Washington . Cowles [Photo, Drawing]

Mytilus trossulus: [heat-shock proteins, season, temperature stress] 1. appearance of HSPs varies with an organism's past temperature history. Buckley et al. 2001 [Text only]

Mytilus trossulus: [quiz] 1. quiz on threshold-induction temperatures . [Text only]

Mytilus trossulus: [identification] 1. features enabling differentiation from M. californianus. Suchanek 1981 [Photo]

Mytilus trossulus: [competition, interspecific] 1. study interspecific competition with barnacles Balanus glandula in southern British Columbia. Ross & Goodman 1974 [Text only]

Mytilus trossulus: [competition, interspecific] 1. competitive interactions with Mytilus californianus and other organisms on Tatoosh Island, Washington. Suchanek 1978 [Photo, Drawing]

Mytilus trossulus: [competition, space, refuge] 1. seeks spatial refuge from its superior competitor Mytilus californianus on Tatoosh Island, Washington. Suchanek 1981 [Photo]

Mytilus trossulus: [morphology, shell] 1. comparison of vulnerability of thick- and thin-shelled morphs to predation by crab and sea-star predators in Howe Sound, British Columbia. Addison 2009 [Photo, Graph]

Mytilus trossulus: [genetics, hybridisation] 1. hybridisation with M. galloprovincialis. McDonald & Koehn 1988 [Graph]

Mytilus trossulus: [genetics, hybridisation] 1. distribution of bay mussels M. trossulus in Puget Sound, Washington. Anderson et al. 2002 [Drawing]

Mytilus trossulus: [predation] 1. eaten by pile perches Rhacochilus vacca. Brett 1979 [Photo]

Mytilus trossulus: [salinity, temperature , tolerance] 1. compare tolerances to temperature and salinity with M. galloprovincialis. Braby & Somero 2006 [Graph]

Mytilus trossulus: [defense, predation] 1. defenses against whelk predators include valve gaping, valve closure, mantle retraction, foot extension, and fastening byssus threads to the predator. Wayne 1987 [Photo, Drawing, Table of Data]

Mytilus trossulus: [predation] 1. experiments on predation by whelks Nucella lima in Alaska. Carroll & Highsmith 1996 [Drawing, Graph]

Mytilus trossulus: [grazing, growth, habitat, mortality] 1. translocation experiments to different localities on Vancouver Island, with growth and mortality being compared. Yanick et al. 2003 [Drawing]

Mytilus trossulus: [wave exposure, zonation, smother] 1. compare ability to crawl out from smothering conditions caused by wave effects, such as being buried in sand. 2. better ability than M. californianus. Rosen et al. 1978 [Photo, Drawing, Graph]

Mytilus trossulus: [growth, wave exposure] 1. growth rate inversely related to wave force. Harger 1970 [Photo, Graph]

Mytilus trossulus: [wave exposure] 1. relationship of wave forces to health and vitality. Harger & Landenberger 1971 [Photo, Graph]

Mytilus trossulus: [morphology, shell, wave exposure] 1. field studies of relationship of shell morphology to degree of wave exposure. Akester & Martel 1999 [Photo, Drawing]

Mytilus trossulus: [genetics, heat-shock proteins, temperature stress] 1. use species-specific heat-stress genes to explain recessiveness of native mussels M. trossulus in face of invasion by M. galloprovincialis. Lockwood et al. 2010 [Text only]

Mytilus trossulus: [heat-shock proteins, proteomics, temperature stress] 1. compare responses of ctenidial proteins to thermal stresses with those in M. galloprovincialis. Tomanek & Zuzow 2010 [Text only]

Mytilus trossulus: [heat-shock proteins, physiology, stress, temperature ] 1. compare physiological stresses from temperature by monitoring ubiquitin-conjugated proteins in this species with congenor M. galloprovincialis. Dutton & Hofmann 2008 [Drawing, Graph]

Mytilus trossulus: [community, effects, predator] 1. large, comprehensive study on the effect of predation by whelks Nucella canaliculata and N. ostrina on community structure including 6 prey barnacle and mussel species, and a sea-anemone species. Navarrete 1996 [Graph]

Mytilus trossulus: [predation] 1. consideration of borehole disposition by predatory whelks Nucella lamellosa on the shells of prey mussels in relation to shell thickness and underlying organ disposition. Carefoot 1977 [Drawing]

Mytilus trossulus: [borehole, location, size] 1. features of boreholes by whelk predators Nucella lamellosa in relation to size of predator, size of prey, and so on. Kowalewski 2004 [Photo, Graph]

Mytilus trossulus: [borehole drilling] 1. effect on drilling behaviour, success or failure, by whelks on prey mussels Mytilus trossulus when whelk is exposed to its own predator, the crab Cancer gracilis. Chattopadhyay & Baumiller 2007 [Photo]

Mytilus trossulus : [predation] 1. along the B.C. coast are a preferred food of surf scoters Melanitta perspicillata. Vermeer 1981 [Photo]

Mytilus trossulus : [defense, predation, clumping] 1. clumping behaviour by the mussels discourages attacks by boring whelks Nucella lamellosa. Casey & Chattopadhyay 2008 [Photo]

Mytilus trossulus : [borehole drilling, cost-benefit, efficacy] 1. attempt to determine cost-benefits for whelks Nucella lamellosa feeding on them. Chattopadhyah&Baumiller 2009 [Graph]

Mytilus trossulus : [borehole, borehole drilling, electronmicrography, functional morphology] 1. attempt to correlate microtrace scratch marks in borehole of mussel shell with radula morphology and size of predatory whelk Nucella lamellosa. Tyler & Schiffbauer 2012 [Photo]

Mytilus trossulus : [map] 1. study on indirect effects of return of sea otters to the Alaska archipelago. 2. by eating several species of sea stars, the otters promote survival of mussels. Vicknair & Estes 2012 [Graph]

Mytilus trossulus : [acclimation experiments, competition, distribution, invasive, proteomics, temperature ] 1. temperature-acclimation experiments to assess proteomic changes in ctenidial tissues . 2. attempt to explain competitive superiority of invasive mussels M. galloprovincialis over native bay mussels in California. Fields et al. 2012 [Text only]

Mytilus trossulus : [competition, distribution, global warming, proteomics, salinity] 1. comparison of proteomic responses to low salinity with Mytilus galloprovincialis. 2. the invasive species M. galloprovincialis is less tolerant of low salinity than the native M. trossulus. Tomanek et al. 2012 [Text only]

Mytilus trossulus : [aerial, shell, temperature stress, withdrawal] 1. comparison of valve-closing times in face of air and water exposure at different temperatures for 3 mussel species M. californianus, M. trossulus, and M. galloprovincialis. Dowd & Somero 2013 [Graph]

Mytilus trossulus : [desiccation, juvenile, mortality, ontogenetic shift, physiological ecology, temperature stress] 1. a nice series of experiments on temperature and desiccation effects on survival of juveniles. 2. ontogenetic change in desiccation susceptibility coincides with shift in habitat from moist algae to dry rock. Jenewein & Gosselin 2013 [Graph]

Mytilus trossulus : [acidification, climate change, evolution, growth, larva, pH, physiology] 1. potential long-term effects of pH on growth in sea urchins Strongylocentrotus franciscanus and mussels with estimated potentials for adaptive evolution. Sunday et al. 2011 [Photo]

Mytilus trossulus & galloprovincialis: [photo courtesy] 1. photo courtesy Linda Schroeder, Pacific Northwest Shell Club, Seattle, Washington. Schroeder [Photo]

Mytilus  californianus: [ctenidia, pumping, scaling, size] 1. comparison of pumping rates with dry mass and surface area with cockles Clinocardium nuttallii, bent-nose clam Macoma nasuta, and scallops Chlamys hastata. Meyhofer 1985 [Photo, Graph]

Mytilus  californianus: [abundance, global warming, map, temperature , temperature stress, zonation] 1. field experiments relating to global warming. 2. uses 52yr-old temperature and zonation data. Harley 2011 [Photo, Graph]

Mytilus  edulis: [distribution, energy budget, growth, temperature ] 1. comparison of scope for growth of mussels at different experimental temperatures in relation to their geographic distributions. Fly & Hilbish 2013 [Graph]

Mytilus  galloprovincialis: [distribution, energy budget, growth, temperature ] 1. comparison of scope for growth of mussels at different experimental temperatures in relation to their geographic distributions. Fly & Hilbish 2013 [Graph]

Mytilus  trossulus : [distribution, energy budget, growth, temperature ] 1. comparison of scope for growth of mussels at different experimental temperatures in relation to their geographic distributions. Fly & Hilbish 2013 [Graph]

Mytilus  trossulus : [distribution, global warming, hybridisation, map, temperature ] 1. attempt to demonstrate effects of global warming on distribution of hybrids with M. galloprovincialis. 2. results confounded by simultaneous occurrence of decadal cooling event. Hilbish et al. 2010 []

Mytilus  galloprovincialis: [distribution, global warming, hybridisation, map, temperature ] 1. attempt to demonstrate effects of global warming on distribution of hybrids with M. trossulus. 2. results confounded by simultaneous occurrence of decadal cooling event. Hilbish et al. 2010 []

Myxilla agennes: [predation] 1. in San Diego, California area is a preferred food of the dorid nudibranch Peltodoris nobilis. McBeth 1971 [Photo]

Myxilla incrustans: [predation, secondary metabolite] 1. eaten by dorid nudibranch Cadlina luteomarginata. 2. one of several food sources of metabolites for the nudibranch. Thompson et al. 1982 [Photo]

Myxilla incrustans: [mutualism] 1. experiments on sponge/scallop mutualisms from the sponge's point of view. Burns & Bingham 2002 [Graph]

Myxilla incrustans: [costs, drag, energetics] 1. energetic costs to scallop hosts of sponge coating on their shells. Donovan et al. 2002 [Photo, Graph]

Myxilla incrustans: [predation, preferences] 1. in Barkley Sound, British Columbia, eaten by nudibranch Diaulula sandiegensis. Penney 2013 [Photo]

Myxilla spp.: [mutualism, symbiosis] 1. reference and link to section of ODYSSEY dealing with sponge/scallop mutualisms. [Photo]

Myxilla  incrustans: [abundance, defense, mutualism] 1. thought to provide protection to scallops from sea-star predators by growing on the shell valves . Bloom 1975 [Photo, Graph]