Searchable Index of Genera and Species Referenced in A Snail's Odyssey

ALL GROUPS ARE NOW INDEXED

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Macoma balthica: [predation] 1. seasonally eaten by scaups Aythya spp.. Poulton et al. 2002 [Text only]

Macoma balthica: [introduction, invasive, shell, size, survival] 1. one of 38 introductions of bivalve species along with shipments of eastern oysters for culture on the west coast that was successful; study of relationship of body size and success at invading. 2. other successful species are Gemma gemma, Geukensia demissa, Mya arenaria, and Petricolaria pholadiformis. Miller et al. 2002 [Graph]

Macoma inquinata: [map, population, recruitment, survival] 1. one of 5 major clam species monitored in clam recruitment/survival study in Puget Sound, Washington. Dethier et al. 2012 [Text only]

Macoma nasuta: [activity, behaviour] 1. burrowing and other activities compared for several invertebrates. Wethey & Woodin 2005 [Graph]

Macoma nasuta: [ctenidia, pumping, scaling, size] 1. comparison of pumping rates with dry mass and surface area with mussels Mytilus californianus, cockles Clinocardium nuttallii, and scallops Chlamys hastata. Meyhofer 1985 [Photo, Graph]

Macoma secta: [photo courtesy] 1. photo courtesy R. Perry and Univ Calif Los Angleses OceanGLOBE. Perry [Photo]

Macoma secta: [deposit feeding, water flow] 1. degree of extension of siphons during feeding depends upon water velocity and other factors. Levinton 1991 [Graph]

Macoma secta: [deposit feeding] 1. description of deposit feeding. 2. rate of production of pseudofeces. Hylleberg & Gallucci 1975 [Drawing]

Macoma  inquinata: [predation, vulnerability] 1. comparison of 8 species of clams for vulnerability to predators. Boulding 1984 [Photo, Drawing]

Macoma  nasuta: [predation, vulnerability] 1. comparison of 8 species of clams for vulnerability to predators. Boulding 1984 [Photo, Drawing]

Macoma  secta: [deposit feeding] 1. feeds primarily on bacterial films on sand grains. Reid & Reid 1969 [Photo, Drawing]

Macoma  spp.: [deposit feeding] 1. description of deposit feeding in 8 species. Reid & Reid 1969 [Photo, Drawing]

Macoma  spp.: [deposit feeding, digestion] 1. process of digestion in a deposit-feeding clam. Reid & Reid 1969 [Text only]

Macoma  spp.: [predation] 1. comparative flesh yield to sea-otter predators of several species of bivalves. Kvitek et al. 1992 [Drawing, Graph]

Macoma  nasuta: [deposit feeding, suspension feeding] 1. has split siphons. 2. feeds facultatively on either deposits or suspended matter. Reid & Reid 1969 [Photo]

Macrocystis pyrifera: [community, herbivory, mortality] 1. mass mortality of red urchins Strongylocentrotus franciscanus leads to increase in nearby kelp stocks, especially Macrocystis pyrifera. Pearse & Hines 1979 [Photo, Drawing, Graph]

Macrocystis pyrifera: [community, herbivory, mortality] 1. mass mortality in the Point Loma area of California may have been caused by storms and warm-water El NIno events. Tegner & Dayton 1991 [Photo, Drawing, Graph]

Macrocystis pyrifera: [community, herbivory, settlement] 1. interactions of sea urchins and kelp beds. Watanae & Harrold 1991 [Photo, Graph]

Macrocystis pyrifera: [behaviour, feeding] 1. behaviour of sea-urchin species when eating kelp. Tegner et al. 1995 [Photo, Graph]

Macrocystis spp.: [community] 1. interactions between sea urchins, kelp, and sea otters. McLean 1962 [Drawing]

Maeotias marginata: [preferred, prey] 1. in that preferred prey in the San Francisco estuary are calanoid copepods, potential competition with local shad fishes . 2. introduced species, along with Moerisia sp., from the Caspian Sea area. Wintzer et al. 2011 [Photo]

Magaptera novaeangliae: [parasitism] 1. dead whale lice on skin. Rowntree 1996 [Photo]

Manania gwilliami: [life cycle, reproduction] 1. development only to start of metamorphosis. Otto 1978 [Photo]

Margarites pupillus: [coiling, shell] 1. factors involved in initiation of shell coiling. Collin & Voltzow 1998 [Photo]

Margarites pupillus: [photo courtesy] 1. photo courtesy Linda Schroeder, Pacific Northwest Shell Club, Seattle, Washington. Schroeder [Photo]

Margarites spp.: [behaviour, defense] 1. escape response to sea stars. Hoffman 1980 [Text only]

Margarites spp.: [predation] 1. eaten by cottids Artedius spp. and other fishes. Norton 1988 [Photo]

Mazzaella parksii: [photo courtesy] 1. photo courtesy Mike Hawkes, University of British Columbia. Hawkes [Photo]

Mediaster aequalis: [larva, metamorphosis, oxygen consumption, physiology] 1. oxygen consumption through metamorphosis in the larva. 2. larval development fueled by lipids. Bryan 2004 [Photo, Graph]

Mediaster aequalis: [development, life cycle] 1. description of life cycle. 2. larvae settle preferentially on tubiculous worms Phyllochaetopterus prolifica. Birkeland et al. 1971 [Photo, Drawing]

Mediaster aequalis: [development, life cycle] 1. description of life cycle. 2. larvae settle preferentially on tubiculous worms Phyllochaetopterus prolifica. Birkeland et al. 1971 [Photo, Drawing]

Mediaster aequalis: [development, life cycle] 1. description of life cycle. 2. larvae settle preferentially on tubiculous worms Phyllochaetopterus prolifica. Birkeland et al. 1971 [Photo, Drawing]

Mediaster aequalis: [abundance, photo courtesy] 1. photos courtesy Chuck Birkeland, University of Guam. Birkeland [Photo]

Mediaster aequalis: [preferences, prey] 1. preferred prey in Puget Sound, Washington are sea pens Ptilosarcus guernyi. Mauzey et al. 1968 [Photo]

Medusoid : [] 1. creation of an artificial swimming jellyfish named "Medusoid". Nawroth et al. 2012 [Photo]

Megabalanus californicus: [fouling] 1. barnacle fouling protects snails from octopuses. Schmitt 1983 [Photo]

Megabalanus californicus: [development, larva, reproduction] 1. description of larval development. Miller & Roughgarden 1994 [Drawing]

Megalorchestia californiana: [burrowing] 1. burrowing dynamics. 2. competition for burrows. Bowers 1964 [Photo, Drawing]

Megalorchestia californiana: [photo courtesy] 1. photo courtesy Dave Cowles, Walla Walla University, Washington. Cowles [Photo]

Megalorchestia californiana: [photo courtesy] 1. photo courtesy Ingrid Taylar, Seattle, Washington. Taylar [Photo]

Megalorchestia californiana: [burrowing] 1. photo sequence showing burrowing in sand. [Photo]

Megalorchestia californiana: [preferences] 1. preference for wrack seaweeds over fresh seaweeds as food. Pennings et al. 2000 [Photo, Graph]

Megalorchestia californiana: [photo courtesy] 1. photo courtesy Laura Richards, DFO, Nanaimo, British Columbia. Richards [Photo]

Megalorchestia californiana: [habitat, preferences] 1. comparison of habitat preferences of 2 species. Bowers 1964 [Graph]

Megalorchestia californiana: [behaviour, habitat] 1. habitat and behaviour. Craig 1973 [Photo]

Megalorchestia californiana: [photo courtesy] 1. photo courtesy Dave Cowles, Walla Walla University, Washington. Cowles [Photo]

Megalorchestia californiana: [parasitism] 1. data on nematode and mite parasites being carried. Rigby 1996 [Drawing]

Megalorchestia californiana: [habitat, preferences] 1. comparison of habitat preferences with Traskorchestia traskiana. Pelletier et al. 2011 [Photo, Graph]

Megalorchestia californiana: [] 1. description of mating, burrow digging, and mate competition. Iyengar & Starks 2008 [Photo, Graph]

Megalorchestia californiana: [] 1. photo courtesy Dave Cowles, Walla Walla University, Washington. Cowles [Photo]

Megalorchestia californiana: [] 1. 3 photos courtesy Ingrid Taylar, Seattle, Washington. 2. process of digging a burrow. Taylar [Photo]

Megalorchestia californiana: [gas exchange] 1. mechanism of gas exchange in sandhoppers. Moore & Taylor 1984 [Drawing, Graph]

Megalorchestia californiana: [gas exchange] 1. mechanism of gas exchange in sandhoppers. Spicer & Taylor 1986 [Drawing, Graph]

Megalorchestia californiana: [gas exchange] 1. mechanism of gas exchange in sandhoppers. Spicer & McMahon 1994 [Drawing, Graph]

Megalorchestia californiana: [photo courtesy] 1. photo courtesy Laura Richards, DFO, Nanaimo, British Columbia. Richards [Photo]

Megalorchestia californiana: [predation] 1. preyed upon by rove beetles Thinopinus pictus. 2. description of predatory tactics. Richards 1983 [Photo, Graph]

Megalorchestia californiana: [predation] 1. preyed upon by rove beetles Thinopinus pictus. 2. description of predatory tactics. Richards 1984 [Photo, Graph]

Megalorchestia californiana: [locomotion, tidal rhythm] 1. introduction to topic of locomotion and tidal rhythms in amphipods. [Photo]

Megalorchestia californiana: [photo courtesy] 1. photo courtesy Ingrid Taylar, Seattle. Taylar [Photo]

Megalorchestia corniculata: [navigation] 1. introductory comments regarding celestial navigation in amphipods. [Text only]

Megalorchestia corniculata: [navigation, lunar] 1. studies on navigation in California amphipods. Enright 1961 [Drawing, Graph]

Megalorchestia corniculata: [navigation] 1. study fails to confirm presence of lunar navigation . Craig 1971 [Text only]

Megalorchestia corniculata: [navigation] 1. use of visually obvious landforms in navigation. Craig 1973 [Drawing]

Megalorchestia corniculata: [navigation] 1. ability to discriminate slope angle of beach. Craig 1973 [Graph]

Megalorchestia corniculata: [navigation, orientation] 1. beach orientation of amphipods translocated to different areas. Hartwick 1976 [Graph]

Megalorchestia corniculata: [habitat, preferences] 1. comparison of habitat preferences of 2 species. Bowers 1964 [Graph]

Megalorchestia corniculata: [behaviour, habitat] 1. habitat and behaviour. Craig 1973 [Photo]

Megalorchestia sp.: [locomotion, jumping] 1. mechanism of jumping. Hurley 1959 [Photo]

Megalorchestia spp.: [predation] 1. amphipods preyed on by rove beetles Thinopinus pictus. Craig 1970 [Photo]

Megalorchestia spp.: [burrowing] 1. photograph of burrows of amphipods beneath a stipe of bull kelp. [Photo]

Megaptera novaeangliae: [host] 1. humpback whales host barnacle parasites. Nogata & Matsumura 2006 [Photo]

Megathura crenulata: [reproduction, spawning] 1. may be a year-round dribble-spawner. Beninger et al. 2001 [Photo]

Melanitta perspicillata: [photo courtesy] 1. photograph courtesy Mike Danzenbaker. Danzenbaker [Photo]

Melibe leonina: [autotomy, cerata, mechanism] 1. describes process of ceratal autotomy. Page 1989 [Drawing]

Melibe leonina: [behaviour, dispersal, reproduction, swimming] 1. seasonal swimming by reproductive individuals may aid in dispersal. Mills 1994 [Photo]

Melibe leonina: [behaviour] 1. describe several behavioural states. Schivell et al. 1997 [Photo, Drawing]

Melibe leonina: [photo courtesy] 1. photo courtesy Charles Seabourne, Malibu, California. Seabourne [Photo]

Melibe leonina: [dynamics, reproduction, egg-laying] 1. description of development in egg capsule. Kjerschow-Agersborg 1921 [Drawing]

Melibe leonina: [development, egg-laying, reproduction] 1. early development. Hurst 1967 [Drawing]

Melibe leonina: [aggression, feeding, food, gut, morphology] 1. feeds on planktonic crustaceans using its sieving hood. 2. description of gut system. Kjerschow Agersborg 1921 [Photo, Drawing]

Melibe leonina: [photo courtesy] 1. photo courtesy Charles Seabourne, Malibu, California. Seabourne [Photo]

Melibe leonina: [feeding, food, functional morphology, gut] 1. aspects of feeding and gut function. Kjerschow Agersborg 1923 [Photo, Drawing]

Melibe leonina: [feeding, food, ontogenetic shift] 1. foods include mostly copepods, both on kelp surfaces and from the plankton. 2. some suggestion of ontogenetic (age-related) shift in dietary preferences. Ajeska & Nybakken 1976 [Photo, Graph]

Melibe leonina: [photo courtesy] 1. photo courtesy Kevin Lee, Fullerton, California. Lee [Photo]

Melibe leonina: [behaviour, feeding] 1. 3 feeding modes depending upon habitat and water conditions. Watson & Trimarchi 1992 [Drawing, Graph]

Melibe leonina: [feeding, nervous system] 1. role of nervous system in feeding. Trimarchi & Watson 1992 [Drawing, Graph]

Melibe leonina: [behaviour, feeding] 1. factors involved in initiating hood closure examined. Watson & Chester 1992 [Graph]

Melibe leonina: [behaviour, development, ontogenetic shift] 1. describes changes in behaviours during larval development that presage the same or similar behaviours in adulthood. 2. ontogenetic change in behaviours. Page 1993 [Drawing, Graph]

Melibe leonina: [photo courtesy] 1. photo courtesy Charles Seabourne, Malibu, California. Seabourne [Photo]

Melibe leonina: [costs, crawling, energetics, physiology, swimming] 1. compare energy costs of crawling and swimming. Caldwell & Donovan 2003 [Photo, Graph]

Melibe leonina: [defense, secondary metabolite] 1. secretions released from ectodermal glands smell like oil of bergamot. Kjerschow Agersborg 1921 [Photo]

Melibe leonina: [photo courtesy] 1. photo courtesy Charles Seabourne, Malibu, California. Seabourne [Photo]

Melibe leonina: [defense, predator, secondary metabolite] 1. observe kelp crabs Pugettia producta eating Melibe. Ajeska & Nybakken 1976 [Photo]

Melibe leonina: [defense, secondary metabolite] 1. glass probe with Melibe mucus touched to sunflower star Pycnopodia helianthoides causes it to curl its arms. Ajeska & Nybakken 1976 [Photo]

Melibe leonina: [defense, secondary metabolite] 1. monoterpenes in the skin are responsible for fragrant odour. Ayer & Andersen 1983 [Text only]

Melibe leonina: [defense, secondary metabolite, gland] 1. description of repugnatorial glands in skiin. 2. secretion is repugnant to sea stars including Pycnopodia helianthoides and other species. Bickell-Page 1991 [Drawing]

Melibe leonina: [defense, gland, secondary metabolite] 1. fruity odour originates from the epidermal repugnatorial glands. 2. terpenoids are manufactured de novo by the nudibranch. Barsby et al. 2002 [Text only]

Melibe leonina: [defense, swimming] 1. test various stimuli on swimming response. 2. swimming duration may be as long as 25min. Lawrence & Watson 2002 [Drawing, Graph]

Melibe leonina: [behaviour] 1. describe unusual behaviour of lying motionless at the surface as "feigned death". Kjerschow Agersborg 1921 [Drawing, Graph]

Melibe leonina: [behaviour, neural, swimming] 1. describe neural components of swimming. Watson et al. 2002 [Text only]

Melibe leonina: [behaviour, neural, swimming] 1. describe neural components of swimming. Thompson & Watson 2005 [Text only]

Melibe leonina: [swimming] 1. video of Melibe swimming. [Video]

Melibe  leonina: [development, metamorphosis, reproduction] 1. detailed description of development through metamorphosis. Bickell & Kempf 1983 [Photo, Graph]

Membranipora membranacea: [photo courtesy] 1. photo courtesy Harvell 1992 Ecology 73: 1567. Harvell 1992 []

Mercenaria  mercenaria: [non-indigenous, survival] 1. introduced to west coast in the 1930s, may now be extinct. 2. replaced by another non-indigenous species Venerupis philippinarum. Burnaford et al. 2011 [Photo]

Mercenaria  mercenaria: [predation] 1. predators sense clam's odour plume from a distance. Zimmer & Butman 2000 [Photo]

Metandrocarpa taylori: [growth form] 1. describes early growth form in this social species. Haven 1971 [Photo, Drawing]

Metridium exilis: [asexual, reproduction] 1. sexual reproduction is rare in this species. Bucklin 1987 [Drawing, Graph]

Metridium farcimen: [asexual, reproduction] 1. poor regeneration & asexual reproduction unlikely. Bucklin 1987 [Drawing, Graph]

Metridium farcimen: [acontia, defense] 1. comparison of acontial nematocysts in Metridium species. Kramer & Francis 2004 [Photo, Graph]

Metridium farcimen: [behaviour, feeding] 1. comparison of body shape with another squat-shaped anemone Anthopleura xanthogrammica in water currents. Koehl 1977 [Photo]

Metridium farcimen: [energetics, feeding, preferences] 1. comparison of prey size selected with other sea anemones Anthopleura xanthogammica and A. elegantissima. Sebens 1981 [Drawing, Graph]

Metridium farcimen: [habitat, preferences] 1. habitat specialisation comparison with Anthopleura xanthogrammica. Koehl 1977 [Drawing, Graph]

Metridium farcimen: [habitat, preferences] 1. habitat specialisation of sea anemones. Koehl 1977 [Graph]

Metridium farcimen: [] 1. video of sea anemones on a sunken ship. [Video]

Metridium senile: [aggression] 1. introduction to aggressive behaviour in sea anemones. [Photo]

Metridium senile: [aggression, fighting tentacles] 1. use of fighting tentacles in intraspecific aggression. Purcell 1977 [Photo]

Metridium senile: [aggression, intraspecific] 1. sex-mediated territorial spacing. Kaplan 1983 [Photo]

Metridium senile: [aggression, habituation] 1. different levels of habituation. Purcell & Kitting 1982 [Photo]

Metridium senile: [quiz] 1. quiz on clonal aggregations. [Text only]

Metridium senile: [asexual, reproduction] 1. photographs showing examples of pedal laceration. [Photo]

Metridium senile: [Q10, pedal laceration] 1. increased rate on mussels. Bucklin 1987 [Photo]

Metridium senile: [pedal laceration] 1. increased rate on mussels. Anthony & Svane 1995 [Text only]

Metridium senile: [asexual, reproduction] 1. effect of nutrition on rate of pedal laceration. Bucklin 1987 [Drawing, Graph]

Metridium senile: [acontia, defense] 1. photograph of an anemone extruding defensive acontia from mouth. [Photo]

Metridium senile: [acontia, defense] 1. comparison of acontial nematocysts in Metridium species. Kramer & Francis 2004 [Photo, Graph]

Metridium senile: [behaviour, feeding] 1. description of feeding behaviour in the laboratory. Batham & Pantin 1950 [Photo, Drawing]

Metridium senile: [filter-feeding, DOM] 1. feeding behaviour and uptake of Dissolved Organic Matter. Robbins & Shick 1980 [Photo]

Metridium senile: [behaviour, feeding, water flow] 1. positional behaviour in water currents. Anthony & Svane 1995 [Drawing, Graph]

Metridium senile: [] 1. description of feeding and foods eaten. Koehl 1977 [Photo]

Metridium senile: [oxygen consumption] 1. oxygen uptake compared in air and water. Shick 1981 [Photo, Graph]

Metridium senile: [predator, preferences] 1. small individuals preferred by predator Aeolidia papillosa. Harris 1986 [Photo]

Metridium senile: [gonad growth, reproduction, sexual] 1. seasonal cycle of gonad growth. Bucklin 1982 [Photo]

Metridium senile: [acontia, defense, predation] 1. only defense against predation by the aeolid nudibranch Aeolidia papillosa is extrusion of acontia, but this is not very effective. Edmunds et al. 1974 [Photo]

Metridium senile: [predation] 1. photo series showing an attack by a predatory sea slug Aeolidia papillosa. [Photo]

Metridium sp.: [] 1. quiz on benefits to a sea anemone by being in areas of high currents. Robbins & Shick 1980 [Text only]

Metridium spp.: [acontia] 1. description of acontia. Williams 1991 [Photo, Text only]

Metridium  giganteum: [classification] 1. description of the species. Fautin et al. 1989 [Text only]

Metridium  spp.: [genetics, morphology] 1. morphological, biochemical, and genetical analysis of the Metridium spp. complex. Bucklin & Hedgecock 1982 [Text only]

Mexacanthina lugubris: [predator] 1. in laboratory experiments finds oval-aperture morph of Chthamalus fissus easier to drill and eat than the narrow-morph varieties. Jarrett 2008 [Photo, Graph]

mimicry : [defense] 1. discussion of aposematic or warning coloration and different forms of mimicry that may evolve from its presence. Gosliner & Behrens 1990 [Text only]

Mimulus foliatus: [camouflage, colour] 1. photo courtesy Iain McGaw, Memorial University, Newfoundland. 2. example of camouflage coloration. McGaw [Photo]

Mimulus foliatus: [epibiont] 1. comparison of camouflaging in 3 species of kelp crabs. Hultgren & Stachowicz 2006 [Photo]

Mirounga angustirostris: [predation] 1. eat over 30 species of cephalopods during spring/summer foraging at San Miguel Island, California . Antonelis et al. 1994 [Text only]

Mirounga sp.: [predator] 1. on San Miguel Island, California eat 12 species of cephalopods. Condit & Le Boeuf 1984 [Text only]

Modiolus modiolus: [byssus, production, thread, water flow] 1. comparison with Mytilus californianus, M. trossulus, and M. galloprovincialis. Carrington et al. 2008 [Photo, Graph]

Modiolus modiolus: [anchor, byssus] 1. photo courtesy Dave Cowles, Walla Walla University, Washington. 2. byssus filaments form a kind of "sand anchor" for stability. Cowles [Photo]

Modiolus rectus: [defense, hair] 1. periostracal hairs may deter boring predators, boring sponges, and settlement by other unwanted invertebrates. 2. the threads may also form a posterior-directed "early-warning" system against sea-star and crab predators. Bottjer & Carter 1980 [Photo]

Moerisia  spp.: [habitat, preferences] 1. relationship of distribution of several species of hydroids in the San Francisco Estuary to environmental factors such as oxygen, temperature, salinity, and so on. Wintzer et al. 2011 [Graph]

Molgula pacifica: [dispersal, egg, larva, life cycle, reproduction] 1. larval stage is absent, so dispersal potential is low. Young et al. 1988 [Photo, Drawing]

Molgula pacifica: [dispersal, egg, larva, life cycle, reproduction] 1. details of early development. Bates & Mallett 1991 [Photo, Drawing]

Molgula pacifica: [dispersal, egg, larva, life cycle, reproduction] 1. drawing of life cycle. Bates 1994 [Drawing]

Molgula sp.: [metamorphosis] 1. comparison of tail resorption in 4 genera including Distaplia, Botryllus, and Boltenia. Cloney 1982 [Drawing]

moon snail : [map] 1. snail's map with moon snail highlighted. []

Moonsnail : [home] 1. introduction to moon snails and relatives in home file for moon snail part of the ODYSSEY. [Text only]

Moonsnail : [] 1. snail meets moon snail animation. [Animation]

Moonsnail : [classification] 1. classification of SubClass Orthogastropoda with moon snails highlighted. []

Mopalia ciliata: [photo courtesy] 1. photo courtesy Lovell & Libby Langstroth, California. Langstroth [Photo]

Mopalia hindsii: [photo courtesy] 1. photo courtesy Linda Schroeder, Pacific Northwest Shell Club, Seattle, Washington. Schroeder [Photo]

Mopalia muscosa: [competition, food, space] 1. competes for space and food with limpets Lottia pelta. Connor 1975 [Photo]

Mopalia muscosa: [ion regulation, osmotic regulation, volume] 1. experiments on volume and ion regulation. Moran & Tullis 1980 [Photo, Graph]

Mopalia muscosa: [growth, mineralisation, radula] 1. details of radular growth and iron mineralisation in the radula cusps. Nesson 1969 [Photo]

Mopalia muscosa: [defense, sensory, hair] 1. morphological study of sensory hairs on the girdle. 2. possible defensive role. Leise & Cloney 1982 [Photo, Drawing]

Mopalia muscosa: [development, metamorphosis, reproduction, settlement] 1. provides a way to define metamorphosis . Leise 1984 [Drawing]

Mopalia spp.: [photo courtesy] 1. photos of Mopalia species courtesy Linda Schoeder, Pacific Northwest Shell Club, Seattle. Schroeder [Photo]

Mopalia spp.: [aesthete, classification, morphology] 1. detailed comparison of several genera of chitons within and without Family Mopaliidae, with respect to their classification. Vendrasco et al. 2008 [Drawing]

Mopalia  ciliata: [diet] 1. compares diets of 4 species of Mopalia from San Francisco Bay. Barnawell 1960 [Photo, Graph]

Mopalia  ciliata: [diet] 1. compares diets of 6 species of chitons at Deception Island, Washington. Piercy 1987 [Graph]

Mopalia  ciliata: [egg, morphology] 1. cupule morphology in several chiton species. 2. cupule function may relate to fertilisation and/or buoyancy. Buckland-Nicks 1993 [Photo]

Mopalia  ciliata: [homing] 1. no homing behaviour present. Fitzgerald 1975 [Photo, Drawing]

Mopalia  ciliata: [gonad index, season] 1. spawn in springtime coincidental with phytoplankton bloom. Himmelman 1980 [Photo, Graph]

Mopalia  ciliata: [photo courtesy] 1. photo courtesy Lovell & Libby Langstroth, California. Langstroth [Photo]

Mopalia  ciliata: [development, larva] 1. larvae are photonegative when swimming. Thorpe 1961 [Photo, Table of Data]

Mopalia  hindsii: [diet] 1. compares diets of 4 Mopalia species from San Francisco Bay. Barnawell 1960 [Photo, Graph]

Mopalia  hindsii: [diet] 1. compares diets of 6 species of chitons at Deception Island, Washington. Piercy 1987 [Graph]

Mopalia  hindsii: [diet] 1. compares diets of 6 species of chitons at Deception Island, Washington. Piercy 1987 [Graph]

Mopalia  hindsii: [development, mineralisation] 1. histological study of mineralisation in the cusps of the radula. 2. deposition of magnetite. Carefoot 1965 [Photo]

Mopalia  hindsii: [gonad index, season, spawning] 1. spawn in autumn/winter. Giese et al. 1959 [Graph]

Mopalia  hindsii: [energetics, gonad growth] 1. lipid involved in gonad growth. Giese & Araki 1962 [Photo]

Mopalia  hindsii (var.): [diet] 1. compares diets in 4 Mopalia species from San Francisco Bay. 2. photo shown is M. hindsii, but author uses another related type referred to as a "variety". Barnawell 1960 [Photo, Graph]

Mopalia  lignosa: [habitat, water flow] 1. distributions of 5 species of chitons in relation to degree of water movement. Linsenmeyer 1975 [Graph]

Mopalia  lignosa: [diet] 1. several species of algae eaten. Fulton 1975 [Photo]

Mopalia  lignosa: [photo courtesy] 1. photo courtesy Linda Schroeder, Pacific Northwest Shell Club, Seattle. Schroeder [Photo]

Mopalia  lignosa: [morphology, egg] 1. description of cupule surrounding egg in several chiton species. 2. cupule morphology may relate to fertilisation and/or buoyancy. Buckland-Nicks 1993 [Photo]

Mopalia  lignosa: [metamorphosis] 1. comparison of development in 2 species: M. lignosa and M. muscosa. Watamabe & Cox 1975 [Photo, Drawing]

Mopalia  lignosa: [photo courtesy] 1. photo courtesy Linda Schroeder, Pacific Northwest Shell Club, Seattle, Washington. Schroeder [Photo]

Mopalia  lignosa: [photo courtesy] 1. photo courtesy Linda Schroeder, Pacific Northwest Shell Club, Seattle, Washington. Schroeder [Photo]

Mopalia  muscosa: [habitat, water flow] 1. distributions of 5 species of chitons in relation to degree of water movement. Linsenmeyer 1975 []

Mopalia  muscosa: [fossilisation, shell, taphonomy] 1. comparison of fossilisation of shell valves with those of Katharina tunicata. Puchalski & Johnson 2009 [Photo]

Mopalia  muscosa: [competition, food, space] 1. competes for food and space with limpets. Smith 1975 [Photo]

Mopalia  muscosa: [aesthete, electronmicrography] 1. description of eye-like features of aesthetes in 12 species of Californian polyplacophorans. Fernandez et al. 2007 [Photo, Drawing]

Mopalia  muscosa: [acontia, desiccation, aggregation] 1. does clustering with black turban shells Chlorostoma funebralis reduce desiccation?. Fitzgerald 1975 [Photo]

Mopalia  muscosa: [acontia, desiccation, aggregation] 1. does clustering with black turban shells Chlorostoma funebralis reduce desiccation?. Fitzgerald 1975 [Photo]

Mopalia  muscosa: [freshwater, osmotic regulation] 1. comparison of osmoregulatory capabilities with Katharina tunicata. 2. both species are osmoconformers. Rostal & Simpson 1988 [Text only]

Mopalia  muscosa: [diet] 1. compares diets in 4 Mopalia species from San Francisco Bay. Barnawell 1960 [Photo, Graph]

Mopalia  muscosa: [diet] 1. compares diets of 6 species of chitons at Deception Island, Washington. Piercy 1987 [Graph]

Mopalia  muscosa: [homing, mechanism] 1. describes trail-following to and from a home site. Smith 1975 [Photo, Drawing]

Mopalia  muscosa: [home] 1. no homing as such, but does have a home range. Fitzgerald 1975 [Photo, Drawing]

Mopalia  muscosa: [locomotion, tides] 1. moves less during low-tide periods. Westersund 1975 [Graph]

Mopalia  muscosa: [compass, orientation] 1. orientation to magnetic north. Tomlinson 1980 [Graph]

Mopalia  muscosa: [gonad growth, season] 1. spawns in winter/early spring. Boolootian 1964 [Graph]

Mopalia  muscosa: [metamorphosis] 1. comparison with M. lignosa. Watamabe & Cox 1975 [Photo, Drawing]

Mopalia  muscosa: [development, metamorphosis, temperature ] 1. temperature effects on metamorphic competency. Pechenik 1984 [Photo]

Mopalia  sp.: [defense] 1. curls up in protective posture. [Video]

Mopalia  sp.: [inducer, spawning, hormone] 1. injection of vertebrate gonadotropin-releasing hormone shows mld effect. Gorbman et al. 2003 [Photo]

Mopalia  sp.: [photo courtesy] 1. photo courtesy Ron Long, Simon Fraser University, Burnaby. Long [Photo]

Mopalia  spp.: [light, aesthete] 1. tests of aesthete function. 2. 2 sizes of aesthetes. Omelich 1967 [Photo, Drawing]

Moroteuthis robusta: [locomotion, ventilation] 1. photograph showing how the flapper valve interlocks to allow ventilation for gas exchange and also jet propulsion. [Photo]

Moroteuthis robusta: [predation] 1. eaten by sperm whales Physeter macrocephalus off the coast of Vancouver Island, British Columbia. Pike 1950 [Drawing]

Moroteuthis robusta: [predation] 1. by far the most dominant prey item for sperm whales Physeter macrocephalus harvested off Vancouver Island during 1963-67. Finn et al. 2002 [Text only]

Moroteuthis robusta: [behaviour, prey capture] 1. description of tentacle operation in catching fish prey. 2. large red snappers in gut have had their spinal cords severed by the beak. [Photo, Drawing]

Moroteuthis robusta: [diet] 1. presence of a heart urchin and by-the-wind-sailors in the gut contents . Smith 1963 [Photo]

Moroteuthis robusta: [ecology, habitat] 1. account of sightings and strandings in Puget Sound since the late 1940s. Anderson 1996 [Photo]

Moroteuthis robusta: [habitat, sighting] 1. three SCUBA-divers catch a live specimen in shallow water near Carmel, California. Phillips 1961 [Text only]

Moroteuthis robusta: [habitat] 1. three specimens caught by fishers at 200-300 fathoms in the Trinidad Head area of California. Smith 1963 [Text only]

Moroteuthis robusta: [habitat] 1. seven specimens caught by commercial fishing boats from 1967-74 at depths of 200-300m in the Santa Barbara Channel. Hochberg 1974 [Text only]

Moroteuthis robusta: [habitat, sighting] 1. first documentation of a stranding in British Columbia , but other specimens have been caught by fishing boats. Green 1989 [Text only]

Murex sp.: [defense, shell, sculpturing] 1. general review of shell sculpturing in gastropods. Palmer 1979 [Photo]

Musculista senhousia: [genetics, connectivity] 1. measure of genetic connectivity at 6 estuarine sites from northern Washington to southern California. Asif & Krug 2012 [Photo, Drawing]

Musculista senhousia: [photo courtesy] 1. photo courtesy Mel Lin, Singapore. [Photo]

Mussel : [home] 1. introduction to mussels in home file for MUSSEL part of the Odyssey. [Text only]

Mussel : [] 1. animation of snail meeting mussel. [Animation]

Mussel : [map] 1. snail's map with mussel highlighted. [Drawing]

Mussel : [classification] 1. classification of mussels . [Text only]

mussels : [adaptation, genetics, review, temperature ] 1. general review of temperature adaptations and genetic modifications in marine invertebrates in general. Somero 2010 [Text only]

Mussels : [biologging, climate change, model, temperature ] 1. use biomimetic mussels as proxies to assess environmental effects on body temperatures of mussels. Helmuth et al. 2011 [Photo]

Mustela vison: [photo courtesy] 1. photo of mink stealing butter clam courtesy Dave Hatler, British Columbia. Hatler [Photo]

Mya arenaria: [predation, vulnerability] 1. comparison of 8 species of clams for vulnerability to predators. Boulding 1984 [Photo, Drawing]

Mya arenaria: [burrowing, defense, stimulus] 1. tests of various stimuli on burial depth. Zakian & Ydenberg 1997 [Graph]

Mya arenaria: [growth, substratum] 1. growth rate depends upon substratum. Swan 1952 [Photo]

Mya arenaria: [ecology, population] 1. compare extant populations with historical population. Palacios et al. 2000 [Photo, Graph]

Mya arenaria: [predation, preferences, prey] 1. in southwestern Alaska are eaten by brown bears Ursus arctos. Smith & Partridge 2004 [Photo]

Mya arenaria: [introduction, invasive, shell, size, survival] 1. one of 38 introductions of bivalve species along with shipments of eastern oysters for culture on the west coast that was successful; study of relationship of body size and success at invading . 2. other successful species are Gemma gemma, Geukensia demissa, Macoma balthica, and Petricolaria pholadiformis. Miller et al. 2002 [Graph]

Mya arenaria: [] 1. comparison of abundances within and without 3 marine reserves in Washington. Byers 2005 [Text only]

Mya arenaria: [distribution, map] 1. distribution throughout British Columbia. Gillespie et al. 2007 [Photo]

Mya arenaria: [photo courtesy] 1. photograph courtesy Gillespie et al. 2007, and Department of Fisheries and Oceans, Government of Canada. Department of Fisheries and Oceans, Government of Canada 2007 [Photo]

Mya arenaria: [gene flow, genetics, introduction] 1. comparison of genetic structure in 3 population, including introduced ones in Europe and the west coast of North America. Strasser & Barber 2009 [Text only]

Mya truncata: [energetics, suspension feeding] 1. energy cost of pumping. Bernard & Noakes 1990 [Text only]

Mya  arenaria: [predator, preferences] 1. involved in test of predator preference with 2 other clam species. Boulding 1984 [Photo, Graph]

Mycale adhaerens: [mutualism] 1. experiments on sponge/scallop mutualisms from the sponge's point of view. Burns & Bingham 2002 [Graph]

Mycale adhaerens: [costs, drag, energetics] 1. energetic costs to scallop hosts of load of sponge to be carried when swimming. Donovan et al. 2002 [Photo, Graph]

Mycale sp.: [predation, prey] 1. at least 10 species of sponges eaten in Barkley Sound, of which this type is one of the 2 most common. Penney 2013 [Photo]

Myoxocephalus polyacanthocephalus: [predator] 1. important siphon-cropping sculpin predator of clams. Meyer & Byers 2005 [Photo]

Mysticotalitrus cryptus: [osmotic regulation] 1. behavioural and physiological processes of osmotic regulation. 2. terrestrial species. Morritt & Richardson 1998 [Graph]

Mytilicola orientalis: [parasitism] 1. infests intestinal regions of bivalves, including mussels Mytilus. Goater & Weber 1996 [Photo]

Mytilicola sp.: [symbiont] 1. found commonly in varnish clams Nuttallia obscurata. Marshall et al. 2003 [Photo]

Mytilus : [climate change, species richness] 1. historical comparison of species richness, including Mytilus species, along the California coast . 2. 1960s -2002. Smith et al. 2006 [Graph]

Mytilus californianus: [competition, space] 1. competes for space on the shore with goose barnacles Pollicipes poymerus and sea palms Postelsia palmaeformis. Dayton 1971 [Photo, Drawing]

Mytilus californianus: [competition, interspecific] 1. competition with barnacles Balanus glandula and Semibalanus cariosus. Lee & Ambrose 1989 [Photo]

Mytilus californianus: [adhesion, byssus, force] 1. force required to detach is 3 times greater than for Mytilus trossulus. Harger 1970 [Photo, Graph]

Mytilus californianus: [attachment, byssus] 1. steps in attachment of byssus pad to substratum. Tamarin et al. 1974 [Photo]

Mytilus californianus: [byssus] 1. description of attachment of byssus pad to substratum. Tamarin et al. 1976 [Photo]

Mytilus californianus: [attachment, strength] 1. individuals are more strongly attached at edge of bed as compared with centre. 2. order of magnitude stronger attachment than for Mytilus trossulus. Witman & Suchanek 1984 [Graph]

Mytilus californianus: [byssus, chemical, composition] 1. chemical composition of byssus glue. Waite 1986 [Photo, Drawing]

Mytilus californianus: [byssus, thread] 1. produce less threads than Mytilus trossulus, but thicker and stronger. Bell & Gosline 1997 [Photo, Graph]

Mytilus californianus: [byssus, composition, thread] 1. detailed composition of threads and plaque. Zhao et al. 2006 [Photo]

Mytilus californianus: [byssus, production, thread, water flow] 1. comparison with M. trossulus, M. galloprovincialis, and Modiolus modiolus. Carrington et al. 2008 [Photo, Graph]

Mytilus californianus: [chemical, composition, shell] 1. use ratios of isotopic carbon and oxygen in shells to track historical changes in seawater pH. Pfister et al. 2011 [Graph]

Mytilus californianus: [growth, parasitism, survival] 1. observations on different parasitic crabs in gill region. [Photo]

Mytilus californianus: [feeding] 1. window in shell allows feeding process to be observed. MacGinitie 1941 [Text only]

Mytilus californianus: [feeding, food] 1. details of water filtration, pumping, and feeding. 2. foods in La Jolla region are flagellates, other protists, diatoms, bacteria, micr-algae, algal spores, and detritus. Fox & Coe 1943 [Photo]

Mytilus californianus: [pumping] 1. pumping rhythm in laboratory. Rao 1954 [Graph]

Mytilus californianus: [chemical] 1. investigation of carotenoid pigments in flesh. Campbell 1970 [Photo]

Mytilus californianus: [chemical, pigments] 1. biology of carotenoid pigments. Scheer 19 [Photo]

Mytilus californianus: [emersion, physiology] 1. effects of air exposure on oxygen consumption, heart rate, and ammonia levels. Bayne et al. 1976 [Graph]

Mytilus californianus: [genetics] 1. comparison of genetic differentiation along the west coast with that of M. trossulus. Levinton & Suchanek 1978 [Drawing, Graph]

Mytilus californianus: [genetics, structure] 1. genetic structure at sites from Alaska to Baja California. Addison et al. 2008 [Photo, Drawing]

Mytilus californianus: [genetics, structure] 1. genetic structure at sites from Alaska to Baja California. Addison et al. 2008 [Photo, Drawing]

Mytilus californianus: [plasticity, phenotypic] 1. comparison of metabolic capacities at sites from northern Washington to Baja California. Logan et al. 2012 [Drawing, Graph]

Mytilus californianus: [community, succession] 1. describes successional events in a mussel bed. Dayton 1971 [Photo, Drawing]

Mytilus californianus: [community, succession] 1. aspects of succession in a mussel-bed community. Paine & Levin 1981 [Photo, Drawing]

Mytilus californianus: [community, succession] 1. aspects of succession in a mussel-bed community. Wooton 2002 [Photo, Drawing]

Mytilus californianus: [community, succession] 1. mechanisms of succession. Suchanek 1981 [Photo]

Mytilus californianus: [community, succession] 1. mechanisms of succession in a mussel-bed community. Paine 1984 [Photo]

Mytilus californianus: [growth] 1. presence favourably influences growth of red algae Odonthalia flocculosa. Bracken 2004 [Photo, Graph]

Mytilus californianus: [quiz] 1. quiz on growth-enhancement of red algae in presence of sea mussels. [Text only]

Mytilus californianus: [community, dynamics] 1. community dynamics in a mussel bed relating to sea stars Pisaster ochraceus and kelp Hedophyllum sessile. Paine & Trimble 2004 [Graph]

Mytilus californianus: [community] 1. observations on community persistence. Smith et al. 2006 [Drawing]

Mytilus californianus: [wave exposure, colonise] 1. patch colonisation in relation to wav exposure. O'Donnell 2008 [Photo]

Mytilus californianus: [perturbation] 1. effects of foot-trampling on survival. Smith & Murray 2005 [Drawing, Graph]

Mytilus californianus: [succession] 1. new insights into successional events. Wooton 2010 [Photo, Graph]

Mytilus californianus: [growth] 1. growth measured over 4yr period. Coe & Fox 1942 [Graph]

Mytilus californianus: [growth, habitat] 1. comparison of growth on rocks and pier. Fox & Coe 1943 [Photo, Graph]

Mytilus californianus: [food, growth] 1. seasonal growth in relation to food availability. Fox & Coe 1944 [Graph]

Mytilus californianus: [latitudinal, pumping] 1. latitudinal compensation in pumping rates. Rao 1953 [Graph]

Mytilus californianus: [acclimation experiments, growth] 1. latitudinal compensation . Dehnel 1956 [Graph]

Mytilus californianus: [growth, wave exposure] 1. effects of wave exposure on growth on Vancouver Island. Emmett et al. 1987 [Drawing, Graph]

Mytilus californianus: [age, growth] 1. life span in Alaska over 10yr. Blanchard & Feder 2000 [Graph]

Mytilus californianus: [current velocity, feeding] 1. comparison with M. trossulus of effect of current velocity on clearance rates of particles. Ackerman & Nishizaki 2004 [Graph]

Mytilus californianus: [growth, upwelling] 1. effect of upwelling intensity on growth around Point Conception, California. Phillips 2005 [Drawing, Graph]

Mytilus californianus: [growth, upwelling] 1. effect of upwelling intensity on growth at sites around Point Conception, California. Blanchette et al. 2007 [Photo, Graph]

Mytilus californianus: [food, growth, temperature ] 1. effects of food and temperature on growth . Menge et al. 2008 [Graph]

Mytilus californianus: [growth, morphology, shell] 1. labial-palp discoloration related to strontium/calcium ratios in seawater may affect shell shape during growth. Blythe & Lea 2008 [Photo]

Mytilus californianus: [growth, abundance] 1. comparative study on latitudinal effects on growth and abundance in California. Smith et al. 2009 [Drawing]

Mytilus californianus: [identification, juvenile] 1. provide several morphological characters to separate from M. galloprovincialis as juveniles. Martel et al. 1999 [Photo, Drawing]

Mytilus californianus: [heat-shock proteins, stress] 1. relationship of HSP production to growth and reproduction in animals at different intertidal heights and seasons. Roberts et al. 1997 [Graph]

Mytilus californianus: [habitat, heat-shock proteins, temperature stress] 1. relationship of temperature, aspect, submersion, and other potential stress-inducing features on HSP production. Helmuth & Hofmann 2001 [Graph]

Mytilus californianus: [heat-shock proteins, intertidal level] 1. effect of intertidal height and season on HSP levels. Halpin et al. 2004 [Photo, Graph]

Mytilus californianus: [heat-shock proteins, latitudinal] 1. latitudinal and density effects on HSPs. Sagarin & Somero 2006 [Drawing, Graph]

Mytilus californianus: [density, latitudinal] 1. density of mussels at different latitudes along the west coast. Sagarin & Gaines 2002 [Drawing, Graph]

Mytilus californianus: [heat-shock proteins, metabolic cost] 1. metabolic costs of producing HSPs. Fitzgerald-Dehoog et al. 2012 [Text only]

Mytilus californianus: [identification] 1. features enabling differentiation from M. trossulus. Suchanek 1981 [Photo]

Mytilus californianus: [photo courtesy] 1. photo courtesy Linda Schroeder, Pacific Northwest Shell Club, Seattle, Washington. Schroeder [Photo]

Mytilus californianus: [competitive exclusion, interspecific, survival] 1. competition with M. galloprovincialis in California. Harger 1970 [Graph]

Mytilus californianus: [competition, interspecific] 1. interaction with sea palms Postelsia palmaeformis. Dayton 1973 [Photo]

Mytilus californianus: [competition, interactions] 1. review of intertidal interactions of a competitive nature. Paine 1979 [Photo]

Mytilus californianus: [competition, interspecific] 1. competitive interactions with Mytilus trossulus and other organisms on shores of Tatoosh Island, Washington. Suchanek 1978 [Photo, Drawing]

Mytilus californianus: [competition, growth, seaweeds] 1. deleterious or beneficial effects of seaweed competitive overgrowth. Dittman & Robles 1991 [Photo, Graph]

Mytilus californianus: [competition, diversity, space] 1. close growth in beds creates multi-dimensions for greater diversity. Lohse 1993 [Photo]

Mytilus californianus: [competition, space] 1. interaction with sea palms Postelsia palmaeformis. Blanchette et al. 1996 [Photo, Drawing]

Mytilus californianus: [predation, shell-breaking, survival] 1. low-level individuals have flatte shell-shape making it easier for lobster Panulirus interruptus to crack them open than fatter high-level ones. Robles 1987 [Photo]

Mytilus californianus: [predation] 1. aspects of lobster Panulirus interruptus predation on mussels Mytilus californianus. Robles et al. 1990 [Photo]

Mytilus californianus: [community, predator, prey, seaweeds] 1. community interactions with sea mussels, bay mussels, and lobsters on Santa Catalina Island, California. 2. question whether lobsters in Santa Catalina Island, California are acting as keystone predators. Robles 1997 [Graph]

Mytilus californianus: [interactions, predator, prey] 1. aspects of predator-prey interactions with lobsters Panulirus interruptus in Santa Catalina Island, California. Robles et al. 2001 [Photo]

Mytilus californianus: [community, diversity] 1. mussel-bed diversity. Suchanek 1992 [Drawing]

Mytilus californianus: [predation, PSPs] 1. shorebird predators switch from mussel to limpet prey when paralytic shellfish poisons reach seasonal highs. Kvitek & Bretz 2005 [Graph]

Mytilus californianus: [reproduction, season, spawning] 1. generally spawn throughout the year around San Francisco, California. Whedon 1936 [Text only]

Mytilus californianus: [reproduction, season, spawning] 1. in southern California spawning occurs Oct-Apr, but sometimes throughout the year. Young 1946 [Graph]

Mytilus californianus: [reproduction, spawning] 1. season of spawning in southern California. Young 1942 [Graph]

Mytilus californianus: [reproduction, spawning] 1. season of spawning in southern California. Young 1945 [Graph]

Mytilus californianus: [larva, reproduction, lipids] 1. measures seasonal condition index of larvae in terms of lipid content. Phillips 2006 [Graph]

Mytilus californianus: [egg, energetics, habitat, size] 1. compares egg size and energy content at sites north and south of Point Conception, California. Phillips 2007 [Text only]

Mytilus californianus: [colour, reproduction, gonad] 1. gonad colour relates to carotenoid content that varies with stress levels. 2. male gonads may also be orange-coloured. Petes et al. 2008 [Photo, Drawing]

Mytilus californianus: [survival] 1. tests of survival in different salinities. Young 1941 [Text only]

Mytilus californianus: [predation, spatial refuge] 1. deeper populations may be in spatial refuge from sea-star predators Pisaster ochraceus. Paine 1976 [Photo]

Mytilus californianus: [predator, preferences, size-selective] 1. study of size-selection predation by sea stars Pisaster ochraceus . Paine 1976 [Photo, Graph]

Mytilus californianus: [intertidal level, predator] 1. long-term removal of sea-star predators causes marked shift of lower limits of mussel distribution. Paine 1984 [Graph]

Mytilus californianus: [costs, energetics, predation, size-selective] 1. cost-benefit analysis of sea-stars Pisaster ochraceus preying on mussels. McClintock & Robnett 1986 [Photo, Graph]

Mytilus californianus: [predation, productivity] 1. effects of changing productivity of the mussel bed on impacts of predation by sea stars and birds. Garza 2005 [Photo, Graph]

Mytilus californianus: [environmental physiology, heat-shock proteins, stress] 1. different effects of stressful factors intertidally on sea-mussel prey and seastar predators Pisaster ochraceus. Petes et al. 2008 [Graph]

Mytilus californianus: [settlement, veliger] 1. juveniles, unlike in bay musses such as M. trossulus and M. galloprovincialis, tend not to employ byssus threads for transport in currents. Petersen 1984 [Photo]

Mytilus californianus: [chemical fingerprint, distribution, veliger] 1. use of chemical fingerprinting methods to monitor distribution of larvae from different source populations. 2. comparison with M. galloprovincialis. Becker et al. 2007 [Drawing, Graph]

Mytilus californianus: [distribution, food, recruitment, temperature , upwelling] 1. effect of upwelling and other water conditions on recruitment and distribution on either side of Point Conception, California. Blanchette & Gaines 2007 [Drawing, Graph]

Mytilus californianus: [abundance, climate change, larva, recruitment] 1. relationship of recruitment to phytoplankton abundance along the Oregon coastline over nearly 2 decades. Menge 2009 [Text only]

Mytilus californianus: [patch formation, wave exposure, hydrodynamics] 1. smooth hydrodynamics of a mussel bed interrupted by formation of patches through log strikes or feeding by predators. Denny 1987 [Photo]

Mytilus californianus: [metabolic rate, physiology, transcriptome] 1. detailed study of physiological rhythms through complete tidal cycles and at different intertidal levels. Gracey et al. 2008 [Graph]

Mytilus californianus: [food, genetics, temperature , transcriptome] 1. comparison of physiological variation at 2 sites in Oregon. Place et al. 2012 [Text only]

Mytilus californianus: [temperature , tides] 1. thermistor record of body temperature during emersion over daytime low tide. Carefoot 1977 [Photo]

Mytilus californianus: [acclimation experiments, season, temperature ] 1. record of seasonal body temperatures during a year. Elvin & Gonor 1979 [Graph]

Mytilus californianus: [abundance, temperature stress, adaptation] 1. integrity of phospholipid vesicles in the ctenidia used to assess temperature adaptation. Williams & Somero 1996 [Photo, Graph]

Mytilus californianus: [temperature stress, tidal level] 1. temperature landscapes for mussels in relation to tidal level. Roberts et al. 1997 [Graph]

Mytilus californianus: [model, temperature ] 1. use of heat-budget model to compare thermal stresses on mussels during short- and long-scale periods. Helmuth 1999 [Photo]

Mytilus californianus: [temperature , evaporation] 1. use thermistor records during simulated low-tide periods in the laboratory to determine extent of evaporative cooling. 2. gaping does not have much effect on body temperature. Fitzhenry et al. 2001 [Photo]

Mytilus californianus: [evaporation, temperature stress] 1. experiments on temperature stress . Fitzhenry et al. 2004 [Photo]

Mytilus californianus: [technique, temperature ] 1. use temperature-loggers to develop a 5yr record of temperatures along the west coast of the U.S.. Helmuth et al. 2006 [Drawing, Graph]

Mytilus californianus: [gonad index, stress] 1. effects on gonadal indices of stresses such as drying and thermal at 2 sites in Oregon. Petes et al. 2008 [Graph]

Mytilus californianus: [emersion, genetics, heat-shock proteins, stress] 1. investigate genetic variability in physiological responses to air exposure at several sites from British Columbia to Baja California. Place et al. 2008 [Photo, Drawing, Graph]

Mytilus californianus: [chemical fingerprint, emersion, intertidal level, shell] 1. use chemical components of shell as a proxy for temperature to assess emersion stress at high- and low-intertidal levels. Ford et al. 2010 [Drawing, Graph]

Mytilus californianus: [chemical fingerprint, shell, pH] 1. uses shell chemistry as a proxy for past pH levels. McCoy et al. 2011 [Text only]

Mytilus californianus: [climate change, habitat, population, temperature stress, thermal maxima] 1. proxy mussels used in experiments to assess effects of thermal stresses on persistence of mussel-bed populations. Denny et al. 2011 [Photo, Graph]

Mytilus californianus: [genetics, light, tides, transcriptome] 1. compare effects of daily light-dark cycle with tidal cycles for most effect on gene expression. Connor & Gracey 2011 [Graph]

Mytilus californianus: [chemical, emersion, stress, tidal rhythm] 1. unique approach to quantifying stresses of intertidal life using change in levels of 169 gill-tissue metabolites. Connor & Gracey 2012 [Graph]

Mytilus californianus: [reproduction] 1. compares total reproductive outputs of individuals at sites north and south of Point Conception, California. Phillips 2007 [Text only]

Mytilus californianus: [distribution, keystone, predation] 1. effects on distribution of adding or removing the top predator, the sea star Pisaster ochraceus. Robles et al. 2009 [Photo, Graph]

Mytilus californianus: [diversity, effects, predation, size] 1. compare effects of sea-otter predation on size and diversity of mussel beds at different sites along the west coast. Singh et al. 2013 [Photo, Drawing, Graph]

Mytilus californianus: [succession] 1. new insights into successional events in mussel-bed communities. Wooton 2013 [Photo, Graph]

Mytilus californianus: [community, effects, predator] 1. large, comprehensive study on the effect of predation by whelks Nucella canaliculata and N. ostrina on community structure including 6 prey barnacle and mussel species, and a sea-anemone species. Navarrete 1996 [Graph]

Mytilus californianus: [growth, habitat, survival] 1. study of habitat complexity in relation to interactions with prey whelks Nucella emarginata and predatory sea stars Pisaster ochraceus in Santa Barbara area. Gosnell et al. 2012 [Photo]

Mytilus californianus: [photo courtesy] 1. photo courtesy Biology Department, California State University, Fullerton. Biology Department 2012 [Photo]

Mytilus edulis: [anchor, byssus] 1. description of thread production. Allen et al. 1976 [Photo, Drawing]

Mytilus edulis: [chemical] 1. . 2. chemistry of byssus threadd. Crisp et al. 1985 [Photo, Drawing]

Mytilus edulis: [chemical, composition] 1. chemical make-up of byssus threads. Qin & Waite 1995 [Photo]

Mytilus edulis: [adhesion, chemical, composition] 1. description of different proteins making up the threads and adhesive discs. Wiegemann 2005 [Drawing]

Mytilus edulis: [reproduction, spawning] 1. overview of factors involved with initiating spawning . [Photo]

Mytilus edulis: [larva, predation] 1. larvae may be eaten by adults or bound up in pseudofeces. Bayne 1964 [Text only]

Mytilus edulis: [larva, predation] 1. larvae may be eaten by adults. Mileikovsky 1974 [Text only]

Mytilus edulis: [defense, predator] 1. anemones growing on shells provide protection against potential sea-star predators. Kaplan 1984 [Text only]

Mytilus galloprovincialis: [byssus, production, thread, water flow] 1. comparison with M. trossulus, M. californianus, and Modiolus modiolus. Carrington et al. 2008 [Photo, Graph]

Mytilus galloprovincialis: [diversity, genetics] 1. comparison of 7 populations in southern California. Ma et al. 2000 [Graph]

Mytilus galloprovincialis: [genetics, hybridisation] 1. extent of occurrence with M. trossulus in central California. Braby & Somero 2006 [Drawing, Graph]

Mytilus galloprovincialis: [food, growth, temperature ] 1. effects of food and temperature on growth in southern California. Page & Hubbard 1987 [Photo]

Mytilus galloprovincialis: [identification, juvenile] 1. provide several morphological characters to separate from M. californianus in the juvenile stages. Martel et al. 1999 [Photo, Drawing]

Mytilus galloprovincialis: [heat-shock proteins] 1. comparison of expression of HSPs with M. trossulus. Hofmann & Somero 1996 [Photo, Graph]

Mytilus galloprovincialis: [competitive exclusion, interspecific] 1. competition with M. californianus in California. Harger 1970 []

Mytilus galloprovincialis: [community, predator, prey, protection] 1. involved in questions as to whether lobsters Panulirus interruptus in Santa Catalina Island, California are acting as keystone predators . Robles 1997 [Graph]

Mytilus galloprovincialis: [acclimation experiments, genetics, hybridisation] 1. hybridisation with M. trossulus. McDonald & Koehn 1988 [Graph]

Mytilus galloprovincialis: [distribution] 1. review of distribution. Wonham 2004 [Text only]

Mytilus galloprovincialis: [genetics] 1. more information on its invasion into west-coast localities. Geller et al. 1994 [Drawing]

Mytilus galloprovincialis: [reproduction, season, spawning] 1. mature sperm present throughout the year, but mature eggs only from Nov-May. Moore & Reish 1969 [Text only]

Mytilus galloprovincialis: [physiology, tolerance] 1. compare tolerances of temperature and salinity with M. trossulus. Braby & Somero 2006 [Graph]

Mytilus galloprovincialis: [condition, metamorphosis, ration, settlement] 1. experiments on food ration in relation to size of veliger larvae an success in settlement and metamorphosis. Phillips 2002 [Graph]

Mytilus galloprovincialis: [chemical fingerprint, distribution, veliger] 1. use of chemical fingerprinting to monitor distribution of larvae from different source populations. 2. comparison with M. californianus. Becker et al. 2007 [Drawing, Graph]

Mytilus galloprovincialis: [predation] 1. compare responses of native predatory whelk Nucella ostrina to this introduced mussel vs. native mussels M. californianus and M. trossulus. Shinen et al. 2009 [Graph]

Mytilus galloprovincialis: [genetics, heat-shock proteins, temperature stress] 1. use species-specific heat-stress genes to explain invasion success over native M. trossulus. Lockwood et al. 2010 [Text only]

Mytilus galloprovincialis: [genetics, heat-shock proteins, temperature stress, proteomics] 1. monitor several dozen proteins in the ctenidia that respond to heat stress and compare with M. trossulus. 2. comparison of thermal stresses in the 2 species. Tomanek & Zuzow 2010 [Table of Data]

Mytilus galloprovincialis: [heat-shock proteins, physiology, stress, temperature ] 1. compare seasonal physiological stresses with congenor species M. trossulus using ubiquitin-conjugated proteins. Dutton & Hofmann 2008 [Drawing]

Mytilus sp.: [antennule] 1. compares contemporary drillhole features with those from fossillised shells. 2. finds similar morphology in shells from 14-17mya. Schiffbauer et al. 2008 [Photo]

Mytilus sp.: [predation] 1. in Nelson Lagoon, Alaska are preferentially eaten by Steller's eiders Polysticta stelleri. Petersen 1980 [Photo]

Mytilus spp.: [anchor, byssus] 1. introductory remarks about byssus-thread anchoring in mussels. [Photo]

Mytilus spp.: [anchor, morphology] 1. description of threads and terminal pads. Smeathers & Vincent 1979 [Drawing]

Mytilus spp.: [morphology, adhesion] 1. morphology of adhesive pads on different substrata. Meadows & Shand 1989 [Drawing]

Mytilus spp.: [byssus, composition, thread] 1. composition of threads in M. californianus is mechanically superior to that in M. edulis and M. galloprovincialis. Harrington & Waite 2007 [Drawing]

Mytilus spp.: [hybridisation, fitness] 1. fitness of hybrids between M. trossulus and M. galloprovincialis along west coast. Springer & Heath 2007 [Photo, Drawing, Graph]

Mytilus spp.: [fitness, hybridisation] 1. hybrid fitness M. trossulus and M. galloprovincialis. Shields et al. 2008 [Drawing, Graph]

Mytilus spp.: [genetics, structure] 1. . Shields et al. 2010 [Drawing, Graph]

Mytilus spp.: [photo courtesy] 1. photos of M. trossulus, M. galloprovincialis, and M. edulis courtesy Linda Schroeder, Pacific Northwest Shell Club, Seattle. Schroeder [Photo]

Mytilus spp.: [growth] 1. comparison of growth of 3 species in relation to aquaculture potential. Behrens-Yamada & Dunham 1989 [Photo]

Mytilus spp.: [identification] 1. use multivariate analysis of 18 morphological features to separate the species galloprovincialis, trossulus, and edulis. McDonald et al. 1991 [Drawing, Graph]

Mytilus spp.: [identification] 1. morphological characters to separate the species M. californianus and M. trossulus/galloprovincialis at the post-larval stage. Martel et al. 2000 [Photo, Drawing]

Mytilus spp.: [heat-shock proteins] 1. review of HSPs. Halpin et al. 2002 [Photo, Graph]

Mytilus spp.: [heat-shock proteins] 1. aspects of HSPs in mussels. Hofmann & Somero 1995 [Photo, Graph]

Mytilus spp.: [photo courtesy] 1. photos of mussels Mytilus trossulus and M. galloprovincialis courtesy Linda Schroeder, Pacific Northwest Shell Club, Seattle, Washington. Schroeder [Photo]

Mytilus spp.: [competition, connective tissue, interspecific] 1. studies on interspecific competition between M. californianus, M. trossulus, and M. galloprovincialis. Harger 1972 [Photo]

Mytilus spp.: [coexistence] 1. reference to factors permitting coexistence of mussels M. californianus and M. galloprovincialis. Harger 1972 [Text only]

Mytilus spp.: [quiz] 1. quiz on factors permitting coexistence of mussel species M. californianus and M. galloprovincialis. [Text only]

Mytilus spp.: [competition, growth, interspecific] 1. use growth as a measure of competitive superiority in polyculture experiments with mussel species M. trossulus and M. californianus. Shinen & Morgan 2009 [Photo, Graph]

Mytilus spp.: [competition, intraspecific] 1. there appear to be no studies specifically on intraspecific competition in west-coast mussels. [Text only]

Mytilus spp.: [competition, intraspecific] 1. there appears to have been no studies done specifically on this topic for west-coast species. [Text only]

Mytilus spp.: [genetics, hybridisation] 1. hybridisation between M. trossulus and M. galloprovincialis. Sarver & Loudenslager 1991 [Graph]

Mytilus spp.: [genetics, hybridisation] 1. hybridisation of M. trossulus and M. galloprovincialis in California. Sarver & Foltz 1993 [Drawing]

Mytilus spp.: [genetics] 1. distribution of M. trossulus and M. galloprovincialis and their hybrids in California. Rawson & Hilbish 1995 [Drawing]

Mytilus spp.: [genetics] 1. develop PCR markers to discriminate between mussels M. trossulus, M. edulis, and M. galloprovincialis. Heath et al. 1995 [Text only]

Mytilus spp.: [genetics, habitat] 1. develop PCR markers to distinguish between mussels M. trossulus and M. galloprovincialis in different habitats on Vancouver Island. Heath et al. 1996 [Photo, Graph]

Mytilus spp.: [genetics] 1. use a PCR marker for byssus-adhesive protein to distinguish between mussels M. trossulus and M. galloprovincialis. Suchanek et al. 1997 [Text only]

Mytilus spp.: [genetics, historical] 1. genetics analyses of historical samples of bay mussels from museums around California show the presence only of M. trossulus prior to the invasion of M. galloprovincialis. Geller 1999 [Text only]

Mytilus spp.: [genetics, hybridisation] 1. extent of hybridisation between M. trossulus and M. galloprovincialis in Oregon and California. Rawson et al. 1999 [Drawing, Graph]

Mytilus spp.: [genetics] 1. information on types of genetic markers used to distinguish Mytilus species. Rawson et al. 1996 [Drawing, Graph]

Mytilus spp.: [genetics, growth, salinity] 1. hybrids of bay mussels M. trossulus and M. galloprovincialis show little evidence of hybrid vigour. 2. compare growth of both species and hybrids in different salinities. Matson et al. 2003 [Text only]

Mytilus spp.: [genetics, habitat, preferences] 1. habitat preference of bay mussels M. trossulus and M. galloprovincialis, and their hybrids. Elliott et al. 2008 [Drawing, Graph]

Mytilus spp.: [genetics, habitat, preferences] 1. habitat preference of bay mussels M. trossulus and M. galloprovincialis, and their hybrids. Elliott et al. 2008 [Drawing, Graph]

Mytilus spp.: [community, diversity] 1. description of diversity of communities inhabiting offshore drill-rigs in southern California. Bomkamp et al. 2004 [Photo, Drawing]

Mytilus spp.: [photo courtesy] 1. photo courtesy Kevin Lee, Fullerton, California. Lee [Photo]

Mytilus spp.: [community, conservation] 1. conservation issues regarding marine reserves along the California coast. Smith et al 2008 [Photo]

Mytilus spp.: [community, diversity] 1. study of diversity and abundance of invertebrates on and below oil- and gas-drilling rigs in southern California. Goddard & Love 2010 [Photo, Drawing]

Mytilus spp.: [predator] 1. introduction to bird- and fish-predator section for mussels. [Photo]

Mytilus spp.: [energetics, reproduction, season, spawning] 1. mussels Mytilus californianus spawn year-round, while M. trossulus and M. galloprovincialis tend to spawn in winter-early spring. 2. consideration of energy input to ecosystem from eggs of mussels and other invertebrates. Gosselin 2004 [Photo]

Mytilus spp.: [reproduction, spawning] 1. aspects of mussel spawning. Curiel-Ramirez & Caceres-Martinez 2004 [Photo]

Mytilus spp.: [physiology, tolerance] 1. review of physiological differences between M. galloprovincialis and M. trossulus. Lockwood & Somero 2011 [Graph]

Mytilus spp.: [settlement, veliger] 1. general observations on settlement, including byssus-thread transport of the juveniles in currents. Bayne 1964 [Photo]

Mytilus spp.: [juvenile, settlement] 1. aspects of settlement. Sigurdsson et al. 1976 [Photo]

Mytilus spp.: [veliger] 1. experiments on inter-speciific competition by veliger larvae of Mytilus californianus and M. galloprovincialis. Petraitis 1978 [Graph]

Mytilus spp.: [competition, preferences, settlement, veliger] 1. settlement strategies of mussels Mytilus californianus and M. trossulus . Petersen 1984 [Text only]

Mytilus spp.: [food, food quality, settlement, upwelling, veliger] 1. comparison of settlement success of mussel veligers on either side of Point Conception, California where upwelling conditions and food availability differ. Phillips & Gaines 2002 [Drawing, Graph]

Mytilus spp.: [oceanic processes, settlement, stimulus] 1. retarding effect of ocean fronts on settlement of veligers within Sunset Bay in Oregon. McCulloch & Shanks 2003 [Drawing]

Mytilus spp.: [chemical fingerprint] 1. feasibility considerations in use of technique on mussels. Becker et al. 2005 [Drawing, Graph]

Mytilus spp.: [chemical fingerprint, technique, veliger] 1. feasibility of using technique of chemical fingerprinting on mussel larvae. Fodrie et al. 2011 [Drawing, Graph]

Mytilus spp.: [distribution, settlement, survival] 1. relationship of adult distributions of 3 species of mussels Mytilus californianus, M. trossulus, and M. galloprovincialis to preferential larval settlement and post-settlement survival. Johnson & Geller 2006 [Graph]

Mytilus spp.: [abundance, larva, recruitment] 1. relationship of inshore abundance of larvae to rate of intertidal recruitment in mussels Mytilus californianus and M. trossulus. Rilov et al. 2008 [Drawing]

Mytilus spp.: [chemical fingerprint, distribution, larval dispersal, recruitment] 1. investigation of larval exchange between regions along the California coast. Carson et al. 2010 [Photo, Drawing, Graph]

Mytilus spp.: [chemical fingerprint, larval dispersal] 1. use of chemical fingerprinting of larvae of mussels Mytilus to follow dispersal along areas of the west coast. Carson et al. 2011 [Photo, Drawing, Graph]

Mytilus spp.: [larval dispersal] 1. efficacy of byssus-thread dispersal in species of mussels Mytilus californianus and M. trossulus along the Oregon coast. Shanks & Shearman 2011 [Text only]

Mytilus spp.: [stress, wave exposure] 1. growth of kelps on mussel can greatly exacerbate the stressful effects of wave forces. Witman & Suchanek 1984 [Photo]

Mytilus spp.: [model, technique, temperature ] 1. development of a model mussel for use as a proxy in heat-budget and thermal-stress studies in the field. Helmuth 1998 [Drawing]

Mytilus spp.: [review, temperature stress, time budget] 1. general review of effects of temperature on mussels Mytilus. Zippay & Helmuth 2012 [Drawing, Graph]

Mytilus spp.: [distribution, emersion, temperature stress] 1. effects of temperature on distribution of mussels M. trossulus and M. galloprovincialis when air-exposed. Schneider & Helmuth 2007 [Graph]

Mytilus spp.: [aggregation, predation] 1. high recruitment by prey mussels attracts aggregations of predatory sea stars Pisaster ochraceus. Robles et al. 1995 [Photo, Graph]

Mytilus spp.: [predation] 1. in Sitka Sound, Alaska mussels M. trossulus and M. californianus comprise about 35% of the bulk of an oyster-catcher's yearly diet. Webster 1941 [Photo]

Mytilus spp.: [chemical fingerprint, distribution, larva] 1. use of chemical fingerprinting in studies on distribution of mussel larvae. Carson et al. 2013 []

Mytilus trossulus: [energetics, suspension feeding] 1. calculate energy cost of pumping. Bernard & Noakes [Text only]

Mytilus trossulus: [anchor, byssus, force] 1. detachment force is 3 times less than for Mytilus californianus. Harger 1970 [Photo, Graph]

Mytilus trossulus: [attachment, strength] 1. slight tendency for stronger attachment at edge of mussel bed. 2. order of magnitude less strong attachment than Mytilus californianus. Witman & Suchanek 1984 [Graph]

Mytilus trossulus: [byssus, thread] 1. produce more threads than Mytilus californianus, but thinner and weaker. Bell & Gosline 1997 [Photo, Graph]

Mytilus trossulus: [behaviour, locomotion] 1. maximum movement by 9% of population in a month is 9cm. Hunt & Scheibling 2002 [Photo]

Mytilus trossulus: [byssus, thread, water flow, production] 1. comparison with M. californianus, M. galloprovincialis, and Modiolus modiolus. Carrington et al. 2008 [Photo, Graph]

Mytilus trossulus: [parasitism] 1. 80% infestation of copepod parasites in summer in Barkley Sound, British Columbia. Goater & Weber 1996 [Photo]

Mytilus trossulus: [genetics] 1. comparison of genetic differentiation along the west coast with that of M. californianus. Levinton & Suchanek 1978 [Drawing, Graph]

Mytilus trossulus: [polyploidy] 1. identify "summer mortality syndrome" as a possible consequence of polyploidy. Gonzalez-Tizon et al. 2000 [Photo]

Mytilus trossulus: [genetics, hybridisation] 1. extent of hybridisation with M. galloprovincialis. Braby & Somero 2006 [Drawing, Graph]

Mytilus trossulus: [age, growth line] 1. uses acetate-peel method to estimate age and growth. Millstein & O'Clair 2001 [Photo, Graph]

Mytilus trossulus: [feeding, water flow] 1. comparison with M. californianus of effect of current velocity on clearance rate of particles. Ackerman & Nishizaki 2004 [Graph]

Mytilus trossulus: [photo courtesy] 1. photo courtesy Dave Cowles, Walla Walla University, Washington . Cowles [Photo, Drawing]

Mytilus trossulus: [heat-shock proteins, season, temperature stress] 1. appearance of HSPs varies with an organism's past temperature history. Buckley et al. 2001 [Text only]

Mytilus trossulus: [quiz] 1. quiz on threshold-induction temperatures . [Text only]

Mytilus trossulus: [identification] 1. features enabling differentiation from M. californianus. Suchanek 1981 [Photo]

Mytilus trossulus: [competition, interspecific] 1. study interspecific competition with barnacles Balanus glandula in southern British Columbia. Ross & Goodman 1974 [Text only]

Mytilus trossulus: [competition, interspecific] 1. competitive interactions with Mytilus californianus and other organisms on Tatoosh Island, Washington. Suchanek 1978 [Photo, Drawing]

Mytilus trossulus: [competition, space, refuge] 1. seeks spatial refuge from its superior competitor Mytilus californianus on Tatoosh Island, Washington. Suchanek 1981 [Photo]

Mytilus trossulus: [morphology, shell] 1. comparison of vulnerability of thick- and thin-shelled morphs to predation by crab and sea-star predators in Howe Sound, British Columbia. Addison 2009 [Photo, Graph]

Mytilus trossulus: [genetics, hybridisation] 1. hybridisation with M. galloprovincialis. McDonald & Koehn 1988 [Graph]

Mytilus trossulus: [genetics, hybridisation] 1. distribution of bay mussels M. trossulus in Puget Sound, Washington. Anderson et al. 2002 [Drawing]

Mytilus trossulus: [predation] 1. eaten by pile perches Rhacochilus vacca. Brett 1979 [Photo]

Mytilus trossulus: [salinity, temperature , tolerance] 1. compare tolerances to temperature and salinity with M. galloprovincialis. Braby & Somero 2006 [Graph]

Mytilus trossulus: [defense, predation] 1. defenses against whelk predators include valve gaping, valve closure, mantle retraction, foot extension, and fastening byssus threads to the predator. Wayne 1987 [Photo, Drawing, Table of Data]

Mytilus trossulus: [predation] 1. experiments on predation by whelks Nucella lima in Alaska. Carroll & Highsmith 1996 [Drawing, Graph]

Mytilus trossulus: [grazing, growth, habitat, mortality] 1. translocation experiments to different localities on Vancouver Island, with growth and mortality being compared. Yanick et al. 2003 [Drawing]

Mytilus trossulus: [wave exposure, zonation, smother] 1. compare ability to crawl out from smothering conditions caused by wave effects, such as being buried in sand. 2. better ability than M. californianus. Rosen et al. 1978 [Photo, Drawing, Graph]

Mytilus trossulus: [growth, wave exposure] 1. growth rate inversely related to wave force. Harger 1970 [Photo, Graph]

Mytilus trossulus: [wave exposure] 1. relationship of wave forces to health and vitality. Harger & Landenberger 1971 [Photo, Graph]

Mytilus trossulus: [morphology, shell, wave exposure] 1. field studies of relationship of shell morphology to degree of wave exposure. Akester & Martel 1999 [Photo, Drawing]

Mytilus trossulus: [genetics, heat-shock proteins, temperature stress] 1. use species-specific heat-stress genes to explain recessiveness of native mussels M. trossulus in face of invasion by M. galloprovincialis. Lockwood et al. 2010 [Text only]

Mytilus trossulus: [heat-shock proteins, proteomics, temperature stress] 1. compare responses of ctenidial proteins to thermal stresses with those in M. galloprovincialis. Tomanek & Zuzow 2010 [Text only]

Mytilus trossulus: [heat-shock proteins, physiology, stress, temperature ] 1. compare physiological stresses from temperature by monitoring ubiquitin-conjugated proteins in this species with congenor M. galloprovincialis. Dutton & Hofmann 2008 [Drawing, Graph]

Mytilus trossulus: [community, effects, predator] 1. large, comprehensive study on the effect of predation by whelks Nucella canaliculata and N. ostrina on community structure including 6 prey barnacle and mussel species, and a sea-anemone species. Navarrete 1996 [Graph]

Mytilus trossulus: [predation] 1. consideration of borehole disposition by predatory whelks Nucella lamellosa on the shells of prey mussels in relation to shell thickness and underlying organ disposition. Carefoot 1977 [Drawing]

Mytilus trossulus: [borehole, location, size] 1. features of boreholes by whelk predators Nucella lamellosa in relation to size of predator, size of prey, and so on. Kowalewski 2004 [Photo, Graph]

Mytilus trossulus: [borehole drilling] 1. effect on drilling behaviour, success or failure, by whelks on prey mussels Mytilus trossulus when whelk is exposed to its own predator, the crab Cancer gracilis. Chattopadhyay & Baumiller 2007 [Photo]

Mytilus trossulus : [predation] 1. along the B.C. coast are a preferred food of surf scoters Melanitta perspicillata. Vermeer 1981 [Photo]

Mytilus trossulus & galloprovincialis: [photo courtesy] 1. photo courtesy Linda Schroeder, Pacific Northwest Shell Club, Seattle, Washington. Schroeder [Photo]

Mytilus  californianus: [ctenidia, pumping, scaling, size] 1. comparison of pumping rates with dry mass and surface area with cockles Clinocardium nuttallii, bent-nose clam Macoma nasuta, and scallops Chlamys hastata. Meyhofer 1985 [Photo, Graph]

Myxilla agennes: [predation] 1. in San Diego, California area is a preferred food of the dorid nudibranch Peltodoris nobilis. McBeth 1971 [Photo]

Myxilla incrustans: [predation, secondary metabolite] 1. eaten by dorid nudibranch Cadlina luteomarginata. 2. one of several food sources of metabolites for the nudibranch. Thompson et al. 1982 [Photo]

Myxilla incrustans: [mutualism] 1. experiments on sponge/scallop mutualisms from the sponge's point of view. Burns & Bingham 2002 [Graph]

Myxilla incrustans: [costs, drag, energetics] 1. energetic costs to scallop hosts of sponge coating on their shells. Donovan et al. 2002 [Photo, Graph]

Myxilla incrustans: [predation, preferences] 1. in Barkley Sound, British Columbia, eaten by nudibranch Diaulula sandiegensis. Penney 2013 [Photo]

Myxilla spp.: [mutualism, symbiosis] 1. reference and link to section of ODYSSEY dealing with sponge/scallop mutualisms. [Photo]

Myxilla  incrustans: [abundance, defense, mutualism] 1. thought to provide protection to scallops from sea-star predators by growing on the shell valves . Bloom 1975 [Photo, Graph]