Searchable index of Genera, Species, Authors, and Topics referenced in A SNAIL'S ODYSSEY

ALL GROUPS ARE NOW INDEXED.

IF YOU SEARCH BY AUTHOR(S): 1) single author use surname only no initials, 2) double authors use the format: surname & surname (i.e., use ampersand &), 3) more than 2 authors use surname (of senior author) et al. (e.g., smith et al.

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Abalone : [defense] 1. juveniles shelter under spine canopy of sea urchins. Rogers-Bennett & Pearse 2001 [Text only]

Abalone : [larva] 1. speculation on the function of torsion in gastropod development. Garstang 1929 [Drawing]

Abalone : [home] 1. introduction to abalones in home file for abalone part of the Odyssey. [Text only]

Abalone : [] 1. snail meets abalone animation. [Animation]

Abalone : [map] 1. snail's map with abalone highlighted. [Drawing]

Abalone : [classification] 1. classification of SuperOrder Vetigastropoda, including abalones and other snails. []

Abalone : [chemical, defense] 1. introduction to chemical defenses in abalone. []

Abarenicola pacifica: [burrow, density] 1. comments on burrow density and bioturbation effects. [Photo]

Abarenicola pacifica: [competitive exclusion] 1. field experiments to investigate interactions with settling spionids Pseudopolydora kempi. Woodin 1985 [Graph]

Abarenicola pacifica: [burrowing, density] 1. bioturbation activities of lugworms increase general health of mudflats. [Photo]

Abarenicola pacifica: [burrow] 1. description of burrow and its functioning. Swinbanks & Murray 1981 [Photo, Drawing]

Abarenicola pacifica: [burrow] 1. description of burrows and their functioning . Taghorn & Green 1990 [Photo, Drawing]

Abarenicola pacifica: [burrow, distribution] 1. burrow distribution is clumped, rather than being random. Kruger & Woodin 1983 [Drawing]

Abarenicola pacifica: [activity, behaviour] 1. recordings of activities of several burrowing invertebrates. Wethey & Woodin 2005 [Graph]

Abarenicola pacifica: [diet] 1. diet in San Juan Island consists of bacteria and diatoms. Hobson 1967 [Drawing]

Abarenicola pacifica: [diet, food quality] 1. some evidence of "gardening" by the worms with respect to their bacterial foods. Hyllenberg 1975 [Photo]

Abarenicola pacifica: [anoxia, physiological ecology] 1. measurements of oxygen concentration in burrows during high and low tides. May 1972 [Text only]

Abarenicola pacifica: [osmoconformer] 1. study on osmoregulatory abilities in Coos Bay, Oregon. Oglesby 1973 [Graph]

Abarenicola pacifica: [predation] 1. effects of experimental removal of tail ends to mimic predator. Woodin 1984 [Graph]

Abarenicola pacifica: [feeding, nutrition] 1. description of foods and feeding of lugworms. Fauchald & Jumars 1979 [Drawing]

Abarenicola spp.: [burrowing, bioturbation] 1. brief description of burrowing. Trueman & Ansell 1969 [Drawing]

Abarenicola spp.: [bioturbation, burrowing] 1. brief description of burrowing. Wells 1961 [Drawing]

Abarenicola spp.: [burrow] 1. drawings of burrows. Hylleberg 1975 [Photo, Drawing]

Abarenicola spp.: [burrow, morphology] 1. examine burrows of these and other invertebrates from the standpoint of special construction features to resist influx of toxic hydrogen-sulphide gas. Zorn et al. 2006 [Text only]

Abarenicola spp.: [diet] 1. information on diets. May 1972 [Drawing]

Abarenicola vagabunda: [diet] 1. diet in San Juan Island consists of bacteria and diatoms. Hobson 1967 [Drawing]

Abeitinaria spp.: [functional morphology, water flow] 1. evolution of streamlining in hydroid colonies. Harvell & Labarbera 1985 [Photo, Graph]

Abietinaria spp.: [predation] 1. preferentially eaten by nudibranchs Doto amyra in California. Goddard 1996 [Text only]

Acanthella  sp.: [predation, secondary metabolite] 1. source of terpenoids for use by predatory dorid nudibranch Cadlina luteomarginata in its own defense. Burgoyne et al. 1993 [Text only]

Acanthinucella punctulata: [diet, preferences, prey] 1. in Pacific Grove, California prefer barnacles Chthamalus spp., along with other prey such as limpets. Sleder 1981 [Photo, Graph]

Acanthinucella punctulata: [photo courtesy] 1. photo courtesy Gary McDonald, Santa Cruz, California. McDonald [Photo]

Acanthinucella punctulata: [borehole drilling, radula] 1. mechanism of drilling into Littorina snails L. planaxis and L. scutulata in Santa Cruz Island, California. Menge 1974 [Photo]

Acanthinucella punctulata: [photo courtesy] 1. photo courtesy Gary McDonald, Santa Cruz, California. McDonald [Photo]

Acanthinucella punctulata: [diet, preferences] 1. diet optimisation study; in Santa Cruz Island, California prefer littorine snails as prey. 2. calculation of electivity indices. Menge 1974 [Table of Data]

Acanthinucella punctulata: [photo courtesy] 1. photo courtesy Gary McDonald, Santa Cruz, California and CALPHOTOS. McDonald []

Acanthinucella punctulata: [photo courtesy] 1. photo courtesy Kaustuv Roy. Roy [Photo]

Acanthinucella punctulata: [feeding, function, shell, spines] 1. spine used as a ram to pry open opercular plates of barnacles. Perry 1985 [Photo, Graph]

Acanthinucella punctulata: [feeding, function, shell, spines] 1. uses its spine as a hammer to open scutal plates of barnacles. Sieder 1981 [Text only]

Acanthinucella punctulata: [feeding, shell, spines] 1. specifically notes that the shell spine is not used during feeding. Menge 1974 [Drawing]

Acanthinucella spirata: [photo courtesy] 1. photo courtesy Kaustov Roy. [Photo]

Acanthinucella spirata: [preferences, prey] 1. tests of prey-switching by a predatory snail. 2. comparison study with Nucella emarginata. Murdoch 1969 [Photo]

Acanthinucella spirata: [photo courtesy] 1. photograph courtesy Kaustuv Roy, San Diego. Roy [Photo]

Acanthinucella spirata: [diet, optimal foraging, starvation] 1. starved individuals show no preference for barnacle species Chtamalus fissus and Balanus glandula, but fed snails opt for the latter that has, among other things presumably, more food matter per unit handling time than the former. Perry 1987 [Photo, Graph]

Acanthinucella spirata: [photo courtesy] 1. photo courtesy Kaustuv Roy, University of California, San Diego. Roy [Photo, Graph]

Acanthinucella spp.: [shell, spines, stability] 1. shell spine thought to be for stability; not feeding. Paine 1966 [Photo]

Acanthinucella spp.: [photo courtesy] 1. photo courtesy Gary McDonald, Santa Cruz, California and CALPHOTOS. McDonald [Photo]

Acanthodoris nanaimoensis: [defense, secondary metabolite] 1. terpenoids for possible defense sequestered from bryozoan foods. Ayer et al. 1984 [Photo]

Acanthodoris nanaimoensis: [defense, secondary metabolite] 1. terpenoids possibly used in defense. 2. acquired from bryozoan foods. Graziani & Andersen 1996 [Photo]

Acanthodoris nanaimoensis: [photo courtesy] 1. photo courtesy N. Elder and Linda Schroeder, Pacific Northwest Shell Club, Seattle, Washington. Elder & Schroeder [Photo]

Acantholithodes hispidus: [larva] 1. description of larval and megalopal stages. Hong et al. 2004 [Drawing]

Acanthophora granulata: [ocelli, photoreceptor] 1. detailed description of eye-like properties of ocelli or aesthetes in the shell valves. Speiser et al. 2011 [Photo, Drawing]

Acanthopleura echinata: [morphology, radula, structure] 1. chemical and physical structure of the radula cusps. 2. not a west-coast species. Brooker et al. 2003 [Drawing]

Acipenser spp.: [abundance, predator] 1. in Willapa Bay, Washington preferentially eat ghost shrimps Neotrypaea californiensis. Dumbauld et al. 2008 [Graph, Text only]

Acmaea mitra: [camouflage, defense] 1. commonly encrusted with coralline algae Hildenbrandia sp. possibly for defense. [Photo]

Acmaea mitra: [predation, prey capture] 1. being pulled off the substratum by a sea star Orthasterias koehleri. [Photo]

Acmaea mitra: [desiccation, physiological ecology, zonation] 1. zonation of this species and 3 Lottia species in Oregon corresponds with critical tide factors. 2. desiccation may be involved. Shotwell 950 [Photo, Graph]

Acmaea mitra: [aggregation, mechanism, radula] 1. compares radula structure and function with that of Lottia scutum. Padilla 1985 [Photo, Graph]

Acmaea mitra: [reproduction, spawning] 1. spawning occurs in winter with quick rebuilding of gonads. Fritchman 1961 [Photo, Graph]

Acmaea mitra: [mineralisation, radula] 1. discovers presence of iron-containing goethite in radula. Lowenstam 1962 [Photo]

Acmaea mitra: [efficacy, feeding, radula] 1. compares feeding effectiveness of radula with that of Lottia scutum. Padilla 1985 [Photo, Drawing, Graph]

Acmaea testudinalis: [development] 1. drawings of early development used for description of Lottia digitalis. Kessel 1964 [Drawing]

Acornbarnacle : [growth, moulting] 1. general description of growth and moulting. [Photo]

Acornbarnacle : [cyprid larva, gregariousness, settlement] 1. quiz on benefits of gregarious settlement of larvae of barnacles. [Text only]

Acornbarnacle : [succession] 1. short explanation of models of succession. Connell & Slatyer 1977 [Text only]

Acornbarnacle : [drift paradox, larval dispersal, water flow] 1. effect of unidirectional currents on upstream extinctions. Shanks & Eckert 2005 [Text only]

Acornbarnacle : [defense, predator] 1. introduction to predator/defense section. [Photo, Text only]

Acornbarnacle : [cyprid larva, settlement] 1. introductory remarks about settlement cues for barnacles. [Drawing]

Acornbarnacle : [substratum preference] 1. photographs of newly settled spat in crevices and grooves. [Photo]

Acornbarnacle : [quiz] 1. quiz on advantages to larve of preferentially settling in cracks and depressions. [Text only]

Acornbarnacle : [chemical, cyprid larva, settlement] 1. settlement inducer arthropodin is present in the exoskeleton and other parts of barnacles. Crisp 1965 [Graph]

Acornbarnacle : [cyprid larva, substratum preference] 1. description of sensory parts of antennule of larva used in chemical perception of the substratum. Crisp et al. 1985 [Drawing]

Acornbarnacle : [home] 1. introduction to barnacles in home file for barnacle part of the Odyssey. [Text only]

Acornbarnacle : [] 1. snail meets barnacle . [Animation]

Acornbarnacle : [map] 1. snail's map with barnacle highlighted. [Drawing]

Acornbarnacle : [classification] 1. classification of InfraClass Cirripedia. [Text only]

Acornbarnacle spp.: [defense] 1. deals in part with avoidance of substratum where predator has frequented. Grosberg 1981 [Text only]

aeolid  : [autotomy, defense] 1. ceratal autotomy and defense. Miller & Byrne 2000 [Photo]

Aeolidia papillosa: [predation] 1. predator of sea anemones Anthopleura spp.. [Drawing]

Aeolidia papillosa: [predation] 1. induces several defensive reactions in prey sea anemone Anthopleura elegantissima. Harris & Howe 1979 [Photo]

Aeolidia papillosa: [alarm, pheromone] 1. eats sea anemone Anthopleura and incorporates alarm pheromone anthopleurine into its own tissues. Howe & Harris 1978 [Photo, Graph, Table of Data]

Aeolidia papillosa: [alarm, pheromone] 1. description of predator-prey interactions between a nudibranch, sea anemones Anthopleura spp., and a sculpin Clinocottus globiceps. Hand 1994 [Photo, Drawing]

Aeolidia papillosa: [acontia, defense, predation] 1. ilicits extrusion of acontia (mesenterial filaments) when attacks sea anemone Anthopleura elegantissima. Edmunds et al. 1976 [Photo]

Aeolidia papillosa: [acontia, defense, predation] 1. predator/prey relationship with sea anemone Anthopleura elegantissima. Waters 1972 [Photo]

Aeolidia papillosa: [predation] 1. effect on sea-anemone population numbers Anthopleura elegantissima by its predatory activity. Sebens 1983 [Photo]

Aeolidia papillosa: [predation, preferences] 1. prefers small-sized individuals when attacking sea anemones Anthopleura elegantissima. Harris 1986 [Photo]

Aeolidia papillosa: [egg-laying, egg capsule, morphology, reproduction] 1. details of egg-mass. Hurst 1967 [Photo, Drawing]

Aeolidia papillosa: [food, preferences] 1. in California eats 7 species of sea anemones and one species of corallimorpharium. 2. preferred sea anemones are Epiactis prolifera, Anthopleura xanthogrammica, and A. elegantissima. Waters 1972 [Photo]

Aeolidia papillosa: [feeding] 1. photo series showing a prey anemone Metridium senile being devoured. [Photo]

Aeolidia papillosa: [feeding, predator, symbiont] 1. symbionts from the anemone Anthopleura elegantissima are eaten along with the anemone and sequestered in the cerata. 2. symbionts continue to photosynthesise in cerata. Seavy & Muller-Parker 2002 [Photo, Graph]

Aeolidia papillosa: [feeding, predation, symbiont] 1. aspects of symbiont physiology following consumption of anemones Anthopleura elegantissima. McFarland & Muller-Parker 1993 [Photo, Graph]

Aeolidia papillosa: [development, larva, reproduction] 1. compares aspects of development and yolk utilisation with aeolid Hermissenda crassicornis. Williams 1980 [Photo]

Aeolidia papillosa: [diet, feeding, ingestive conditioning] 1. experiments on ingestive conditioning. Hall et al. 1982 [Photo]

Aeolidia papillosa: [diet, feeding, ingestive conditioning] 1. influence of past diet on present preferences. Hall & Todd 1984 [Photo]

Aeolidia papillosa: [diet, feeding, ingestive conditioning, preferences] 1. influence of past diet on present preferences. Hall & Todd 1986 [Photo]

Aeolidia papillosa: [camouflage, colour, diet, ingestive conditioning] 1. if colours taken from anemone foods provide camouflaging protection, then ingestive conditioning may be an adaptive strategy . 2. "if stands stiff in the corner". Edmunds 1983 [Photo]

Aeolidia papillosa: [defense, mucus, nematocyst] 1. interactions with its anemone prey suggest that Aeolidia's mucus might have an inhibitory effect on its prey's nematocysts, both discharge and toxicity. Mauch & Elliott 1997 [Photo]

Aeolidia papillosa: [defense, mucus, nematocyst] 1. experiments in Maine on habituation of nematocyst discharge into the predator's mucus. Greenwood et al. 2004 [Graph]

Aeolidia papillosa: [nematocyst, technique] 1. describes a technique for harvesting nematocysts released from the cnidosacs. Gaulin 1982 [Photo]

Aeolidia papillosa: [behaviour, copulation, courtship] 1. description of courtship and short-duration copulatory bouts. Longley & Longley 1984 [Photo, Drawing, Graph]

Aeolidia papillosa: [copulation] 1. video courtesy Roger & Alison Longley, Friday Harbor Laboratories, Washington. Longley & Longley [Video]

Aeolidia papillosa: [behaviour, defense] 1. describes "death-feigning", a kind of surface or bottom resting, as a possible defense in this species. Kjerschow Agersborg 1922 [Text only]

Aequorea sp.: [abundance, season] 1. attempt to ascertain causative factors relating to blooms off the west coast. Suchman et al. 2012 [Photo, Graph]

Aequorea sp.: [photo courtesy] 1. photograph courtesy Claudia Mills, Friday Harbor Laboratories, Washington. Mills [Photo]

Aequorea victoria: [diel] 1. 7 species from the San Juan Islands, Washington are included in the study. Mills 1983 [Photo]

Aequorea victoria: [photo courtesy] 1. photo courtesy Chris Gunn, Campbell River, British Columbia. Gunn [Photo]

Aequorea victoria: [food, predator] 1. preys on herring larvae in Georgia Strait, British Columbia. 2. other hydromedusans that eat herring larvae include Bougainvillia multitentaculata, Sarsia tubulosa, Eutonina indicans, Stomatoca atra, and Clytia gregaria. Arai & Hay 1982 [Graph]

Aequorea victoria: [food, predation, preferences] 1. preference for herring larvae Cluea harengus pallasi. Purcell et al. 1987 [Photo]

Aequorea victoria: [photo courtesy] 1. photo courtesy Chris Gunn, Vancouver Island. Gunn [Photo]

Aequorea victoria: [food, preferences] 1. list of prey types, but showing distinct preference for eggs and larvae of herring. Purcell 1989 [Photo]

Aequorea victoria: [photo courtesy] 1. photo courtesy Chris Gunn, Campbell River, British Columbia. Gunn [Photo]

Aequorea victoria: [food, predator, preferences] 1. most important predator of herring larvae among 15 species of hydomedusans examined around Vancouver Island. Purcell 1990 [Drawing]

Aequorea victoria: [competition, interspecific, prey] 1. diet overlaps with other hydromedusan species. 2. preferentially eats the competing species Clytia gregaria and Rathkea octopunctata. Purcell 1991 [Graph]

Aequorea victoria: [osmoconformer, osmotic regulation] 1. tests several other species for osmoregulatory ability; all are osmoconformers. Mills 1984 [Drawing, Graph]

Aequorea victoria: [oxygen consumption, anoxia] 1. some ability to oxyregulate in hypoxic conditions. Rutherford & Thuesen 2005 [Photo, Graph]

Aequorea victoria: [photo courtesy] 1. photo courtesy Chris Gunn, Campbell River, British Columbia. [Photo]

Aglaeophenia sp.: [predation] 1. eaten by nudibranchs Doto columbiana. [Photo]

Aglaja diomedea: [predator] 1. in some areas eats nemerteans Paranemertes peregrina. Roe 1976 [Text only]

Aglan digitale: [behaviour, locomotion] 1. comparative study of locomotory behaviour in 6 species of hydromedusae in San Juan Islands, Washington. Colin & Costello 2002 [Drawing, Graph]

Aglantha digitale: [diel, vertical migration] 1. undergoes diel vertical migrations in Saanich Inlet, British Columbia. Arai & Fulton 1973 [Text only]

Aglantha digitale: [food] 1. an individual stuffed with copepod prey. [Photo]

Aglantha digitale: [feeding] 1. description of fishing behaviour. 2. first evidence of statocyst function in a hydromedusa. Mackie 1980 [Drawing]

Aglantha digitale: [swimming, escape] 1. description of nervous elements involved with swimming. Singla 1978 [Photo]

Aglantha digitale: [defense, escape, swimming, nervous system] 1. describe giant axons involved with fast escape swimming. Roberts & Mackie 1980 [Drawing, Graph]

Aglantha digitale: [aesthetasc, defense, escape, nervous system, swimming] 1. describe giant axons involved with escape swimming. Donaldson et al. 1980 [Drawing, Graph]

Aglantha digitale: [predation] 1. preyed on by Aequorea aequorea. Roberts & Mackie 1980 [Drawing, Graph]

Alcyonium rudyi: [predation] 1. in northern California is eaten by nudibranchs Tritonia festiva. Goddard 1987 [Photo]

Alcyonium rudyi: [photo courtesy] 1. photo courtesy Jeff Goddard, UC Santa Barbara. Goddard [Photo]

Alcyonium sp.: [host, reproduction, symbiont] 1. used for a time by juveniles of basket stars Gorgonocephalus eucnemis as a host. 2. juvenile basket stars may feed on eggs and embryos of Alcyonium. Patent 1970 [Photo, Drawing, Graph]

Alcyonium sp.: [predation] 1. eaten by nudibranchs Tochuina tetraquetra. [Photo]

Alcyonium sp.: [feeding, morphology, colony] 1. colony morphology in relation to water flow. 2. food-particle capture in relation to density of colonies. McFadden 1986 [Photo, Graph]

Alcyonium sp.: [asexual, clone, reproduction, sexual] 1. aspects of sexual and asexual reproduction. McFadden 1991 [Photo, Drawing]

Alcyonium sp.: [colony, dispersal, genetics] 1. no significant small-scale genetic structure over distances of 40m. McFadden & Aydin 1996 [Photo]

Alcyonium spp.: [defense, nematocyst] 1. only defense against predation seems to be their nematocysts. [Photo]

Alderia : [quiz] 1. quiz on advantages of hyppdermic insemination in hermaphrodites. [Text only]

Alderia modesta: [feeding, habitat] 1. feeding behaviour of ascoglossans, including Aplysiopsis enteromorphae in Oregon tidepools. Trowbridge 1993 [Photo, Drawing]

Alderia modesta: [photo courtesy] 1. photo courtesy A. Chernyshev, Russia. Chernyshev [Photo]

Alderia modesta: [development, larva, lecithotrophic, planktotrophic, poecilogony] 1. describes reproductive pattern of poecilogony, where some larvae hatch as planktophic veligers and others as lecithotrophic veligers. 2. in a later paper the author notes that this description should have been for a new species Alderia willowi. Krug 1998 [Photo, Graph]

Alderia modesta: [development, larva, lecithotrophic, planktotrophic, poecilogony] 1. aspects of poecilogonous development. Krug 2001 [Photo, Graph]

Alderia modesta: [photo courtesy] 1. photo courtesy A. Chernyshev, Russia. Chernyshev [Photo]

Alderia modesta: [photo courtesy] 1. photos courtesy Patrick Krug, California State University, Los Angeles. Krug [Photo]

Alderia modesta: [larva, metamorphosis] 1. tests of metamorphic competency on different seaweeds. 2. favoured food alga Vaucheria longicaulis is best for metamorphosis induction. Krug & Zimmer 2004 [Graph]

Alderia modesta: [development, larva, planktotrophic] 1. this species produces only planktotrophic larvae. 2. compares with new species A. willowi that has poecilogonous development. Krug 2007 [Photo]

Alderia modesta: [development, genetics, lecithotrophic, planktotrophic, poecilogony] 1. study to determine separation of genetic lines of planktotrophic development in the north and lecithotrophic development in the south. 2. study probably done on related A. willowi. Ellingson & Krug 2006 [Drawing]

Alderia spp.: [poecilogony, review] 1. reference to review of poecilogonous development . Krug 2007 [Photo, Graph]

Alderia spp.: [poecilogony] 1. reference to review of poecilogonous development. Gibson & Gibson 2004 [Photo, Graph]

Alderia spp.: [photo courtesy] 1. photo courtesy Patrick Krug, California State University, Los Angeles. Krug [Photo]

Alderia spp.: [metamorphosis] 1. sensitivity of larvae to water-borne settlement cues from food alga Vaucheria decreases with time in lecithotrophic type, but not in planktotrophic type. Botello & Krug 2006 [Graph]

Alderia willowi: [copulation, reproduction, sexual roles] 1. allocation of sexual roles . 2. insemination by hypodermic injection. Angeloni 2003 []

Alderia willowi: [copulation, reproduction] 1. fertilisation by hypodermic injection. Krug 2007 [Photo]

Alderia willowi: [photo courtesy] 1. photos courtesy Patrick Krug, California State University, Los Angeles. Krug [Photo]

Alderia willowi: [copulation, costs, reproduction] 1. possible costs of hypodermic insemination in terms of trauma. Smolensky et al. 2009 [Graph]

Alderia willowi: [feeding] 1. feeds on green alga Vaucheria longicaulis in southern California. 2. compares with Alderia modesta that also eats Vaucheria spp.. Krug 2007 [Photo]

Alderia willowi: [photo courtesy] 1. photo courtesy Patrick Krug, CSU Los Angeles, California. Krug [Photo]

Alderia willowi: [development, poecilogony] 1. notes that other published information on poecilogony in Alderia modesta is really referring to this new species A. willowi. Krug 2007 [Photo, Graph]

Alderia willowi: [poecilogony] 1. this new species is actually poecilogonous, that is, produces both planktotrophic and lecithotrophic larvae. 2. compares with A. modesta that has only planktotrophic larvae. Krug 2007 [Photo]

Alderia willowi: [development, poecilogony] 1. more on poicilogonous development in this species. Krug et al. 2007 [Photo]

Alderia willowi: [photo courtesy] 1. photos courtesy Patrick Krug, CSU Los Angeles, California. Krug [Photo]

Alderia willowi: [development, poecilogony, season] 1. confirms that dimorphic development of poecilogony has a seasonal expression. Krug et al. 2012 [Graph]

Alderia willowi: [inducer, metamorphosis, settlement] 1. tests of efficacy of different treatments of green alga Vaucheria longicaulis. 2. best induction by the live alga. Krug & Manzi 1999 [Photo, Graph]

Alderia willowi: [chemical, inducer, metamorphosis, settlement] 1. tests of various sugars on efficacy. 2. mannitol and glucose are in relatively high concentrations in and near food-algal Vaucheria patches. Krug & Zimmer 2000 [Graph]

Alderia willowi: [behaviour, chemical, inducer, larva] 1. in presence of water-borne cues from food alga Vaucheria the larvae modify their behaviour the better to seek out the origin. Krug & Zimmer 2000 [Photo, Graph]

Aldisa sanguinea: [defense, secondary metabolite] 1. ketones derived from sponge foods may have anti-feedant properties. Ayer & Andersen 1982 [Text only]

Alia carinata: [camouflage, mimicry] 1. snail is mimicked by amphipod. Caine 1969 [Photo]

Alia carinata: [photo courtesy] 1. photo courtesy Linda Schroeder, Pacific Northwest Shell Club, Seattle. Schroeder [Photo]

Alia carinata: [defense] 1. shells of this snail species used as domiciles by amphipods Photis conchicola. Carter 1982 [Drawing]

Alia carinata: [predation, prey] 1. eaten by sea stars Leptasterias hexactis in surfgrass habitats in northern California. Fishlyn & Phillips 1980 [Photo]

Alia carinata: [colour, habitat, morphology, shell] 1. comparison of shell form and colour in different habitats. Tupen 1999 [Photo]

Alia carinata: [acclimation experiments, photo courtesy] 1. photo courtesy Udo Savalli, Arizona State University. Savalli [Photo]

Alia carinata: [morph, predation, shell] 1. in Bodega Bay, California develop thickened shells as phenotypic responses to presence of shell-crushing crabs Cancer antennarius. Bergman et al. 1983 [Photo]

Alia carinata: [behaviour, escape] 1. escape behaviour to attack by sea stars Leptasterias hexactis described. Fishlyn & Phillips 1980 [Photo]

Alia carinata: [photo courtesy] 1. photo courtesy Linda Schroeder, Pacific Northwest Shell Club, Seattle, Washington. Schroeder [Photo]

Alia sp.: [photo courtesy] 1. photo courtesy Linda Schroeder, Pacific Northwest Shell Club, Seattle, Washington. Schroeder [Photo]

Alloniscus perconvexus: [predation] 1. this isopod is preyed upon by rove beetles Thinopinus pictus. Richards 1983 [Photo]

Alloniscus perconvexus: [photo courtesy] 1. photo courtesy Jonathan Wright, Pomona College, California. Wright [Photo]

Alloniscus  perconvexus: [prey] 1. eaten by adult rove beetles Thinopinus pictus. Craig 1970 [Photo]

Alloniscus  perconvexus: [photo courtesy] 1. photo courtesy Jonathan Wright, Pomona College, California. Wright [Photo]

Alpheus bellimanus: [photo courtesy] 1. photo courtesy Kevin Lee, Fullerton, Calfornia. 2. sculpin eats the snapping shrimp. Lee [Photo]

Alpheus californiensis: [defense, snapping] 1. description of snapping defense of a pistol-shrimp. Johnson et al. 1947 [Photo, Drawing]

Alpheus californiensis: [defense, snapping] 1. description of the snapping process in the snapping claw . Ritzmann 1973 [Photo, Drawing]

Alpheus heterochaelis: [defense, snapping] 1. mechanism of snapping in a pistol-shrimp. Versluis et al. 2000 [Photo]

Alpheus heterochaelus: [defense, snapping] 1. larger males have larger claws, with a larger snap, and these tend to get the larger females. Schein 1975 [Photo]

Alvania  compacta: [photo courtesy] 1. photo courtesy Linda Schroeder, Pacific Northwest Shell Club, Seattle, Washington. Schroeder [Photo]

Alvania  spp.: [predation] 1. eaten by cottids Artedius spp. and other fishes. Norton 1988 [Photo]

Americhelidium sp.: [behaviour, tidal rhythm] 1. aspects of tidal rhythms in behaviour. Enright 1963 [Graph]

Americhelidium sp.: [behaviour, pressure] 1. laboratory tests of pressure effects on activity. Enright 1961 [Text only]

Ampelisca agassizi: [predation] 1. description of gray whales preying on subtidal populations. Oliver et al. 1984 [Drawing]

Ampelisca agassizi: [predation] 1. description of gray whales preying on subtidal populations. Oliver et al. 1984 [Drawing]

Ampelisca careyi: [predation] 1. subtidal population preyed on by gray whales. Dunham & Duffus 2002 [Text only]

Ampelisca robustus: [predation] 1. predation by gray whales on subtidal populations of amphipods. Dunham & Duffus 2002 [Text only]

Amphibalanus amphitrite: [physiological ecology, salinity] 1. life in the Salton Sea, California. Raimondi 1992 [Photo, Drawing]

Amphiodia  occidentalis: [gonad index, season] 1. seasonal gonadal indices for 5 species of California ophiuroids. Rumrill & Pearse 1985 [Photo, Graph]

Amphiodia  occidentalis: [development] 1. development egg to juvenile. Emlet 2006 [Photo]

Amphiodia  urtica: [autotomy, defense, predation] 1. description of arm-autotomy and general defense behaviour. [Photo]

Amphiodia  urtica: [photo courtesy] 1. photo courtesy Bill Austin, Khoyotan Marine Laboratory, Victoria. Austin [Photo]

Amphiodia  urtica: [parasitism] 1. copepod Caribeopsyllus amphiodiae inhabits gut. Ho et al. 2003 [Photo, Drawing]

Amphiodia  urtica: [photo courtesy] 1. photo courtesy Bill Austin, Khoyotan Marine Laboratory, Victoria. Austin [Photo]

Amphiolis  squamata: [gonad index, season] 1. seasonal gonadal indices for 5 species of California ophiuroids. Rumrill & Pearse 1985 [Photo, Graph]

Amphipod : [home] 1. introduction to amphipods in home file for amphipod part of the ODYSSEY. [Text only]

Amphipod : [] 1. snail meets amphipod animation. [Animation]

Amphipod : [map] 1. snail's map with amphipod highlighted. [Drawing]

Amphipod : [classification] 1. classification of Order Amphipoda, including amphipods. [Text only]

Amphipod : [vision] 1. function of eyes of amphipods and visual acuity. Hallberg et al. 1980 [Photo, Drawing]

Amphipod : [quiz] 1. quiz on celestial navigation in amphipods. [Text only]

Amphipod : [dispersal] 1. dispersal of adults by rafting on algal mats. Highsmith 1985 [Photo]

Amphipod : [reproduction] 1. description of reproductive events in amphipods. [Text only]

Amphipod : [physiological ecology] 1. description of aspects of an amphipod's physiological ecology. 2. special challenges for life on land. [Text only]

Amphipod : [optimal foraging] 1. critical review of optimal-foraging models. Richards 1983 [Text only]

Amphipod : [reproduction] 1. short overview of amphipod reproduction. [Text only]

Amphipod : [predation] 1. introduction to topic of vertebrate predators of amphipods. [Text only]

Amphipod : [predation] 1. tidepool fishes in southern California feed on amphipods. Mitchell 1953 [Text only]

Amphipod : [predation] 1. shallow-water fishes in Dillon Beach, California prefer diets of amphipods. Grossman 1986 [Text only]

Amphipod : [aposemetism] 1. introduction to aposematism or warning coloration. [Text only]

Amphipod Corophiid: [feeding] 1. general features of a corophiid amphipod. Kozloff 1974 [Drawing]

Amphipod sp.: [camouflage, mimicry] 1. undescribed amphipod may gain protection through camouflage mimicry of its host hydroid Corymorpha. [Photo]

Amphipod spp.: [competition, guild, habitat] 1. habitat competitiveness in an amphipod guild in California. Gunnill 1983 [Photo]

Amphipod spp.: [competition] 1. habitat competitiveness in an amphipod guild in California. Gunnill 1984 [Photo]

Amphipoda : [predator] 1. subyearling chinook salmon Onchorhynchus tshawytscha preferentially eat amphipods as prey. Schabetsberger et al. 2003 [Text only]

Amphissa columbiana: [development] 1. information on torsion in several gastropods, including moon snails Euspira lewisii. Bondar & Page 2003 [Text only]

Amphissa columbiana: [scavenger] 1. listed as a scavenger in dens of octopuses Enteroctopus dolfleini in British Columbia. Hartwick & Thorarinsson 1978 [Photo]

Amphissa columbiana: [behaviour, defense, escape, predation] 1. interesting attack behaviour by the snail to depredatory activities of several sea-star species. Braithwaite et al. 2010 [Drawing]

Amphissa  columbiana: [growth, morph] 1. growth leads to 2 morphs: thin-lipped grows quickly but does not reproduce and thick-lipped that grows slowly and does reproduce. Pernet 2007 [Photo]

Amphissa  columbiana: [behaviour, escape] 1. escape behaviour to attack by sea stars described. Kent 1981 [Photo]

Amphissa  columbiana: [photo courtesy] 1. photo courtesy Linda Schroeder, Pacific Northwest Shell Club, Seattle, Washington. Schroeder [Photo]

Anarrhichthys ocellatus: [predator] 1. in British Columbia eats red urchins Strongylocentrotus franciscanus. [Photo]

Anaspidea : [defense, review, ink] 1. comprehensive review of defenses in sea hares, including ink and opaline secretions. Johnson & Willows 1999 [Drawing]

Anisodoris : [egg, egg masses, size] 1. gives example of number of eggs in a single egg mass. Costello 1938 [Photo]

Anisodoris nobilis: [colour, food, photoreceptor, pigments] 1. colours derived from sponge foods. McBeth 1972 [Photo]

Anisodoris sp.: [egg-laying] 1. gives example of rate of egg deposition. Costello 1938 [Photo]

Anthopleura artemisia: [symbiont, zooxanthella] 1. effect of burial on symbiont presence. Wels et al. 2002 [Photo]

Anthopleura elegantissima: [aggression] 1. description of clonal separation in the lab and fiels. Francis 1973 [Photo, Drawing]

Anthopleura elegantissima: [aggression, acrorhagi] 1. mechanism of clonal segregation involving acrorhagi. 2. description of different attack and defensive structures in sea anemones, including acrorhagi, catch or fighting tentacles, and sweeper tentacles . Francis 1973 [Photo, Drawing]

Anthopleura elegantissima: [aggression] 1. animated 3D video of clonal aggression . [Video]

Anthopleura elegantissima: [aggression] 1. use of warrior polyps in aggression. Ayre & Grosberg 1996 [Photo]

Anthopleura elegantissima: [aggression, warrior polyps] 1. superior versus recessive warrior polyps. Francis 1976 [Drawing]

Anthopleura elegantissima: [clone] 1. size of clones in the field. Sebens 1982 [Photo]

Anthopleura elegantissima: [aggression, heat-shock proteins] 1. levels of Hsp70 in relation to warrior-polyp stress. Rossi & Snyder 2001 [Photo, Graph]

Anthopleura elegantissima: [aggression] 1. interspecific aggression against Corynactis californica. Chadwick 1987 [Drawing]

Anthopleura elegantissima: [reproduction, asexual] 1. description of longitudinal fission, one of 2 types of asexual reproduction found in sea anemones. Ford 1964 [Photo]

Anthopleura elegantissima: [asexual, reproduction] 1. description of longitudinal fission. Francis 1973 [Photo]

Anthopleura elegantissima: [reproduction] 1. 2 types of sexual modes. Francis 1979 [Photo]

Anthopleura elegantissima: [reproduction] 1. 2 types of reproductive modes. Sebens 1983 [Photo]

Anthopleura elegantissima: [reproduction] 1. 2 types of reproductive modes. Smith & Potts 1987 [Photo]

Anthopleura elegantissima: [reproduction] 1. reproductive modes. McFadden et al. 1997 [Photo]

Anthopleura elegantissima: [asexual, reproduction] 1. mechanism of asexual reproduction. Sebens 1980 [Drawing]

Anthopleura elegantissima: [asexual, reproduction] 1. mode of asexual reproduction. Sebens 1983 [Drawing]

Anthopleura elegantissima: [asexual, reproduction] 1. mode of asexual reproduction. Ferrell 2005 [Drawing]

Anthopleura elegantissima: [asexual] 1. scar tissue formed. Sebens 1982 [Photo]

Anthopleura elegantissima: [asexual, reproduction] 1. seasonal rates. Sebens 1983 []

Anthopleura elegantissima: [quiz] 1. quiz on clonal aggregations . [Text only]

Anthopleura elegantissima: [desiccation] 1. attachment of protective debris. Hart & Crowe 1977 [Photo]

Anthopleura elegantissima: [photo courtesy] 1. photo courtesy Dave Cowles, Walla Walla University, Washington. Cowles [Photo]

Anthopleura elegantissima: [physiological ecology] 1. use of adenylate energy charge (AEC) as an indicator of stress. Smith & Watt 1994 [Text only]

Anthopleura elegantissima: [heat-shock proteins, stress] 1. stresses related to tidal exposure reflected in heat-shock protein levels. Snyder & Rossi 2004 [Photo, Graph]

Anthopleura elegantissima: [pheromone] 1. alarm pheromone from damaged conspecific induces withdrawal. Howe & Sheikh 1975 [Photo]

Anthopleura elegantissima: [defense] 1. description of defensive responses to attach by nudibranch predator Aeolidia papillosa. Harris & Howe 1979 [Photo]

Anthopleura elegantissima: [nematocyst] 1. distribution of nematocyst and spirocysts in the body. [Drawing]

Anthopleura elegantissima: [nematocyst] 1. scaling of nematocyst size. Francis 2004 [Graph]

Anthopleura elegantissima: [zooxanthella, zoochlorella] 1. differential distribution of symbionts in cave-inhabiting individuals. Secord & Muller-Parker 2005 [Graph]

Anthopleura elegantissima: [symbiont, zooxanthella] 1. behavioral regulation of light intensity by sea anemones in relation to needs of symbionts. Pearse 1974 [Graph]

Anthopleura elegantissima: [symbiont, zooxanthella] 1. behaviour of host sea anemones in relation to light needs of their symbionts. Fredericks 1976 [Photo]

Anthopleura elegantissima: [symbiont, zooxanthella] 1. behaviour of host sea anemones in relation to light needs of their symbionts. Pearse 1974 [Graph]

Anthopleura elegantissima: [covering response] 1. possible function of gravel covering. Dykens & Shick 1984 [Photo, Graph]

Anthopleura elegantissima: [temperature , zoochlorella, zooxanthella, light] 1. temperature and light effects on growth of symbionts. Saunders & Muller-Parker 1997 [Graph]

Anthopleura elegantissima: [symbiont, zoochlorella, zooxanthella] 1. geographic and microhabitat differences affect symbiont presence or absence in host. Secord & Augustine 2000 [Drawing]

Anthopleura elegantissima: [temperature , zooxanthella] 1. temperature affects species of symbiont in host. Muller-Parker et al. 2007 [Graph]

Anthopleura elegantissima: [predation, symbiont] 1. fate of symbionts after being eaten by predatory sea star Dermasterias. Bachman & Muller-Parker 2007 [Photo, Graph]

Anthopleura elegantissima: [habitat, symbiont] 1. habitat effects on fitness of symbionts. Bates et al. 2010 [Photo]

Anthopleura elegantissima: [energetics, feeding, preferences] 1. comparison of feeding energetics and prey-size selected with other sea anemones Anthopleura xanthogrammica and Metridium senile. Sebens 1981 [Drawing, Graph]

Anthopleura elegantissima: [behaviour, feeding, preferences] 1. feeding behaviour and foods eaten. Sebens 1981 [Photo]

Anthopleura elegantissima: [competition, habitat] 1. effect of removal on other benthic organisms at San Nicolas Island, California. Taylor & Littler 1982 [Photo, Graph]

Anthopleura elegantissima: [habitat] 1. description of study area for sea-anemone removals at San Nicolas Island, California. Littler et al. 1983 [Text only]

Anthopleura elegantissima: [physiology, stress, ultraviolet] 1. UV exposure has no effect on concentration of mycosporine-like amino acids . Stochaj et al. 1994 [Photo]

Anthopleura elegantissima: [oxygen consumption] 1. comparison of oxygen consumption in air and water with a subtidal species Metridium senile. Shick et al. 1979 [Photo, Graph]

Anthopleura elegantissima: [feeding, physiological ecology] 1. effect of intertidal height on feeding rates. Zamer 1986 [Photo, Drawing]

Anthopleura elegantissima: [physiological ecology, energy budget] 1. energy-budget comparisons at different intertidal heights. Zamer & Shick 1987 [Photo, Graph]

Anthopleura elegantissima: [acontia, defense, predator] 1. defends against attack by nudibranch Aeolidia papillosa by extrusion of acontia (mesenterial filaments). Edmunds et al. 1976 [Photo]

Anthopleura elegantissima: [defense, predator] 1. predator/prey relationship with nudibranch Aeolidia papillosa. Waters 1972 [Photo]

Anthopleura elegantissima: [predation] 1. effect of predation by nudibranchs Aeolidia papillosa on population numbers. Sebens 1983 [Photo]

Anthopleura elegantissima: [behaviour, defense] 1. defensive behaviour when attacked by nudibranch Aeolidia papillosa. Edmunds et al. 1976 [Drawing]

Anthopleura elegantissima: [predation, zoochlorella, zooxanthella] 1. fate of symbionts of prey sea anemones when eaten by sculpins Clinocottus globiceps. Augustine & Muller-Parker 1998 [Table of Data]

Anthopleura elegantissima: [reproduction] 1. description of life cycle and planula larva. Schwarz et al. 2002 [Photo]

Anthopleura elegantissima: [reproduction, gonad index] 1. description of sexual reproduction including gonad indices. Ford 1964 [Photo, Graph]

Anthopleura elegantissima: [reproduction] 1. reproductive cycle measured as change in oocyte diameters. Jennison 1979 [Graph]

Anthopleura elegantissima: [reproduction] 1. sexual reproductive cycle measured as tissue-lipid contents. Jennison 1979 [Text only]

Anthopleura elegantissima: [life cycle, settlement] 1. seasonal settlement of larvae; data for A. xanthogrammica also included. Sebens 1982 [Photo, Graph]

Anthopleura elegantissima: [sensory, larva] 1. description of nervous and sensory systems in planula larva. Chia & Koss 1979 [Photo]

Anthopleura elegantissima: [symbiont, photosynthesis] 1. photosynthetic symbionts provide amino acids, glycerol, and glucose to their hosts. Wels et al. 2002 [Photo]

Anthopleura elegantissima: [symbiont, zooxanthella] 1. 2 species of Symbiodinium zooxanthellae described: S. muscatinei and S. californium. LaJeunesse & Trench 2000 [Drawing]

Anthopleura elegantissima: [genetics, symbiont, zooxanthella] 1. 3 genotypes of zooxanthella Symbiodinium muscatinei described. Sanders & Palumbi 2011 [Drawing]

Anthopleura elegantissima: [symbiont, zooxanthella, planula] 1. entry of symbionts via consumption by planula larva. McCloskey et al. 1996 [Photo]

Anthopleura elegantissima: [photosynthesis, symbiont] 1. photosynthate contribution described in 2 papers. Trench 1971 [Text only]

Anthopleura elegantissima: [photo courtesy] 1. photo of Symbiodinium zooxanthellae courtesy Max Taylor, University of British Columbia. Taylor [Photo]

Anthopleura elegantissima: [energetics, physiology, symbiont] 1. energy metabolism of symbionts under different conditions of light and nutrition of the host. Fitt & Pardy 1981 [Text only]

Anthopleura elegantissima: [photosynthesis, symbiont, zooxanthella] 1. contribution of photosynthates from zooxanthellae. Fitt et al. 1982 [Text only]

Anthopleura elegantissima: [photosynthesis, symbiont] 1. photosynthate contribution during shading of host. Shick & Dykens 1984 [Text only]

Anthopleura elegantissima: [photosynthesis, symbiont, zoochlorella, zooxanthella] 1. photosynthate contribution from zooxanthellae and zoochlorellae. Verde & McCloskey 1996 [Text only]

Anthopleura elegantissima: [density, symbiont, zoochlorella, zooxanthella] 1. regulation of densities of symbionts. McCloskey et al. 1996 [Graph]

Anthopleura elegantissima: [photosynthesis, symbiont, zoochlorella, zooxanthella] 1. transfer of photosynthates measured at different temperatures. Engebretson & Muller-Parker 1999 [Graph]

Anthopleura elegantissima: [photosynthesis, symbiont, zoochlorella, zooxanthella] 1. density and photosynthate-transfer measurements. Bergschneider & Muller-Parker 2008 [Text only]

Anthopleura elegantissima: [defense, predation] 1. best defense from predation from the aeolid nudibranch Aeolidia papillosa is to inhabit the intertidal region, especially in areas of rough water. Edmunds 1983 [Photo]

Anthopleura elegantissima: [predation, symbiont, thread] 1. symbionts are sequestered by predatory sea slugs Aeolidia papillosa after eating the anemone and continue to photosynthesise for a time. Seavy & Muller-Parker 2002 [Photo, Graph]

Anthopleura elegantissima: [defense, mucus, nematocyst] 1. mucous from predatory nudibranch Aeolidia papillosa may inhibit both discharge frequency of nematocysts and also their toxicity. Mauch & Elliott 1997 [Photo]

Anthopleura sola: [predator] 1. used in experiments to determine which components of the ink and opaline secretions of sea hares Aplysia californica are aversive to the anemone. Kicklighter & Derby 2006 [Graph]

Anthopleura sp.: [photo courtesy] 1. photo of its zooxanthellae courtesy Max Taylor, University of British Columbia. Taylor [Photo]

Anthopleura spp.: [pheromone, alarm] 1. test of alarm pheromone anthopleurine on withdrawal response in a number of sea anemones. Howe 1976 [Drawing, Table of Data]

Anthopleura spp.: [symbiont] 1. cave-dwelling individuals lack symbionts. [Photo, Text only]

Anthopleura spp.: [growth, density] 1. interspecific densities affect growth. Sebens 1982 [Graph]

Anthopleura spp.: [density, growth] 1. interspecific effects of density on growth. Sebens 1983 [Graph]

Anthopleura spp.: [mycosporine-like amino acids, symbiont, zooxanthella] 1. relationship of zooxanthellae concentration with content of mycosporine-like amino acids. Shick et al. 2002 [Graph]

Anthopleura spp.: [larval dispersal, reproduction] 1. planula larva feeds using sticky thread. 2. information on 2 species A. elegantissima and A. xanthogrammica. Siebert 1974 [Photo]

Anthopleura spp.: [symbiont, zoochlorella, zooxanthella] 1. photosynthetic symbionts impart brownish and greenish colours to their hosts. O'Brien 1978 [Photo]

Anthopleura spp.: [symbiont, zooxanthella] 1. new species of chlorophyte described, present in both species of west-coast Anthopleura. Letsch et al. 2009 [Photo]

Anthopleura spp.: [photosynthesis, symbiont, zoochlorella, zooxanthella] 1. only zooxanthella release photosynthates to host. 2. zoochlorellae parasitic?. Muscatine 1971 []

Anthopleura spp.: [heat-shock proteins, photosynthesis, symbiont, zoochlorella, zooxanthella] 1. carbon translocation from both types of symbionts monitored by radiolabeled carbon. O'Brien 1980 [Photo]

Anthopleura spp.: [toxin, toxicity] 1. comparison of toxicity of aqueous dialysed extracts of several species of west-coast sea anemones to mice. Martin 1963 [Text only]

Anthopleura xanthogrammica: [acrorhagi, aggression] 1. use of acrorhagi in territorial spacing. Bigger 1980 [Drawing]

Anthopleura xanthogrammica: [aggression, habituation] 1. territorial spacing in the field. Seben 1984 [Photo]

Anthopleura xanthogrammica: [defense, swimming] 1. response to contact by predatory nudibranch Aeolidia papillosa. [Drawing]

Anthopleura xanthogrammica: [nematocyst] 1. scaling of nematocyst size. Francis 2004 [Graph]

Anthopleura xanthogrammica: [zooxanthella] 1. high-shore individuals have mostly zooxanthellae. Bates 2000 [Photo, Drawing]

Anthopleura xanthogrammica: [symbiont, zoochlorella, zooxanthella] 1. geographic and microhabitat effects on distribution of symbionts in host. Secord & Augustine 2000 [Drawing]

Anthopleura xanthogrammica: [habitat, symbiont] 1. habitat effects on fitness of symbionts. Bates et al. 2010 [Photo]

Anthopleura xanthogrammica: [behaviour, water flow] 1. comparison of body shape in water currents with the filter-feeding Metridium farcimen. Koehl 1977 [Photo]

Anthopleura xanthogrammica: [water flow] 1. video of sea anemone in surge channel. [Video]

Anthopleura xanthogrammica: [energetics, feeding, preferences] 1. comparison feeding energetics and prey-size selected with other sea anemones Anthopleura elegantissima and Metridium farcimen. Sebens 1981 [Drawing, Graph]

Anthopleura xanthogrammica: [food, preferences] 1. foods eaten in tidepools and surge channels. Sebens 1981 [Photo]

Anthopleura xanthogrammica: [habitat, preferences] 1. habitat specialisation comparison with Metridium farcimen. Koehl 1977 [Drawing, Graph]

Anthopleura xanthogrammica: [habitat, preferences] 1. habitat specialisation of sea anemones. Koehl 1977 [Graph]

Anthopleura xanthogrammica: [aggression, intraspecific] 1. juveniles find refuge in mussel beds. Sebens 1981 [Photo]

Anthopleura xanthogrammica: [habitat, recruitment] 1. effects on population of harvesting individuals for anthopleurin polypeptides in certain habitats on the Oregon coast. Batchelder & Gonor 1981 [Photo]

Anthopleura xanthogrammica: [photo courtesy] 1. photo courtesy Dave Cowles, Walla Walla University, Washington. Cowles [Photo]

Anthopleura xanthogrammica: [gonad index, reproduction] 1. comparison of seasonal gonad indices with A. elegantissima. Sebens 1981 [Photo, Graph]

Anthopleura xanthogrammica: [symbiont, zoochlorella] 1. update on the phylogenetic status of its symbionts. Lewis & Muller-Parker 2004 [Photo]

Anthopleura xanthogrammica: [symbiont, temperature , zoochlorella, zooxanthella] 1. temperature effects on growth and expulsion of symbionts. O'Brian & Wyttenbach 1980 [Graph]

Anthopleura xanthogrammica: [predator] 1. prey on sea hares Aplysia californica, but leave the digestive glands undigested because of their content of secondary metabolites. Winkler & Tilton 1962 [Photo]

Anthopleura xanthogrammica: [community, effects, predator] 1. large, comprehensive study on the effect of predation by whelks Nucella canaliculata and N. ostrina on community structure including 6 prey barnacle and mussel species, and a sea-anemone species. Navarrete 1996 [Graph]

Anthopleura  elegantissima: [mycosporine-like amino acids, physiological ecology, symbiont] 1. comparison of MAA protection conferred in individuals with and without symbionts. Banaszak & Trench 1995 [Graph]

Anthopleura  elegantissima: [animation] 1. animation of one polyp attacking another courtesy Cindy Young, University of British Columbia. Young [Animation]

Anthopleura  elegantissima: [acrorhagi, aggression] 1. description of clonal formation and composition. Francis 1988 [Photo, Drawing]

Anthopleura  elegantissima: [abundance, distribution, habitat, season, symbiont, tidal level] 1. factors affecting seasonal intertidal distributions and abundances of symbionts . Dimond et al. 2011 [Drawing]

Anthopleura  elegantissima: [aggregation, desiccation, intertidal level, temperature stress] 1. comparison of temperature and water loss in solitary versus aggregated individuals. Bingham et al. 2011 [Photo, Graph]

Anthopleura  spp.: [growth, symbiont, temperature , temperature stress] 1. inability of their algal symbionts to grow at low temperatures may be the chief factor limiting the distribution of the symbionts to southern California. McBride et al. 2009 [Graph]

Anthopleura  xanthogrammica: [predator] 1. has a crab Pugettia sp. caught in its tentacles. [Photo]

Anthopleura  xanthogrammica: [energy budget, symbiont, zoochlorella, zooxanthella] 1. greater energy contribution from zoochlorellae than from mussel food. Levine & Muller-Parker 2012 [Photo]

Anthopleura  xanthogrammica: [predator, pyloric cecum] 1. interesting photograph of an individual engulfing a cluster of tubeworms Eudistylia vancouveri, in a tidepool. 2. photo courtesy Dave Cowles, Walla Walla University, Washington. Cowles [Photo]

Anthopleura  elegantissima: [stimulus] 1. mucus involvement in nematocyst discharge. Ertman & Davenport 1981 [Table of Data]

Anthopleura  elegantissima: [acrorhagi, aggression, behaviour, clone, polyp] 1. the authors distinguish 5 polyp types that they call castes. Ayre & Grosberg 2005 [Photo, Graph]

Aphrocallistes vastus: [signalling, stimulus, water flow] 1. mechanical stimulus will stop water flow through propagation of electrical signal through the syncytial layers. 2. sensitivity to sediment content of water. Tompkins-MacDonald & Leys 2008 [Photo, Graph]

Aphrocallistes vastus: [feeding, technique] 1. remote underwater vehicle used for study of in situ feeding. 2. primary food is bacteria, of which about 80% is removed on passage of water through the sponge. Yahel et al. 2007 [Graph]

Aphrocallistes vastus: [feeding] 1. some protists also eaten along with bacteria. 2. in situ studies using submersible ROV. Yahel et al. 2007 [Drawing, Graph]

Aphrocallistes vastus: [feeding, selectivity] 1. sponge has ability to select edible particles, such as bacteria, over "debris" particles that are expelled in exhalent streams. Yahel et al. 2006 [Photo]

Aphrocallistes vastus: [habitat, technique, glass-sponge reefs] 1. survey of hexactinellid-sponge distributions in British Columbia using submersible Pisces. 2. highest abundances are associated with high levels of dissolved silicate, low light, high levels of oxygen, temperatures of 9-10C, and low levels of suspended sediments. Leys et al. 2004 [Photo, Graph]

Aphrocallistes vastus: [photo courtesy] 1. photos of glass-reef sponges courtesy Sally Leys, University of Alberta, Edmonton and the Department of Fisheries & Oceans, Canada. Leys [Photo]

Aphrocallistes vastus: [photo courtesy] 1. photos and drawings courtesy Kim Conway, Geological Survey of Canada, Canadian Hydrographic Service, and Environment Canada. Conway [Photo, Drawing]

Aphrocallistes vastus: [habitat] 1. glass-sponge reefs provide protective habitat for many species of fishes and invertebrates. Marliave et al. 2009 [Photo, Graph]

Aphrocallistes vastus: [distribution, glass-sponge reefs] 1. brilliantly illustrated study of distribution in reefs in the Strait of Georgia. 2. 2 species, A. vastus and Heterochone calyx comprise the bulk of the reefs in the Strait of Georgia. Chu & Leys 2010 [Photo, Drawing]

Aphrocallistes vastus: [predation] 1. in the Strait of Georgia, British Columbia this deep-water glass sponge is eaten by nudibranchs Peltodoris lentignosa and Doris odhneri. Chu & Leys 2012 [Photo]

Aplysia brasiliana: [photo courtesy] 1. photo courtesy Steve Pennings, University of Houston, Texas. Pennings [Photo]

Aplysia californica: [aggregation, breeding] 1. rhinophores and tentacles may be sensitive to odours of conspecifics. 2. location of breeding partners and formation of breeding aggregations. Audesirk & Audesirk 1977 [Photo]

Aplysia californica: [aggregation, breeding, chemical, pheromone] 1. chemical pheromones aid in formation of breeding aggregations in Catalina Island. Audesirk & Audesirk 1977 [Text only]

Aplysia californica: [copulation, reproduction, season] 1. in Catalina Island adults aggregate in summer, copulate July-August and die in autumn. Audesirk 1979 [Graph]

Aplysia californica: [aggregation, breeding, sexual roles] 1. much information about breeding aggregations and copulatory roles. 2. copulatory chains formed of up to 6 individuals. Pennings 1991 [Graph]

Aplysia californica: [copulation, reproduction, saponin, sexual roles] 1. sexual roles and identification of paternity alleles in eggs. Angeloni 2003 [Graph]

Aplysia californica: [copulation, reproduction, spawning, sperm] 1. number of eggs fertilised from a single copulatory event. Ludwig & Walsh 2004 [Photo]

Aplysia californica: [attractant, chemical, pheromone, sexual] 1. sexual-attractant pheromones released from egg masses. 2. pheromone known as attractin. Cummins et al. 2004 [Text only]

Aplysia californica: [mating, reproduction, sexual roles] 1. reproductive fitness in simultaneous hermaphrodites. Ludwig & Walsh 2008 [Text only]

Aplysia californica: [photo courtesy] 1. photo courtesy Kevin Lee, Fullerton, California. Lee [Photo]

Aplysia californica: [behaviour, habituation] 1. individuals living in rough-water conditions habituate to these turbulent environments. Carew & Kupfermann 1974 [Graph]

Aplysia californica: [aesthetasc, behaviour, defense] 1. common defensive behaviour is head/siphon withdrawal to physical stimuli. Leonard & Lukowiak 1986 [Photo]

Aplysia californica: [egg-laying, hormone, neurosecretion, reproduction, stimulus] 1. research on egg-laying stimulatory neurosecretions. Arch & Smock 1977 [Photo]

Aplysia californica: [photo courtesy] 1. photo courtesy Kevin Lee, Fullerton, California. Lee [Photo]

Aplysia californica: [egg, egg capsule, reproduction] 1. number of eggs per capsule relates to body mass. Kandel & Capo 1979 [Drawing]

Aplysia californica: [drawing courtesy] 1. drawing courtesy Kriegstein and colleagues, New York. Kriegstein et al. 1974 [Drawing]

Aplysia californica: [egg-laying, fecundity] 1. interesting details of egg production in southern California. MacGinitie 1934 [Text only]

Aplysia californica: [life cycle, metamorphosis, reproduction] 1. first description of development through metamorphosis in an opisthobranch. Kriegstein 1977 [Drawing, Graph]

Aplysia californica: [colour, herbivory, pigments] 1. algal pigments derived from food thought to create different skin colours. Winkler 1959 [Photo]

Aplysia californica: [photo courtesy] 1. photo courtesy Kevin Lee, Fullerton, California. Lee [Photo]

Aplysia californica: [competition, food] 1. eat a variety of red algae. 2. no evidence of competition with congenor Aplysia vaccaria that eats mainly brown alga Egregia sp.. Winkler & Dawson 1963 [Text only]

Aplysia californica: [food, perception] 1. food-sensing from a distance done via receptors in the anterior tentacular groove area of the oral veil. Jahan-Parwar 1972 [Photo]

Aplysia californica: [food, perception] 1. determine sensitivity of various body parts to food stimulation. Preston & Lee 1973 [Drawing]

Aplysia californica: [food, perception] 1. excises portions of rhinophores and tentacles to determine roles in distance location of food. Audesirk 1975 [Drawing]

Aplysia californica: [growth] 1. growth on diets of red algae in Santa Catalina Island, California. Audesirk 1979 [Graph]

Aplysia californica: [growth] 1. of a variety of algae tested, growth is best on red alga Plocamium cartilagineum. Pennings 1990 [Graph]

Aplysia californica: [food, ontogenetic shift, preferences] 1. investigates ontogenetic change in food preferences. Pennings 1990 [Photo, Graph]

Aplysia californica: [photo courtesy] 1. photo courtesy Kevin Lee, Fullerton, California. Lee [Photo]

Aplysia californica: [food, preferences] 1. use of "natural abundance ratio" or isotopic ratios in food algae and body tissues to determine food preferences. Korb 2003 [Graph]

Aplysia californica: [predation] 1. in Santa Catalina Island, California is eaten by Navanax inermis, but only at small sizes. Pennings 1990 [Graph]

Aplysia californica: [growth, larva] 1. experiments on effects of food concentration and rearing density on growth of larvae. Capo et al. 2008 [Graph]

Aplysia californica: [diet, ink] 1. aspects of ink metabolism including pigment transfer from red-algal foods to the egg mass. Chapman & Fox 1969 [Text only]

Aplysia californica: [ink] 1. terms used to describe the ink components, including a couple that appear not to enjoy current usage. Winkler 1959 [Text only]

Aplysia californica: [ink] 1. factors involved in ink release. Carew & Kandel 1976 [Photo, Graph]

Aplysia californica: [ink] 1. factors involved with ink release. Carew & Kandel 1973 [Photo, Graph]

Aplysia californica: [behaviour, defense, ink] 1. nice description of locations of ink and opaline glands in the mantle-cavity area. 2. describe behaviour following electrical shocks to tail and head. Walters & Erickson 1986 [Photo, Drawing]

Aplysia californica: [defense, ink, predation] 1. nice photo sequence showing no release of ink by a sea hare being consumed by a predatory Navanax inermis. Leonard & Lukowiak 1986 [Photo]

Aplysia californica: [defense, ink] 1. experiments relating to possible defensive functions of ink. Nolen et al. 1995 [Photo, Graph]

Aplysia californica: [ink] 1. detailed study on processing, storage, and secretion of ink. Prince et al. 1998 [Drawing]

Aplysia californica: [ink] 1. details of dietarily derived phycoerythrins in the digestive gland. Coelho et al. 1998 [Drawing]

Aplysia californica: [defense, ink] 1. apparent defensive use of both ink and opaline secretions in defense against predation by spiny lobsters Panulirus interruptus. Kicklighter et al. 2005 [Photo, Graph]

Aplysia californica: [chemical, defense, review] 1. review of chemical defenses in marine molluscs, including sea hares, and other animals. Derby & Aggio 2011 [Text only]

Aplysia californica: [photo courtesy] 1. photo courtesy Genevieve Anderson, Santa Barbara Community College, California. Anderson [Photo]

Aplysia californica: [chemical, defense, ink, aversive] 1. experiments to determine which chemical components of ink and opaline secretions are aversive to sea anemones Anthopleura sola. Kicklighter & Derby 2006 [Graph]

Aplysia californica: [defense, ink] 1. detailed descriptions of the chemical makeup of ink and opaline secretions and how they exert their defensive functions. 2. propose chemical interactions between ink and opaline secretions. Johnson et al. 2006 [Text only]

Aplysia californica: [development, metamorphosis, reproduction] 1. first successful rearing of a marine gastropod with long-duration planktotrophic development. 2. this pioneering work enabled the establishment of a mass-rearing culture facility in Florida for provision of research animals for neuroscience research. Kriegstein et al. 1974 [Drawing]

Aplysia californica: [larva, settlement] 1. in Santa Catalina Island there are 2 settlement pulses, one in Jan-Feb; the other, Jun-Sept. Pennings 1991 [Photo]

Aplysia californica: [photo courtesy] 1. photo courtesy Kevin Lee, Fullerton, California. Lee [Photo]

Aplysia californica: [defense, secondary metabolite] 1. powerful cholinergic toxins may be present in the digestive glands. 2. sea anemones feeding on A. californica leave the digestive glands undigested. Winkler & Tilton 1962 [Photo]

Aplysia californica: [defense, secondary metabolite, slope] 1. digestive-gland toxins deter predation by sea anemones Anthopleura xanthogrammica. Winkler 1961 [Photo]

Aplysia californica: [photo courtesy] 1. photo courtesy Kevin Lee, Fullerton, California. Lee [Photo]

Aplysia californica: [defense, secondary metabolite] 1. analyses digestive-gland tissues for brominated and lipid compounds. Winkler 1968 [Graph]

Aplysia californica: [defense, secondary metabolite] 1. analyses red algal foods for the brominated compounds found in digestive glands of sea hares. Darling & Cosgrove 1965 [Graph]

Aplysia californica: [defense, secondary metabolite] 1. halogenated natural products from red-algal foods stored in digestive gland. []

Aplysia californica: [defense, secondary metabolite] 1. chemicals from red-algal diets are both stored in the digestive gland and transformed there. Stallard & Faulkner 1974 [Text only]

Aplysia californica: [defense, secondary metabolite] 1. sequestered secondary metabolites are stored almost exclusively in digestive gland, and not in skin, ink, or eggs. 2. 3 anaspid species used in the study. Pennings & Paul 1993 [Text only]

Aplysia californica: [inducer, metamorphosis, settlement] 1. numerous algal species found to induce settlement and metamorphosis. Pawlik 1989 [Graph]

Aplysia californica: [crawling, defense] 1. crawl away from aversive stimuli. Walters & Erickson 1986 [Drawing]

Aplysia californica: [crawling, defense] 1. crawls or gallops away from aversive stimuli. Leonard & Lukowiak 1986 [Photo]

Aplysia californica: [behaviour, feeding, learning] 1. early demonstration of learning behaviour, involving learned avoidance of a glass rod and memory of this for up to 9d. Lickey & Berry 1966 [Text only]

Aplysia californica: [balance, gravity, statocyst, survival] 1. change in statocyst morphology during development from larva to adult. Wiederhold et al. 1990 [Drawing, Graph]

Aplysia californica: [age, shell, size] 1. good correlation found between shell length and age for animals in laboratory culture. Peretz & Adkins 1982 [Graph]

Aplysia californica: [age, survival] 1. interesting consideration of senescence and aging in a laboratory population. 2. absence of relevant data nullifies conclusion. Hirsch & Peretz 1984 [Graph]

Aplysia californica: [age, behaviour, habituation, learning, sensitisation] 1. effect of age on abilities to habituate, sensitise, and retain. Bailey et al. 1983 [Graph]

Aplysia californica: [secondary metabolite, skin, palatability] 1. skin extracts are less palatable to a hermit crab than those of the anaspid Phyllaplysia taylori. Takagi et al. 2010 [Graph]

Aplysia californica: [growth, nutrition] 1. growth enhanced on seaweed diets enriched with nitrogen. Barile et al. 2004 [Graph]

Aplysia californica: [defense, escape, pheromone] 1. alarm pheromones identified in ink and opaline secretions. Kicklighter et al. 2007 [Graph]

Aplysia californica: [behaviour, learning, sensitisation] 1. an attack by a lobster Panulirus interruptus mimics a strong electrical shock in its effect on sensitising the head/siphon-withdrawal response in sea hares. Watkins et al. 2010 [Text only]

Aplysia californica: [ink, phagomimicry] 1. acidity of ink and opaline secretions enhances their phagomimetic activity against predatory lobsters. Shabani et al. 2007 [Photo]

Aplysia californica: [defense, ink] 1. components of ink and opaline secretions interfere with gustatory senses of catfishes Ariopsis felis. Nusnbaum et al. 2012 [Photo]

Aplysia californica: [colour, skin] 1. identify two main types of cells in the skin that produce body colours. Prince & Young 2010 [Photo]

Aplysia californica: [exretory, skin] 1. describe possible function for unique calcium-containing cells making up the white patches on the skin. Prince et al. 2006 [Photo]

Aplysia californica: [aging, culture, growth, temperature ] 1. growth, aging, and reproductive statistics for lab-cultured animals at different temperatures. Stommes et al. 2005 [Graph]

Aplysia californica: [egg-laying, growth, maturation, survival] 1. reference only to effects of stocking density on life-history characteristics of individuals in laboratory culture. Capo et al. 2002 [Text only]

Aplysia californica: [egg-laying, growth, maturation, survival] 1. reference only to effects of stocking density on life-history characteristics of individuals in laboratory culture. Capo et al. 2003 [Text only]

Aplysia californica: [egg, production, reproduction] 1. comparison of egg production in offspring from 3 different wild-caught adults. Gerdes & Fieber 2006 [Graph]

Aplysia spp.: [development] 1. mechanism of torsion in sea hares Aplysia and littorinid snails. Thompson 1967 [Drawing]

Aplysia spp.: [egg-laying, neurosecretion] 1. egg-laying neurosecretory peptides are similar in structure and function in all west-coast sea hares, including Phyllaplysia taylori. Li et al. 1999 [Photo]

Aplysia spp.: [aggregation, breeding, pheromone] 1. despite differences in sequencing, the pheromonal "attractins" of west-coast aplysiids are mutually attractive, and common breeding aggregations occur. Painter et al. 2004 [Text only]

Aplysia spp.: [copulation, mating, pheromone] 1. identify key heptapeptide in the chemical makeup of Aplysia attractin pheromone, that is conserved in several species. 2. create a synthetic attractin that works effectively on Aplysia brasiliana as a mate attractant. Cummins et al. 2004 [Photo]

Aplysia vaccaria: [mating, movement, reproduction, sexual roles] 1. body size in relation to sexual role during copulation. Angeloni & Bradbury 2010 [Drawing]

Aplysia vaccaria: [competition, food] 1. specialises on brown alga Egregia sp.; hence, little chance of competition with the red algae-eating Aplysia californica. Winkler & Dawson 1963 [Text only]

Aplysia vaccaria: [age, life span] 1. life span of 1yr. 2. use transponders to monitor movements and growth. Angeloni et al. 1999 [Drawing]

Aplysia vaccaria: [gas exchange, parasitism, physiology] 1. description of gas exchange. 2. parasitic crabs Opisthopus transverses found in mantle cavity. Beonde 1968 [Drawing]

Aplysia vaccaria: [behaviour, feeding, learning] 1. early demonstration of learned behaviour involving rejection of metal forceps and memory retention for 4d. Lickey 1968 [Text only]

Aplysia vaccaria: [digestion] 1. identify cellulase activity in crop fluids. Koningsor & Hunsaker 1971 [Drawing]

Aplysia vaccaria: [predation] 1. in the Gulf of California are eaten by green turtles Chelonia mydas. Seminoff et al. 2002 [Text only]

Aplysia  californica: [behaviour, exploitative, feeding] 1. early study on behaviour of sea hares in California. Kupfermann & Carew 1974 [Photo]

Aplysilla glacialis: [predation, secondary metabolite] 1. eaten by dorid nudibranch Cadlina luteomarginata. 2. source of potentially defensive terpenoid metabolites for the dorid. Tischler & Andersen 1989 [Text only]

Aplysina fistularis: [chemical, defense] 1. extracts cause aversive reaction in several invertebrates, including limpets and sea stars, but are not toxic to certain nudibranchs known to eat sponges. 2. active substances are named aerothionin and homoairothionin. Thompson 1985 [Photo]

Aplysiopsis enteromorphae: [behaviour, feeding] 1. slices open algal cell with single radula tooth, sucks out contents. 2. in San Juan Islands, Washington favoured food is red alga Rhizoclonium. Gonor 1961 [Drawing]

Aplysiopsis enteromorphae: [behaviour, feeding] 1. aspects of feeding behaviour with Alderia modesta in Oregon tidepools. Trowbridge 1993 [Photo, Drawing]

Aplysiopsis enteromorphae: [development, egg masses, shell, veliger] 1. description of egg masses and veliger shells of 3 species of sacoglossan opisthobranchs also including Elysia hedgpethi and Placida dendritica. Greene 1968 [Photo, Drawing]

Aporobopyrus muguensis: [branchial chamber, parasitism] 1. deleterious effects on its host crab Pachycheles rudis. Van Wyk 1982 [Graph]

Architeuthis spp.: [predation] 1. beaks found in stomachs of harvested sperm whales Physter macrocephalus at California whaling stations in the 1960s. Fiscus & Rice 1974 [Text only]

Arctonoe fragilis: [photo courtesy] 1. photo courtesy Dave Cowles, Walla Walla University, Washington. 2. the worm is crawling on the arm of a sea star Orthasterias koehleri. Cowles [Photo]

Arctonoe fragilis: [symbiont] 1. Y-tube experiments on specificity of host sea star Evasterias troschelii. Davenport & Hickok 1951 [Photo]

Arctonoe fragilis: [photo courtesy] 1. photo of worm with host sea star Evasterias troschelii courtesy Dave Cowles, Walla Walla University, Washington. Cowles [Photo]

Arctonoe pulchra: [host, symbiont] 1. tests of host/symbiont specificity using a Y-tube device. 2. hosts include sea cucumbers, sea stars, and limpets. Dimock & Davenport 1971 [Photo]

Arctonoe pulchra: [photo courtesy] 1. photo courtesy Dave Cowles, Walla Walla University, Washington. Cowles [Photo]

Arctonoe spp.: [fertilisation, reproduction, gamete] 1. tests of gamete incompatibility within 3 species of Arctonoe, fragilis, pulchra, and vittata. 2. A. vittata eggs are the only ones readily fertilised by the other 2 species. Pernet 1999 [Photo, Graph]

Arctonoe spp.: [photo courtesy] 1. photographs of Arctonoe vittata and A. pulchra courtesy Dave Cowles, Walla Walla University, Washington. Cowles [Photo]

Arctonoe spp.: [development, reproduction] 1. the 3 species of Arctonoe: vittata, pulchra, and fragilis have similar patterns of development. Pernet 2000 [Photo, Drawing]

Arctonoe spp.: [symbiont] 1. Y-tube tests on specificity of hosts. Davenport 1950 [Drawing]

Arctonoe spp.: [commensalism, parasitism, symbiont] 1. comments on whether the symbionts are commensals or parasites. Pernet 1999 [Text only]

Arctonoe spp.: [gas exchange, saponin] 1. effect on gas exchange of saponins from the skin of host sea stars Evasterias troschelii. Patterson et al. 1978 [Photo, Graph]

Arctonoe spp.: [symbiont] 1. overview of 3 British Columbia species. Lambert 1981 [Text only]

Arctonoe vittata: [attractant, symbiont] 1. symbiotic scaleworm on gumboot chitons Cryptochiton stelleri. Webster 1968 [Photo]

Arctonoe vittata: [defense, symbiont] 1. is known to inhabit the mantle cavity of keyhole limpets and come out to bite at the tube feet of attacking sea stars. 2. parasite or mutual?. [Photo]

Arctonoe vittata: [defense, symbiont] 1. possible first description of its unusual behaviour in attacking sea stars that are attacking its host keyhole limpet Diodora aspera. Dimock & Dimock 1969 [Photo]

Arctonoe vittata: [host] 1. experiments to determine how the scaleworm seeks out and finds its host keyhole limpet Diodora aspera. 2. antennae seem to be most important. Gerber & Stout 1968 [Drawing, Table of Data]

Arctonoe vittata: [feeding, food, larva] 1. experiments on mode of particle-feeding by larvae. Phillips & Pernet 1996 [Photo, Drawing]

Arctonoe vittata: [photo courtesy] 1. photo courtesy Dave Cowles, Walla Walla University, Washington. 2. the worm is crawling on the arm of a sea star Solaster stimpsoni. Cowles [Photo]

Arctonoe vittata: [photo courtesy] 1. photo of it withing the mantle cavity of a keyhole limpet Diodora aspera courtesy Dave Cowles, Walla Walla University, Washington. Cowles [Photo]

Arctonoe vittata: [photo courtesy] 1. drawing of head showing sensory devices courtesy Pettibone 1953 Some scale-bearing polychaetes of Puget Sound and adjacent waters. U Washington Press, Seattle. Pettibone 1953 [Drawing]

Arctonoe vittata: [symbiont] 1. suggest that individual worms may become conditioned to certain specific host sea stars. Hickok & Davenport 1957 [Photo]

Arctonoe vittata: [locomotion] 1. worm crawls on its host sea star Dermasterias imbricata. [Video]

Arctonoe vittata: [photo courtesy] 1. photo courtesy Dave Cowles, Walla Walla University, Washington. Cowles [Photo]

Arctonoe vittata: [host, preferences, symbiont] 1. symbiotic with at least 9 species of west-coast asteroids. 2. tests of host preferences in Y-tubes, most notably, with leather stars Dermasterias imbricata . Wagner et al. 1979 [Photo]

Arctonoe vittata: [photo courtesy] 1. photo courtesy Dave Cowles, Walla Walla University, Washington. Cowles [Photo]

Argeia pugettensis: [parasitism] 1. describe its effects in bay shrimps Lissocrangon stylirostris in Coos Bay, Oregon. 2. inhabits gill chambers of the shrimps, usually only one per host. Jarrin & Shanks 2008 [Text only]

Ariopsis felils: [predator] 1. components of ink and opaline secretions of sea hares Aplysia californica interfere with gustatory senses of predatory catfishes Ariopsis felis. Nusnbaum et al. 2012 [Photo]

Armadillidium vulgare: [predation] 1. fall into streams in the Big Sur and are eaten by salmon. Rundio & Lindley 2008 [Photo]

Armadillidium vulgare: [colonisation of land, marsupium] 1. description of a "closed"-type marsupium. [Photo]

Armina californianus: [diet, predation] 1. one of its dietary items are sea pansies Renilla amethystina. Kastendiek 1976 [Photo, Graph]

Armina californica: [feeding, predator] 1. diet not well known, but may include sea pens Ptilosarcus guernyi. [Photo]

Armina californica: [photo courtesy] 1. photo courtesy Kevin Lee, Fullerton, California. Lee [Photo]

Artedius harringtoni: [morphology, mouth] 1. explanation of mouth morphology enabling the crushing of shells of snail prey. Norton 1988 [Photo]

Asbestopluma monticola: [carnivore, predator, prey] 1. description of of deep-sea glass sponge thought to be carnivorous. Lundsten et al. 2014 [Photo]

Asbestopluma monticola: [photo courtesy] 1. photos courtesy Monterey Bay Aquarium Research Institute, pilots of the deep-sea ROVs Doc Ricketts, crews of the surface support vessels Western Flyer and Rachel Carson, and the Magnolia Press. Lundsten et al. 2014 [Photo]

Ascidia callosa: [juvenile, settlement, survival] 1. large comparative study comparing post-settlement survival of juveniles in light vs. shade in shallow vs. deeper areas in 6 species. 2. in general, survival better in shade in shallow water conditions. Young & Chia 1984 [Graph]

Ascidia paratropa: [feeding, functional morphology, mucus] 1. description and photograph of mucous net used in sieving food from water flowing through the branchial basket. Pennachetti 1984 [Photo]

Ascidia paratropa: [juvenile, settlement, survival] 1. large comparative study comparing post-settlement survival of juveniles in light vs. shade in shallow vs. deeper areas in 6 species. 2. in general, survival better in shade in shallow water conditions. Young & Chia 1984 [Graph]

Ascoglossa : [review] 1. review of feeding habits of many of the 25 species of west-coast ascoglossans. Trowbridge 2002 [Photo, Drawing]

Ascoglossa : [feeding, review] 1. reference to review of feeding of ascoglossans on Codium spp. in 3 world locations. Trowbridge 1998 [Photo, Graph]

Asterias amurensis: [righting] 1. photo series of an individual righting itself. Polls & Gonor 1975 [Photo]

Asterias amurensis: [photo courtesy] 1. photo series courtesy Wu and colleagues, China Agricultural University, Beijing. Wu et al. 2000 [Photo]

Astraea gibberosa: [parasitism] 1. bearing a single parasitic tubeworm Spirorbis sp.. Kuris & Culver 1999 [Photo]

Astrangia lajollaensis: [competition, interspecific] 1. competitively dominant over cup corals Balanophyllia elegans. Chadwick 1991 [Photo, Graph]

Astropecten armatus: [] 1. one dietary item is the sea pansy Renilla amethystina. Kastendiek 1976 [Photo, Graph]

Aurelia aurita: [carnivore, food] 1. all life stages eat larval herring Clupea harangus pallasi. 2. species likely to have actually been Aurelia labiata. Arai & Hay 1982 [Drawing]

Aurelia aurita: [feeding, swimming] 1. describes swimming and possible feeding mechanisms. 2. data applicable to the west-coast species Aurelia labiata. Costello & Colin 1994 [Drawing]

Aurelia aurita: [food, preferences] 1. dietary preferences of juveniles and adults. 2. preference of larger medusae for barnacle nauplii and hydromedusae. Sullivan et al. 1994 [Photo]

Aurelia aurita: [age, food, growth] 1. growth of ephyrae can reach 35% per day in early life. Bamstedt et al. 1999 [Photo]

Aurelia aurita: [food] 1. describes diet of young ephyae. 2. study done in Norway. Bamstedt et al. 2001 [Text only]

Aurelia aurita: [DOM, nutrition] 1. scyphistomae are able to take up dissolved amino acids. 2. work done in Corpus Christi, Texas. Shick 1973 [Text only]

Aurelia aurita: [DOM, nutrition] 1. scyphistoma polyps utilise dissolved organic matter for nutrition. 2. work done in Corpus Christi, Texas. Shick 1975 [Text only]

Aurelia aurita: [buoyancy] 1. possible exclusion of heavy sulphate ions to increase buoyancy. Bidigare & BIggs 1980 [Photo]

Aurelia aurita: [swimming, symbiont, velocity] 1. description of swimming mode. Costello & Colin 1994 [Photo]

Aurelia aurita: [behaviour, diel, swimming] 1. proposed orientation to sun. Hamner et al. 1994 [Drawing, Graph]

Aurelia aurita: [development, life cycle] 1. description of strobilation in the European Aurelia aurita. Percival 1923 [Photo, Drawing]

Aurelia aurita: [development, growth] 1. growth of medusae to adult (40mm dia) in 40d in the Gulf of Mexico. Spangenberg 1965 [Photo]

Aurelia aurita: [asexual, budding, reproduction] 1. conditions favouring budding of scyphistoma polyps in Virginia. Coyne 1973 [Graph]

Aurelia aurita: [larva, reproduction, settlement] 1. settlement of planula larvae. Brewer 1978 [Text only]

Aurelia aurita: [budding, density, reproduction, starvation, temperature ] 1. effects of density, temperature, and starvation on budding frequency. Coyne 1973 [Graph]

Aurelia labiata: [life cycle, reproduction] 1. generalised life cycle of a jellyfish. Lucas 2001 [Photo, Drawing]

Aurelia labiata: [food] 1. studies on importance of jellyfish predation on fish larvae. 2. experiments done in Scotland. Bailey & Batty 1983 [Graph]

Aurelia labiata: [carnivore, food] 1. importance of jellyfish predation on fish larvae. Bailey & Batty 1984 [Graph]

Aurelia labiata: [prey] 1. eaten by jellyfish Phacellophora camtschatica. Strand & Hamner 1988 [Photo]

Aurelia labiata: [swimming] 1. video of swimming individual. [Video]

Aurelia labiata: [diet] 1. summer diet in Alaska is primarily copepods. Purcell & Sturdevant 2001 [Photo, Graph]

Aurelia labiata: [diet] 1. diet in Alaska. 2. some dietary overlap with commercial fishes. Purcell 2003 [Photo]

Aurelia labiata: [growth] 1. experiments on optimal temperature for growth. 2. done at the Monterey Bay Aquarium. Widmer 2005 [Photo]

Aurelia labiata: [] 1. diets in Oregon mainly euphausid eggs and larvae. 2. some overlap with diets of fishes and Chrysaora fuscescens. Brodeur et al. 2008 [Graph]

Aurelia labiata: [diet] 1. adults in Oregon opportunistically prey on a variety of planktonic animals. Suchman et al. 2008 [Photo]

Aurelia labiata: [swimming] 1. video of many individuals swimming. [Video]

Aurelia labiata: [aggregation, behaviour, swimming] 1. details of aggregated swimming behaviour. Purcell et al. 2000 [Photo]

Aurelia labiata: [behaviour, swimming] 1. observations on different behaviours exhibited during swimming. Albert 2008 [Photo, Graph]

Aurelia labiata: [photo courtesy] 1. photo courtesy Eric Broberg, British Columbia. Broberg [Photo]

Aurelia labiata: [behaviour, swimming] 1. observations of field behaviour during swimming. Albert 2012 [Text only]

Aurelia labiata: [behaviour, neural] 1. imaginative descriptions of neural capabilities. Albert 2011 [Text only]

Aurelia labiata: [life cycle, reproduction] 1. generalised life cycle as in other species. Grondahl 1988 [Photo, Drawing]

Aurelia labiata: [asexual, reproduction, budding] 1. description of budding in the scyphistoma (polyp) stage. Gilchrist 1937 [Drawing]

Aurelia labiata: [life cycle, reproduction] 1. studies in Roscoe Bay, British Columbia. Albert 2005 [Text only]

Aurelia labiata: [behaviour, reproduction] 1. behaviour favourable to reproduction. Albert 2007 [Drawing]

Aurelia labiata: [development, growth, reproduction] 1. laboratory study of conditions favourable for production of buds and ephyrae. Purcell 2007 [Photo, Graph]

Aurelia labiata: [asexual, reproduction] 1. field study of strobilation intensity in polyps. Purcell et al. 2009 [Photo, Graph]

Aurelia labiata: [larva, planula, preferences, reproduction, settlement] 1. compare settlement preferences for 6 different dock/port construction materials. Hoover & Purcell 2009 [Graph]

Aurelia labiata: [depth, locomotion, orientation, tidal rhythm] 1. water-column position in relation to tidal cycle. Albert 2010 [Text only]

Aurelia labiata: [feeding, predator, preferences] 1. cafeteria-style feeding and choice tests, and Y-tube-type tests indicate that colonial tunicates Distaplia occidentalis and jellyfish polyps Aurelia labiata are preferred prey of the aeolid nudibranch Hermissenda crassicornis. Hoover et al. 2012 [Photo]

Aurelia labiata: [polyp, predation] 1. in Puget Sound the polyp phase is readily eaten by nudibranch molluscs including Dendronotus dalli, D. rufus, Flabellina fusca, and Hermissenda crassicornis. Hoover et al. 2012 [Text only]

Aurelia sp.: [digestion, feeding, food] 1. observations on lack of diet selectivity in Aurelia jellyfishes. Albert 2014 [Photo]

Aurelia  labiata: [carnivore, food] 1. all life stages eat larval herring Clupea harengus pallasii. 2. identified incorrectly as Aurelia aurita in the paper. Arai & Hay 1982 [Drawing]

Aurelia  aurita: [behaviour, escape, predation] 1. description of Aurelia's escape behaviour from jellyfishes Phacellophora camtschatica. Strand & Hamner 1988 [Photo, Drawing, Graph]

Auricularia : [suspension feeding] 1. description of ciliary-band feeding. Strathmann 1971 [Drawing]

Austrobilharzia variglandis: [parasitism, reference only] 1. reference made to parasitism in marine snails Ilyanassa obsoleta causing "swimmer's itch". [Text only]

Austrobilharzia variglandis: [reference only] 1. reference to swimmer's itch vectored by eastern mud snails Ilyanassa obsoleta. Trott & Dimock 1978 []

Axinella sp.: [predation, secondary metabolite] 1. eaten by dorid Cadlina luteomarginata. 2. one possible source of defensive metabolites in the nudibranch. Thompson et al. 1982 [Photo]

Axiothella rubrocincta: [diet, feeding] 1. description of diet and feeding. Kudenov 1978 [Drawing]

Axiothella rubrocincta: [feeding] 1. field studies on feeding rates. Kudenov 1982 [Drawing]

Axiothella rubrocincta: [competitive exclusion] 1. potential competition with 6 species of smaller spionid worms in Tomales Bay, California. Weinberg 1979 [Text only]

Axiothella rubrocincta: [predation, regeneration] 1. effects of experimental removal of tail ends to mimic loss to predators. Woodin 1984 [Graph]

Balanophyllia elegans: [aggression] 1. interspecific aggression against Corynactis californica. Chadwick 1987 [Drawing]

Balanophyllia elegans: [competition, interspecific] 1. competition with 3 other cnidarian species. Chadwick 1991 [Photo, Graph]

Balanophyllia elegans: [] 1. video showing even spacing between individuals. [Video]

Balanophyllia elegans: [competition, interspecific] 1. out-competed for space by algae. Coyer et al. 1993 [Photo, Graph]

Balanophyllia elegans: [competition, interspecific] 1. competitively dominant over colonial tunicates Trididemnum opacum. Bruno & Witman 1996 [Photo, Drawing]

Balanophyllia elegans: [distribution, temperature , depth] 1. populations occur only subtidally south of Point Conception, California coincidental with higher water temperature. Gerrodette 1979 [Drawing, Graph]

Balanophyllia elegans: [dispersal, genetics] 1. highly restricted gene flow commensurate with limited dispersal potental. Hellberg 1995 [Photo]

Balanophyllia elegans: [feeding, food] 1. brief description of food and feeding. [Photo]

Balanophyllia elegans: [defense, predation] 1. photographs of nematocyst batteries, a withdrawn polyp, and a sensitive sunflower star Pycnopodia helianthoides. [Photo]

Balanophyllia elegans: [planula, reproduction] 1. crawling planula larvae released during winter/early spring. Fadlallah & Pearse 1982 [Photo, Graph]

Balanophyllia elegans: [larval dispersal] 1. species dispersal is limited to larval-crawling potential. Gerrodette 1981 [Text only]

Balanophyllia elegans: [fecundity, reproduction] 1. annual fecundity is relatively low, at about 30-40 embryos per large female, but survival is high. Fadlallah 1983 [Graph]

Balanophyllia elegans: [life cycle, reproduction, gametogenesis] 1. planula release governed by temperature. Beauchamp 1993 [Photo]

Balanophyllia elegans: [polyp] 1. unusual fusion of genetically distinct polyps. Hellberg & Taylor 2002 [Photo]

Balanophyllia elegans: [cues, larva, settlement] 1. larvae discriminate between different habitat conditions. Altieri 2003 [Photo, Graph]

Balanophyllia elegans: [competition, space] 1. reaches stand-off distance in competition with colonial tunicates Didemnum sp.. [Photo]

Balanophyllia elegans: [acidification, climate change, juvenile, larva, mortality, physiological ecology, physiology] 1. topical study on effects of impending ocean acidification on planulation rates, and juvenile survival and growth. Crook et al. 2013 [Photo, Graph]

Balanus amphitrite: [growth] 1. studies on growth in the Salton Sea, California. Geraci et al. 2008 [Drawing, Graph]

Balanus balanoides: [development, attachment] 1. comparison of attachment strengths at different stages of development. Crisp et al. 1985 [Table of Data]

Balanus balanoides: [cyprid larva] 1. features of "footprints" left behind by the antennule tips as the cyprid assesses its environment. Walker & Yule 1984 [Photo]

Balanus crenatus: [growth, current velocity] 1. comparison of effects of current velocity on growth rates in 4 species of barnacles. Eckman & Duggins 1993 [Graph]

Balanus crenatus: [larva, larval dispersal, settlement, tides] 1. patterns of settlement of larvae in relation to tidal cycles. Grosberg 1982 [Graph]

Balanus crenatus: [development, life cycle] 1. development through metamorphosis. Herz 1933 [Photo, Drawing]

Balanus crenatus: [photo courtesy] 1. photo courtesy Dave Cowles, Walla Walla University, Washington. Cowles [Photo]

Balanus crenatus: [attachment, cyprid larva, larva, settlement] 1. preliminary observations on settlement and initial attachment of cypris larva. Bohart 1929 [Drawing]

Balanus glandula: [attachment, cyprid larva] 1. description of cement gland of larva. Khandeparker Anil 2007 [Photo, Drawing]

Balanus glandula: [feeding, cirrus] 1. description of cirral-net feeding . [Photo]

Balanus glandula: [cirrus, water flow] 1. relationship of cirrus lengths with current velocity. Arsenault et al. 2001 [Graph]

Balanus glandula: [cirrus, scaling] 1. comparison with 3 other species. Marchinko & Palmer 2003 [Photo, Graph]

Balanus glandula: [cirrus, water flow, wave exposure] 1. effects of currents and waves on cirrus length. Marchinko 2003 [Photo, Graph]

Balanus glandula: [cirrus, water flow] 1. cirrus leg lengths at different current velocities. Li & Denny 2004 [Text only]

Balanus glandula: [cirrus, water flow, wave exposure, plasticity] 1. effect of water velocity on feeding behaviour. Marchinko 2007 [Graph]

Balanus glandula: [growth, cement ] 1. description of how cement glands are involved in growth. Lacombe 1970 [Photo, Drawing]

Balanus glandula: [cement , growth] 1. involvement of cement glands in growth. Wiegemann 2005 [Photo, Drawing]

Balanus glandula: [cement , growth] 1. involvement of cement glands in growth. Khandeparker Anil 2007 [Photo, Drawing]

Balanus glandula: [energy budget, growth, moulting] 1. seasonal variation in growth and energy budgeting. Wu & Levings 1978 [Graph, Table of Data]

Balanus glandula: [growth] 1. comparative growth in 3 species of barnacles. Hines 1979 [Graph]

Balanus glandula: [growth, water flow] 1. comparison of effects of current velocity on growth in 3 barnacle species. Eckman & Duggins 1993 [Graph]

Balanus glandula: [growth, wave exposure, upwelling] 1. comparison of effect of wave exposure and upwelling on growth in 2 species of barnacles. Sanford & Menge 2001 [Drawing, Graph]

Balanus glandula: [competition, cyprid larva, intraspecific, settlement] 1. settlement behaviour and spacing in cyprid larvae. [Photo, Drawing]

Balanus glandula: [growth, reproduction] 1. effects of crowding on growth and reproduction. Wu et al. 1977 [Graph]

Balanus glandula: [density, reproduction] 1. effects of crowding on reproduction. Wethey 1984 [Graph]

Balanus glandula: [habitat, recruitment] 1. aspects of habitat in relation to recruitment. Schubart et al. 1995 [Photo, Graph]

Balanus glandula: [wave exposure] 1. effect of wave exposure on various body dimensions. Pentcheff 1991 [Drawing, Graph]

Balanus glandula: [trampling] 1. effect of foot traffic on survival of rock-inhabiting sessile organisms, including barnacles and seaweeds. Jenkins et al. 2002 [Photo, Graph]

Balanus glandula: [predation] 1. predation by insect larvae Oedoparena. Harley & Lopez 2003 [Drawing, Graph]

Balanus glandula: [competition, interspecific] 1. competition with Chthamalus dalli and Semibalanus cariosus. Dayton 1971 [Photo]

Balanus glandula: [competition, interspecific] 1. competition with Chthamalus dalli. Paine 1981 [Graph]

Balanus glandula: [competition, interspecific] 1. competition with mussels Mytilus californianus and barnacles Semibalanus cariosus. Lee & Ambrose 1989 [Photo]

Balanus glandula: [competition, interspecific] 1. competition with barnacles Balanus glandula and various seaweeds. Farrell 1991 [Photo, Graph]

Balanus glandula: [competition, interspecific] 1. competition with barnacles Chthamalus dalli. Farrell 1989 [Photo, Graph]

Balanus glandula: [character displacement, cirrus, competitive exclusion] 1. analysis of 6 species of barnacles with respect to character displacement of ramus length of cirri. Marchinko et al. 2004 [Drawing, Graph]

Balanus glandula: [growth, nauplius larva, ration] 1. best food ration to reach cypris stage. Hentschel & Emlet 2000 [Graph]

Balanus glandula: [larva, settlement, upwelling] 1. oceanic conditions favouring settlement of larvae. Farrell et al. 1991 [Photo]

Balanus glandula: [photo courtesy] 1. photos courtesy Scripps Satellite Oceanographic Facility, La Jolla, California. Scripps []

Balanus glandula: [larval dispersal, tides] 1. larval transport by internal tidal waves. Shanks & Wright 1987 [Text only]

Balanus glandula: [genetics, larval dispersal, water flow] 1. latitudinal distribution of genotypes in relation to distribution of larvae by currents. Sotka et al. 2004 [Drawing]

Balanus glandula: [genetics, water flow] 1. latitudinal genetic split maintained by oceanographic mechanisms. Wares & Cunningham 2005 [Text only]

Balanus glandula: [larva, larval dispersal, mortality] 1. information on distribution and mortality of larvae in inshore waters. Tapia & Pineda 2007 [Graph]

Balanus glandula: [larval dispersal, settlement, wave exposure] 1. larval transport and survival in relation to beach morphology and wave intensity. Shanks et al. 2010 [Photo, Graph]

Balanus glandula: [predator, survival] 1. survival favoured if limpets Lottia digitalis are excluded from the habitat. Paine 1981 [Photo, Graph]

Balanus glandula: [predator, settlement, survival, spat] 1. experiments on protection from limpet bulldozing of surface features of the habitat. 2. barnacle larvae preferentially settle in depressions. Miller & Carefoot 1989 [Photo, Graph]

Balanus glandula: [spat, survival] 1. poorer survival of spat from limpet bulldozing in comparison with spat of Chthamalus dalli. Menge et al. 2010 [Text only]

Balanus glandula: [larva, larval dispersal, settlement, tides] 1. settlement patterns of larvae in relation to tidal cycles. Grosberg 1982 [Graph]

Balanus glandula: [larva, larval dispersal, settlement, tides] 1. settlement patterns of larvae in relation to tidal cycles. Grosberg 1982 [Graph]

Balanus glandula: [larva, settlement, oceanic processes] 1. variability in settlement of larvae in relation to oceanic processes. Gaines et al. 1985 [Photo, Graph]

Balanus glandula: [cyprid larva, oceanic processes, recruitment, settlement] 1. upwelling events involved in settlement of cyprid larvae. Roughgarden et al. 1991 [Graph]

Balanus glandula: [el Niño] 1. latitudinal recruitment during el Nino year. Connolly & Roughgarden 1999 [Drawing, Graph]

Balanus glandula: [recruitment] 1. effect of headlands on recruitment in Oregon and California. Connolly et al. 2001 [Drawing, Graph]

Balanus glandula: [genetics, recruitment, water flow] 1. effect of Point Conception headland on genetic structure along the west coast. Wares et al. 2001 [Drawing]

Balanus glandula: [larval dispersal, settlement, water flow, thermocline] 1. comparison of settlement in 2 areas differing in thermocline characteristics and water flow. Pineda & Lopez 2002 [Graph]

Balanus glandula: [settlement, productivity] 1. comparison of settlement in 2 areas differing in primary productivity. Leslie et al. 2005 []

Balanus glandula: [recruitment, temperature ] 1. recruitment along the west coast in relation to sea-surface temperatures. Broitman et al. 2008 [Drawing, Graph]

Balanus glandula: [recruitment, settlement] 1. assessment methodologies used play a large role in the type of results obtained. Shanks 2009 [Photo, Graph]

Balanus glandula: [recruitment, settlement] 1. assessment of methodologies used in studies of settlement and recruitment. Shanks 2009 [Photo, Graph]

Balanus glandula: [genetics, settlement, upwelling] 1. effects of upwelling on larval transport, settlement, and spatial genetic variation along the Oregon coast. Barshis et al. 2011 [Drawing, Graph]

Balanus glandula: [physiological ecology, salinity] 1. salinity tolerance. Bergen 1968 [Photo]

Balanus glandula: [growth, salinity, survival] 1. growth and survivorship in an Oregon estuary. Berger et al. 2006 [Drawing, Graph]

Balanus glandula: [heat-shock proteins, temperature stress] 1. effect of thermal stress on levels of heat-shock proteins. Berger & Emlet 2007 [Graph]

Balanus glandula: [physiological ecology, reproduction, salinity] 1. effect of salinity variation on reproductive output in an Oregon estuary. Berger 2009 [Text only]

Balanus glandula: [recruitment, settlement] 1. settlement variability in barnacles. Gaines & Roughgarden 1985 [Photo, Graph]

Balanus glandula: [recruitment, succession, ecology] 1. role of recruitment intensity and succession in community structure. Forde & Raimondi 2004 [Photo]

Balanus glandula: [food quality, growth, temperature ] 1. effects of nutrition and temperature on growth and fitness. Emlet & Sadro 2006 [Graph]

Balanus glandula: [desiccation, predation, recruitment, salinity, survival, ultraviolet] 1. post settlement survival of recruits. Gosselin & Qian 1996 [Photo]

Balanus glandula: [defense, predation] 1. kelp canopy protects larvae from fish predators. Gaines & Roughgarden 1987 [Table of Data]

Balanus glandula: [defense, nutrition, shadow response] 1. effect of various factors such as nutritive state and air-exposure on shadow response. Dill & Gillett 1991 [Graph]

Balanus glandula: [life cycle, reproduction] 1. introductory material to topic of reproduction and life cycle. Pechenik et al. 1998 [Photo, Drawing]

Balanus glandula: [photo courtesy] 1. photo courtesy Chris Neufeld & Rich Palmer, University of Alberta, Edmonton. Neufeld & Palmer [Photo]

Balanus glandula: [cyprid larva, development, nauplius larva] 1. development through to cyprid larva. Brown & Roughgarden 1985 [Photo, Drawing]

Balanus glandula: [photo courtesy] 1. photo courtesy Dave Cowles, Walla Walla University, Washington. Cowles [Photo]

Balanus glandula: [development, fecundity] 1. comparative developmental schedule between Ladysmith Harbour, British Columbia and La Jolla, California. Barnes & Barnes 1956 [Graph]

Balanus glandula: [reproduction, broods] 1. comparison of brood numbers seasonally in 3 species including Chthamalus fissus and Tetraclita squamosa. Hines 1978 [Photo, Graph]

Balanus glandula: [broods, reproduction, intertidal level] 1. effect of intertidal level and other factors on brood production. 2. comparison with Chthamalus fissus and Tetraclita squamosa. Hines 1979 [Graph]

Balanus glandula: [reproduction, fertilisation success] 1. effect of nearest-neighbour distance on fertilisation success. Wu 1981 []

Balanus glandula: [broods, larva, reproduction] 1. brood number and time spent in plankton. Gaines et al. 1985 [Text only]

Balanus glandula: [reproduction, wave exposure, morphology] 1. effects of wave velocity on penis length. Neufeld & Palmer 2008 [Photo, Drawing, Graph]

Balanus glandula: [development, nauplius larva, model] 1. construct model of larval development. Pfeiffer-Hoyt & McManus 2005 [Text only]

Balanus glandula: [predator, withdrawal] 1. withdraws cirri in presence of predator, but not in presence of non-predator. 2. several species of sea stars and snails tested. Palmer et al. 1982 [Photo, Graph]

Balanus glandula: [cyprid larva, intertidal level, settlement, substratum preference] 1. larvae preferentially settle on substrata bearing microflora from a lower interidal level. Strathmann et al. 1981 [Photo, Graph]

Balanus glandula: [cyprid larva, settlement, substratum preference] 1. review of reproductive ecology in marine invertebrates, including barnacles. Strathmann 1979 [Graph]

Balanus glandula: [cyprid larva, settlement, substratum preference] 1. larvae prefer to settle in empty tests of other barnacles, such as Chthamalus dalli. Qian & Liu 1990 [Photo, Graph]

Balanus glandula: [cyprid larva, growth, settlement, substratum preference, survival] 1. effects on later growth and survival of preferentially settling on either rock or mussels. Lohse 1993 [Photo, Graph]

Balanus glandula: [cyprid larva, settlement, conspecific] 1. photograph showing spat settled on conspecific adult. [Photo]

Balanus glandula: [cyprid larva, settlement] 1. comparison of settlement times and features with 2 other species Chthamalus fissus and Tetraclita squamosa. Hines 1979 [Photo]

Balanus glandula: [cyprid larva, distribution, intertidal level, settlement] 1. selection of favourable spots to settle by use of various indicator species present in the habitat. Strathmann & Branscomb 1979 [Photo]

Balanus glandula: [cyprid larva, settlement, ultraviolet] 1. experiments using UV filters show no effect of UV on settlement. Gosselin & Jones 2010 [Photo]

Balanus glandula: [distribution, intertidal level, predation] 1. differential predation by whelks Nucells spp. sets lower limits of distribution. Connell 1970 [Photo, Drawing]

Balanus glandula: [borehole, predation, preferences] 1. preference by predatory whelks for suture lines between shell plates to bore. Palmer 1982 [Photo, Graph]

Balanus glandula: [cyprid larva, settlement, substratum preference] 1. cyprids avoid settling in areas frequented by predatory whelks Nucella lamellosa. Johnson & Strathmann 1989 [Graph]

Balanus glandula: [community, habitat] 1. detailed description of community composition and interacttions in upper-level barnacle/red alga zone on rocky shores. Glynn 1965 [Photo]

Balanus glandula: [reproduction, settlement] 1. in Monterey Bay settlement tends to be random. 2. comparison with acorn barnacle Chthamalus dalli and goose barnacle Pollicipes polymerus. Satchell & Farrell 1993 [Photo, Graph]

Balanus glandula: [community] 1. effect on grazing activity of limpets Lottia spp.. Geller 1991 [Graph]

Balanus glandula: [anoxia, recruitment] 1. recruitment correlates with relaxation of upwelling along the Oregon coast. Dudas et al. 2009 [Drawing, Graph]

Balanus glandula: [competition, interspecific] 1. study of competition with mussels Mytilus trossulus. Ross & Goodman 1974 [Text only]

Balanus glandula: [larva, lipids] 1. measures seasonal condition index in larvae in terms of lipid content. 2. also provides data for Chthamalus dalli and Pollicipes polymerus. Phillips 2006 [Graph]

Balanus glandula: [competitive exclusion, growth, shell] 1. photographs of individuals being overgrown or displaced by oysters. [Photo]

Balanus glandula: [community, predation] 1. large study on community interactions between barnacles and several species of whelks Nucella. Comnell 1970 [Drawing]

Balanus glandula: [competition, food, interspecific, predation] 1. aspects of interspecific competition for a common food source, barnacles Balanus glandula, by 3 species of whelks Nucella. Spight 1981 [Graph]

Balanus glandula: [community, effects, predator] 1. large, comprehensive study on the effect of predation by whelks Nucella canaliculata and N. ostrina on community structure including 6 prey barnacle and mussel species, and a sea-anemone species. Navarrete 1996 [Graph]

Balanus glandula: [defense, predation, protection, survival] 1. study on interaction between whelk Nucella ostrina predation on barnacles leading to enhanced survival of littorines Littorina plena in the empty tests. Harley & O'Riley 2011 [Photo, Graph]

Balanus glandula: [patch formation, predator, prey, survival] 1. study on survivability of different patch-sizes of prey barnacles Balanus glandula in face of predation by whelks Nucella ostrina. Quinn et al. 1989 [Graph]

Balanus glandula: [feeding, filter-feeding] 1. several aspects of filter-feeding at different current speeds in different-sized individuals. Geieramn & Emlet 2009 [Photo]

Balanus glandula: [borehole, location, preferences] 1. detailed consideration of borehole placement by whelks Nucella ostrina when drilling into barnacles. 2. location of borehole, size of predator, size of prey. Hart & Palmer 1987 [Drawing, Graph]

Balanus glandula: [cirrus, density, morphology, wave exposure, penis] 1. comparisons of penis and cirrus lengths as functions of wave exposure and density. Neufeld 2011 [Text only]

Balanus glandula: [cirrus, density, morphology, penis, phenotypic, wave exposure] 1. investigation of phenotypic plasticity in morphology of cirri and penis in wave-exposed shores. Neufeld & Rankine 2012 [Photo]

Balanus glandula: [competition, fecundity, fitness, growth, intraspecific, survival] 1. effects of density on survival, growth, and fecundity. Leslie 2005 [Photo, Graph]

Balanus glandula: [cirrus, length, transplants, wave exposure] 1. measures of time taken for morphological transformations in cirrus and penis lengths under different degrees of wave exposure. Neufeld 2012 [Graph]

Balanus glandula: [oxygen consumption, temperature , water flow] 1. detailed study on effects of water-flow velocity and temperature on oxygen uptake. Nishizaki & Carrington 2014 [Graph]

Balanus nubilis: [attachment] 1. description of cement glands. Lacombe 1970 [Photo, Drawing]

Balanus nubilis: [photo courtesy] 1. photo courtesy Arsenault et al. 2001 Proc Roy Soc Lond B 168: 2149. Arsenault et al. 2001 [Photo]

Balanus nubilis: [filter-feeding] 1. feeding with cirri held stationary. [Video]

Balanus nubilis: [filter-feeding] 1. feeding with cirri held stationary. [Video]

Balanus nubilis: [development, nauplius larva, reproduction] 1. description of naupliar development. Barnes & Barnes 1959 [Photo, Drawing]

Balanus sp.: [costs, drag, energetics] 1. energy costs to a swimming scallop Chlamys hastata in carrying large barnacles growing on their shell plates. Donovan et al. 2003 [Photo, Graph]

Balanus spp.: [food] 1. list of foods of west-coast barnacles. Barnes 1959 [Photo]

Balanus  glandula: [diet, nutritional content, optimal foraging] 1. in choice tests, preferred by snails Acanthinucells spirata over barnacles Chthamalus fissus, possiby because of their greater relative nutritional content. Perry 1987 [Photo, Graph]

Bankia setacea: [age, burrowing] 1. use X-ray methodology to plot burrow dimensions over time. Haderlie & Mellor 1972 [Photo]

Bankia  setacea: [competition, interspecific] 1. out-competed by the smaller Teredo navalis. Miller 1926 [Drawing]

Bankia  setacea: [burrowing, competition, intraspecific] 1. features of burrow disposition. Haderlie & Mellor 1972 [Photo]

Bankia  setacea: [burrowing, digestion] 1. ideas on digestion of wood in shipworms. Crosby & Reid 1971 [Photo]

Bankia  setacea: [photo courtesy] 1. photo courtesy Faculty of Forestry, University of British Columbia. Faculty of Forestry, UBC [Photo]

Bankia  setacea: [digestion] 1. evidence for some digestion of wood. Miller & Boynton 1924 [Text only]

Bankia  setacea: [protandry, reproduction] 1. compares with Teredo navalis. Coe 1941 [Photo]

Basketstar : [home] 1. introduction to basket stars and brittle stars in home file for basket part of the Odyssey. [Text only]

Basketstar : [] 1. snail meets basket star. [Animation]

Basketstar : [map] 1. snail's map with basket star highlighted. []

Basketstar : [classification] 1. classification of Class Ophiuroidea, including basket stars and brittle stars. [Text only]

Batillaria attramentaria: [burrowing, feeding] 1. mentions burrowing behaviour. Swinbanks & Murray 1981 [Photo]

Batillaria attramentaria: [community] 1. field studies on effects of an introduced snail on community dynamics. Wonham et al. 2005 [Photo]

Batillaria attramentaria: [photo courtesy] 1. photo courtesy Linda Schroeder, Pacific Northwest Shell Club, Seattle, Washington. Schroeder [Photo]

Berthella  californica: [defense, acid secretion] 1. description of acid secretion from special cells in the epithelium. Thompson 1960 [Photo, Drawing]

Berthella  californica: [photo courtesy] 1. photo courtesy Dong Bum Ko, Korea. Ko [Photo]

Berthella  californica: [development, larva, metamorphosis, reproduction] 1. details of growth and metamorphosis in laboratory culture. 2. evidence for bilateral growth of shell. LaForge & Page 2007 [Photo]

bivalve : [introduction, invasive, shell, size, survival] 1. study of relationship of body size and success at invading new world localities. Roy et al. 2001 [Text only]

bivalve : [abundance, distribution, salinity] 1. distribution and abundance of bivalves and polychaetes in Puget Sound estuary. Dethier 2010 [Text only]

Bivalve : [abundance, distribution, habitat, reference only] 1. reference to distribuitonal work on benthic invertebrates in Puget Sound, Washington. Dethier & Schoch 2005 []

bivalve : [invasive, non-indigenous] 1. extent of contribution of west-coast seafood industry on invasion of non-indigenous bivalve species to the west-coast states. Chapman et al. 2003 [Text only]

Blepharipida occidentalis: [burrowing, efficacy] 1. comparison with 2 other Californian mole-crab species. Dugan et al. 2000 [Graph]

Boccardia proboscidea: [development, poecilogony] 1. early development in California. 2. poecilogonous development not noted here, but is described for the species by other authors. Hartman 1941 [Drawing]

Boccardia proboscidea: [development, larva, planktotrophic] 1. describes 3 types of development within a single population. Gibson 1997 [Photo]

Boccardia proboscidea: [genetics, poecilogony, species identification] 1. all geographic variants appear to belong to a single species. Gibson et al. 1999 [Photo]

Boccardia proboscidea: [reproduction, mode] 1. west-coast populations vary in type of reproductive mode depending upon latitude. Oyarzun et al. 2011 [Drawing]

Boltenia sp.: [metamorphosis] 1. comparison of tail resorption in 4 genera including Distaplia, Botryllus, and Molgula. Cloney 1982 [Drawing]

Boltenia villosa: [juvenile, settlement, survival] 1. large comparative study comparing post-settlement survival of juveniles in light vs. shade in shallow vs. deeper areas in 6 species. 2. in general, survival better in shade in shallow water conditions. Young & Chia 1984 [Graph]

Boltenia villosa: [habitat, protection, spatial refuge] 1. live epizoitically on other tunicates that are themselves protected from predators. 2. are in spatial refuge from predation by snails Fusitriton oregonensis. Young 1989 [Photo, Graph]

Boltenia villosa: [gonad index] 1. experiments on effect of light cycle on seasonal gonadal indices. Bingham 1997 [Graph]

Botrylloides violaceus: [competition, larva, settlement] 1. experiments to determine relationship between offspring size and survival, and offspring size and growth of the colony. Marshall et al. 2006 [Photo, Graph]

Botrylloides violaceus: [predation] 1. large study on control of 4 species of non-native tunicates by local predators including sea urchins Strongylocentrotus droebachiensis. Epelbaum et al. 2009 [Photo]

Botrylloides violaceus: [distribution, invasive, predation] 1. field study on effects of local predators on controlling invasive tunicate species. Grey 2010 [Photo]

Botrylloides violaceus: [photo courtesy] 1. photo courtesy Judith Oakley, UK and MARLIN. Oakley [Photo]

Botryllus schlosseri: [egg, hermaphroditism, maturation, protogynous] 1. eggs mature before sperm, ensuring higher probability of fertilisation by another individual. 2. describe brooding and larval release. Boyd et al. 1990 [Drawing]

Botryllus schlosseri: [morphology] 1. describe morphology of colony. Boyd et al. 1990 [Photo, Drawing]

Botryllus schlosseri: [morphology, chimera] 1. description of fusion of colonies to form a chimera. Boyd et al. 1990 [Photo, Drawing]

Botryllus schlosseri: [photo courtesy, chimera] 1. photo courtesy Kevin Lee, Fullerton, California. Lee [Photo]

Botryllus schlosseri: [colony, fusion] 1. describe fusion and rejection processes when colonies are placed side-by-side. 2. work done in Massachusetts. Scofield & Nagashima 1983 [Drawing]

Botryllus schlosseri: [colony, genetics, fusion] 1. genetic makeup determines whether colony fusion will occur. Grosberg & Quinn 1986 [Text only]

Botryllus schlosseri: [colony, genetics, fusion] 1. review of genetics of colony fusion . Buss 1990 [Text only]

Botryllus schlosseri: [chimera, colony, fusion] 1. consider different outcome patterns from fusion of colonies. Rinkevich & Weissman 1987 [Drawing]

Botryllus schlosseri: [chimera, colony, fusion] 1. consider different outcome patterns from fusion of colonies. Rinkevich & Weissman 1989 [Drawing]

Botryllus schlosseri: [colony, competition, fusion, testes] 1. review of end-result of colony fusion, sometimes leading to dominance of testes by one or other of the participating colonies. Magor et al. 1999 [Photo, Drawing]

Botryllus schlosseri: [photo courtesy] 1. photo courtesy B. Magor and colleagues, Stanford University, California. Magor [Photo]

Botryllus schlosseri: [colony, growth, senescence, death] 1. evidence for a heritable basis for zooid death in tunicate colonies. Rinkevich et al. 1992 [Text only]

Botryllus schlosseri: [chimera, field, growth, laboratory] 1. comparison of growth and vitality of chimeras raised in field and lab. Chadwick-Furman & Weissman 1995 [Drawing]

Botryllus schlosseri: [chimera, field, fitness] 1. fitness of chimeras may be less than that of "normal" colonies. Chadwick-Furman & Weissman 2003 [Photo]

Botryllus schlosseri: [colony, growth, senescence] 1. life cycle of the colony described. 2. first documentation of senescence in field specimens. Chadwick-Furman & Weissman 1995 [Graph]

Botryllus schlosseri: [colony, senescence] 1. life cycle of the colony described. Boyd et al. 1986 [Graph]

Botryllus schlosseri: [distribution, invasive] 1. record of invasive tunicate species on the west coast. Lambert & Lambert 1998 [Photo]

Botryllus schlosseri: [distribution, taxonomy] 1. conclude that the same species inhabits east and west coasts of North America. Boyd et al. 1990 [Text only]

Botryllus schlosseri: [distribution, genetics, taxonomy] 1. new genetics data suggest an Asian origin for west-coast populations, not Atlantic coast of North America. Stoner et al. 2002 [Text only]

Botryllus schlosseri: [genetics, larval dispersal, reproduction] 1. considerations of inbreeding and genetic diversification. Grosberg 1987 [Text only]

Botryllus schlosseri: [genetics, larval dispersal, reproduction] 1. literature review. Grosberg 1991 [Text only]

Botryllus schlosseri: [development, metamorphosis, settlement] 1. description of post-settlement development. Boyd et al. 1990 [Photo, Drawing]

Botryllus schlosseri: [photo courtesy] 1. . Stanford University Marine Collection [Photo]

Botryllus schlosseri: [development, juvenile, larva, metamorphosis] 1. description of metamorphosis and subsequent budding. Watterson 1945 [Drawing]

Botryllus schlosseri: [morphology] 1. describes the morphology of a compound tunicate. Milkman 1967 [Photo, Drawing]

Botryllus sp.: [metamorphosis] 1. comparison of tail resorption in 4 genera including Distaplia, Boltenia, and Molgula. Cloney 1982 [Drawing]

Brinckmannia hexactinellidophila: [parasitism] 1. polyps parasitise deep-water hexactinellid sponges Heterchone spp.. Schuchert & Reiswig 2006 [Photo, Drawing]

Brittle star : [life cycle, reproduction, ophiopluteus] 1. life cycle including ophiopluteus larva. Baiser 1998 [Photo]

Brittle star : [feeding] 1. video of brittle stars feeding. [Video]

Bulla gouldiana: [photo courtesy] 1. photo courtesy Kevin Lee, Fullerton, California. Lee [Photo]

Bulla gouldiana: [photo courtesy] 1. photo courtesy Kevin Lee, Fullerton, California. Lee [Photo]

Bulla gouldiana: [photo courtesy] 1. photo courtesy Kevin Lee, Fullerton, California. Lee [Photo]

Bulla  gouldiana: [predation] 1. eaten by the opisthobranch Navanax inermis. Paine 1963 [Photo, Drawing]

Bushiella abnormis: [body size, brooding, scaling] 1. comparison of several brooding spirorbids with respect to scaling of brood size with body size. 2. 5 species studied. Hess 1993 [Drawing]

Cadlina luteomarginata: [food] 1. photo of Cadlina eating sponge courtesy Paul Young. Young [Photo]

Cadlina luteomarginata: [egg, hatching, reproduction] 1. hatching time is temperature dependent. Dehnel & Kong 1979 [Photo]

Cadlina luteomarginata: [photo courtesy] 1. photo courtesy Paul Young. Young [Photo]

Cadlina luteomarginata: [secondary metabolite] 1. metabolites from sponge diets stored in dorsal mantle. 2. 5 of these metabolites show antifeedant activity against fishes. Thompson et al. 1982 [Text only]

Cadlina luteomarginata: [defense, secondary metabolite] 1. several terpenoids sequestered in skin are identical to those in the Aplysilla glacialis. Tischler & Andersen 1989 [Text only]

Cadlina luteomarginata: [defense, secondary metabolite] 1. analyses of skin for sequestered terpenoids from sponge food. Tischler et al. 1991 [Text only]

Cadlina luteomarginata: [defense, secondary metabolite] 1. terpenoid metabolite thought to be derived from sponge food. Gustafson et al. 1985 [Text only]

Cadlina luteomarginata: [defense, secondary metabolite] 1. characteristically fruity odour identified as luteone, a terpenoid metabolite from sponges. Hellou et al. 1981 [Photo]

Cadlina luteomarginata: [photo courtesy] 1. photo courtesy Jeff Goddard, UC Santa Barbara, California. Goddard [Photo]

Cadlina luteomarginata: [defense, secondary metabolite] 1. terpenoids of possible defensive function sequestered from dietary sponge Acanthella sp.. Burgoyne et al. 1993 [Text only]

Cadlina luteomarginata: [defense, secondary metabolite] 1. evidence for de novo biosynthesis of defensive compounds. Kubanek et al. 2000 [Text only]

Cadlina luteomarginata: [defense, secondary metabolite] 1. overview of de novo synthesis of terpenoid compounds in Cadlina. Kubanek et al. 1997 [Text only]

Cadlina luteomarginata: [defense, secondary metabolite] 1. more novel terpenoids isolated from skin and egg-mass extracts. 2. same compounds identified in food sponges Plerapllysilla sp. and Aplysilla sp.. Dumdel et al. 1997 [Text only]

Cadlina luteomarginata: [defense, predation, secondary metabolite] 1. laboratory experiments using several potential predators of dorid nudibranchs provide evidence that this dorid has anti-feedant properties. 2. predators used include crabs, fishes sea stars, and sea anemones. Penney 2004 [Text only]

Cadlina luteomarginata: [defense, predation, secondary metabolite] 1. comment on need for proper controls in experiments of anti-feedant properties of sequestered natural products from sponge foods. [Text only]

Cadlina luteomarginata: [defense, secondary metabolite] 1. survey of sequestered metabolites in individuals in different localities shows much variability, suggesting strict sequestration from sponge foods. Faulkner et al. 1990 [Photo]

Cadlina luteomarginata: [defense, secondary metabolite, spicules] 1. comparison of deterrent properties of spicules and sescondary metabolites suggests that spicules may function more in structural support. 2. tests using food pellets with selected crabs and a sea anemone. Penney 2006 [Photo, Graph]

Cadlina luteomarginata: [photo courtesy] 1. photo courtesy Jeff Goddard, Santa Barbara, California. Goddard [Photo]

Cadlina luteomarginata: [defense, spicules] 1. compares spicule patterns in bodies of 16 dorid nudibranchs. 2. has a ramifying dendritic network, one of 3 major patterns; Dialula sandiegensis, in comparison, has a cobweb network. Penney 2008 [Photo, Drawing]

Cadlina luteomarginata: [photo courtesy] 1. photo courtesy Dave Cowles and Kirk Onthank, Walla Walla University, Washington. Cowles & Onthank [Photo]

Cadlina luteomarginata: [diet, preferences] 1. at least 10 species of sponges eaten in Barkley Sound. Penney 2013 [Photo]

Cadlina luteomarginata: [photo courtesy] 1. photo courtesy Jeff Goddard, University of California Santa Barbara. Goddard [Photo]

Callianax biplicata: [burial, defense, escape, predation] 1. olive shells escape predation by sea stars and moon snails Polinices spp. by burying. Edwards 1969 [Photo]

Callianax biplicata: [intertidal level, size gradient] 1. higher-shore individuals are larger in size and in less density than lower-level ones. Edwards 1969 [Graph]

Callianax biplicata: [behaviour, diel, intertidal level, sex] 1. comments that larger, high-level dwelling individuals are likely to be males. 2. behavioral cycle includes emergence from burial at night. Phillips 1977 [Photo, Graph]

Callianax biplicata: [behaviour, burial, defense] 1. bury in response to predatory sea-star species (Pycnopodia helianthoides, Pisaster spp.), but not to non-predatory ones (Patiria miniata). Phillips 1977 [Photo]

Callianax biplicata: [feeding, food] 1. description of various feeding modes. Edwards 1969 [Photo]

Callianax biplicata: [mark-recapture, technique] 1. technique described for marking shells. Stohler 1962 [Photo]

Callianax biplicata: [predation, technique] 1. application of technique to separate out crushing effects of predators from other environmental damage to shells . Stafford & Leighton 2011 [Photo, Graph]

Callianax biplicata: [development, reproduction, egg case] 1. description of deposition of eggs in protective cases. Edwards 1968 [Photo]

Callianax biplicata: [development, reproduction, egg case] 1. description of reproductive events. Edwards 1969 [Photo]

Callianax biplicata: [development, reproduction, egg case] 1. description of reproductive events. Stohler 1969 [Photo]

Callianax biplicata: [defense, escape, swimming] 1. escape swimming is exhibited by this species. Edwards 1969 [Photo, Drawing]

Callianax zanoeta: [drawing courtesy] 1. swimming behaviour illustrated. Farmer 1970 [Drawing]

Callinectes sapidus: [hormone, moulting] 1. description of hormal control of moulting in crabs. Tamone et al. 2005 [Photo]

Calliostoma : [chemical, defense] 1. apparently no coating of defensive mucus on shell. Keen 1975 [Photo]

Calliostoma annulatum: [photo courtesy] 1. photo courtesy Ron Long, SFU. Long []

Calliostoma annulatum: [feeding, preferences] 1. food preferences are for hydroids. Perron 1975 [Photo]

Calliostoma canaliculatum: [defense, chemical] 1. mucus coating on shell provides chemical defense. Keen 1975 [Photo]

Calliostoma canaliculatum: [photo courtesy] 1. photo courtesy Linda Schroeder, Pacific Northwest Shell Club, Seattle. Schroeder [Photo]

Calliostoma canaliculatum: [chemical, defense] 1. releases viscid yellow secretion from hypobranchial gland in response to sea stars Pycnopodia and Pisaster. Bryan et al. 1997 [Graph]

Calliostoma canaliculatum: [feeding, preferences] 1. scrape diatoms, some scavenging . Keen 1975 [Photo]

Calliostoma canaliculatum: [photo courtesy] 1. photograph courtesy Linda Schroeder, Pacific Northwest Shell Club, Seattle. Schroeder [Photo]

Calliostoma ligatum: [behaviour, defense] 1. tumbling escape response to sea stars. 2. effect of narcotisation of snails on defensive behaviour. Harrold 1982 [Photo, Graph]

Calliostoma ligatum: [development] 1. research questioning the role of larval retractor muscles in torsion. Page 2002 [Photo]

Calliostoma ligatum: [reproduction] 1. study of spawning and embryonic development to metamorphosis and early juvenile. Holyoak 1968 [Photo, Drawing]

Calliostoma ligatum: [coiling, shell] 1. factors involved in initiation of shell coiling. Collin & Voltzow 1998 [Photo]

Calliostoma ligatum: [photo courtesy] 1. photo courtesy Linda Schroeder, Pacific Northwest Shell Club, Seattle, Washington. Schroeder [Photo]

Calliostoma ligatum: [mimicry] 1. possible mimicry between amphipod and snail. Carter & Behrens 1980 [Photo]

Calliostoma ligatum: [cilia, settlement, swimming, veliger] 1. neuronal control of ciliary beating on the larval velum as during settlement/crawling when settling. Arkett et al. 1987 [Photo]

Calliostoma ligatum: [defense, parasitism, run away] 1. its running response to sea-star predators benefits a symbiotic slipper limpet Crepidula adunca that often lives Calliostoma's shell. Vermeij et al. 1987 [Photo]

Calliostoma spp.: [photo courtesy] 1. several photographs of trochid snails (Calliostoma). Schroeder [Photo]

Calliostoma spp.: [locomotion] 1. examples of gastropods that use a direct-ditaxic type of locomotion. [Photo]

Calliostoma variegatum: [] 1. food preferences are for hydroids. Perron 1975 [Photo]

Calliostoma zizyphinum: [chemical, defense] 1. mucus coating on shell provides chemical defense. Jones 1984 []

Calliostoma  annulatum: [feeding, locomotion] 1. food-finding behaviour. [Video]

Calliostoma  canaliculatum: [chemical, defense] 1. secretions from snail show K-blocking activity. Kelley et al. 2003 [Photo]

Calliostoma  ligatum: [breaking strength] 1. comparison of physical properties of shell when live and when being used by hermit crabs Pagurus spp.. LaBarbera & Merz 1992 [Graph]

Cancer antennarius: [predation] 1. effect of scent on escape behaviour in trochid snails. Geller 1982 [Photo]

Cancer antennarius: [exoskeleton permeability] 1. comparison among 6 species west-coast crabs. Gross 1955 [Graph]

Cancer antennarius: [development, larva, prezoea larva] 1. presence of a prezoeal larva confirmed. Roesijadi 1976 [Photo, Drawing]

Cancer antennarius: [reproduction, season, ovigerous] 1. compares with Cancer anthonyi in California. Reilly 1987 [Graph]

Cancer antennarius: [competition, interspecific] 1. dominant competitor in face of green crabs Carcinus maenas in 3 locations in central California. Jensen et al. 2007 [Drawing]

Cancer antennarius: [morph, predation, shell] 1. in Bodega Bay, California their predatory activities lead to development of thickened shells in prey snails Alia carinata. Bergman et al. 1983 [Photo]

Cancer antennarius: [identification, larva, reproduction, zoea] 1. identification of zoea larvae of 10 genera of crabs in San Francisco Bay. 2. provides a dichotomous key for all 10 genera. Rice & Tsukimura 2007 [Drawing]

Cancer anthonyi: [predator] 1. in Mugu Lagoon, California eats clams Protothaca staminea. Peterson 1982 [Photo]

Cancer anthonyi: [development, larva] 1. description of larval development. Anderson 1978 [Photo, Drawing]

Cancer anthonyi: [photo courtesy] 1. photo courtesy Dave Gardner, Southern California. Gardner [Photo]

Cancer anthonyi: [reproduction, season] 1. compares with Cancer antennarius in California. Reilly 1987 [Graph]

Cancer gracilis: [camouflage, epibiont] 1. description of growths on exoskeleton. McGaw 2006 [Photo, Drawing, Graph]

Cancer gracilis: [defense, predator] 1. selects prey hermit crabs Pagurus granosimanus on basis of shell-size occupied. Vance 1972 [Photo]

Cancer gracilis: [growth, mating, moulting] 1. "mating systems" compared among 4 cancroid species. Orensanz & Gallucci 1988 [Graph]

Cancer gracilis: [behaviour, osmoconformer] 1. exhibits bradycardia in low salinities. 2. behavioral regulation of body fluids. Curtis et al. 2007 [Photo, Graph]

Cancer gracilis: [photo courtesy] 1. photo courtesy Iain McGaw, Memorial University, Newfoundland. McGaw [Photo]

Cancer gracilis: [oxygen consumption, salinity, stress] 1. effect of feeding, salinity stress on oxygen uptake and ventilation rate. McGaw 2006 [Graph]

Cancer gracilis: [digestion, salinity] 1. in lower salinities clearance time of the gut takes longer. McGaw 2006 [Graph]

Cancer gracilis: [digestion, activity] 1. activity takes priority over digestion. McGaw 2007 [Drawing]

Cancer gracilis: [exoskeleton permeability] 1. comparison among 6 species of west-coast crabs. Gross 1955 [Graph]

Cancer gracilis: [larva, reproduction] 1. description of larval stages. Ally 1975 [Photo, Drawing]

Cancer gracilis: [photo courtesy] 1. photo courtesy Dave Cowles, Walla Walla University, Washington. Cowles [Photo]

Cancer gracilis: [copulation, reproduction, spermatophore] 1. excellent detail of copulatory behaviour and spermatophore morphology and function. Orensanz et al. 1995 [Photo, Graph]

Cancer gracilis: [photo courtesy] 1. photo courtesy Dave Cowles, Walla Walla University, Washington. Cowles [Photo]

Cancer gracilis: [borehole drilling] 1. effect on drilling behaviour, success or failure, by whelks on prey mussels Mytilus trossulus when whelk is exposed to its own predator, the crab Cancer gracilis. Chattopadhyay & Baumiller 2007 [Photo]

Cancer gracilis: [identification, larva, reproduction, zoea] 1. identification of zoea larvae of 10 genera of crabs in San Francisco Bay. 2. provides a dichotomous key for all 10 genera. Rice & Tsukimura 2007 [Drawing]

Cancer magister: [predator, preferences] 1. test of predator preference (2 crab species) for 3 species of bivalves. Dudas et al. 2005 [Photo, Graph]

Cancer magister: [camouflage, epibiont] 1. description of growths on exoskeleton. McGaw 2006 [Photo, Drawing, Graph]

Cancer magister: [competition, intraspecific] 1. aggressive interactions between early instars. Jacoby 1983 [Photo]

Cancer magister: [aggression, competition] 1. out-competed by introduced green crabs Carcinus maenas. Grosholz & Ruiz 1995 [Photo]

Cancer magister: [aggression, competition, interference] 1. out-competed by green crabs Carcinus maenas for habitat space in both field and lab experiments. McDonald et al. 2001 []

Cancer magister: [competition, efficacy, feeding, mechanical advantage] 1. compare efficiency of claw usage with that of green crabs Carcinus maenas. Behrens Yamada et al. 2010 [Drawing, Graph]

Cancer magister: [efficacy, larva, technique] 1. compares efficacy of light traps vs. plankton tows to assess larval abundance. 2. species mainly from 4 families. Porter et al. 2008 [Graph]

Cancer magister: [defense, survival, burial] 1. tests of survival at different experimental burial depths. Chang & Levings 1978 [Photo]

Cancer magister: [burial, quiz] 1. quiz on burial behaviour. [Photo]

Cancer magister: [burial, defense, energetics] 1. burial for defense and energy savings. 2. description of gill irrigation. McGaw 2004 [Photo]

Cancer magister: [predation, stimulus] 1. experiments on effect of effluent water and video imagery on hiding away response of hermit crabs Pagurus granosimanus. Rosen et al. 2009 [Graph]

Cancer magister: [behaviour, diel] 1. frequent intertidal areas more at night than in the day. Stevens et al. 1984 [Photo]

Cancer magister: [dispersal, locomotion, mark-recapture] 1. 3yr study in California shows remarkable site fidelity. Diamond & Hawkin 1985 [Graph]

Cancer magister: [dispersal, locomotion, mark-recapture] 1. relatively little movement from point of tagging. Smith & Jamieson 1990 [Text only]

Cancer magister: [feeding] 1. description of feeding in crabs. [Photo]

Cancer magister: [feeding] 1. description of feeding in crabs. [Photo]

Cancer magister: [morphology] 1. mechanics of claw operation. [Photo]

Cancer magister: [morphology, claw] 1. assessment of claw damage in field animals. 2. handling times of prey when claws are damaged. Juanes & Hartwick 1990 [Graph]

Cancer magister: [claw, function, quiz] 1. quiz on sex/reproductive effects of damaged claws on the owner. [Text only]

Cancer magister: [claw, function, lever, mechanical advantage] 1. general description of claw function. [Photo]

Cancer magister: [gas exchange] 1. general description for a brachyuran crab. [Photo]

Cancer magister: [gas exchange] 1. crabs move out of hypoxic conditions. Bernatis et al. 2007 [Photo, Graph]

Cancer magister: [genetics, haplotypes] 1. genetically homogenous in British Columbia, save for one population inhabiting area of poor water circulation. Beacham et al. 2008 [Photo, Drawing]

Cancer magister: [behaviour, larva, reproduction] 1. observations on zoeal hatching and larval behaviour. Lough 1976 [Photo]

Cancer magister: [megalopa, settlement, water flow] 1. experiments in flume apparatus. Fernandez et al. 1994 [Photo]

Cancer magister: [feeding, hummock, larva, survival] 1. estimates of optimal diets for zoea larvae. 2. comparison with Hemigrapsus oregonensis. Sulkin et al. 1998 [Text only]

Cancer magister: [larva, nutritional content, survival] 1. nutritional quality of prey depends upon what the prey have been eating. 2. comparison with 3 other species of cancroid crabs: Cancer oregonensis, C. gracilis, and C. productus. Sulkin & McKeen 1999 [Graph]

Cancer magister: [larva, reproduction, season] 1. seasonal timing of appearance of zoea larvae of representatives of 5 families of brachyurans. Fisher 2006 [Text only]

Cancer magister: [locomotion, apodeme] 1. description of tension receptors in the apodemes. MacMillan & Dando 1972 [Photo]

Cancer magister: [carnivore, food] 1. feeds on a variety of small invertebrates. MacKay 1942 [Photo]

Cancer magister: [diet, food] 1. analyses of gut contents in Humboldt Bay, California. Gotshall 1977 [Table of Data]

Cancer magister: [diet] 1. eats various shellfish in the Strait of Juan de Fuca. Pearson et al. 1979 [Text only]

Cancer magister: [chemical, perception] 1. prey detected by antennules through chemotactile stimulation. Pearson et al. 1979 [Graph]

Cancer magister: [diet] 1. calculate indices of relative importance for crabs in Gray's Harbor, Washington. 2. no actual estimation of preference. Stevens et al. 1982 [Graph]

Cancer magister: [diet, preferences] 1. juveniles in Coos Bay, Oregon readily eat small bivalves such as Transennella tantilla. Asson-Batres 1986 [Photo]

Cancer magister: [cannibalism] 1. contrived shell habitat protects "young-of-the-year" from predation by adults. Fernandez 1999 [Graph]

Cancer magister: [dispersal, nutrition] 1. hungry crabs move more than fed crabs in British Columbia. Bernatis et al. 2007 [Text only]

Cancer magister: [growth, moulting] 1. moult 12 times before reaching sexual maturity. MacKay 1942 [Photo, Graph]

Cancer magister: [age, growth, moulting] 1. legal size reached in 4yr after 14 moults in Haida Gwaii, British Columbia. Butler 1961 [Graph]

Cancer magister: [growth, habitat, ontogenetic shift] 1. habitat change with age. Stevens & Armstrong 1984 [Photo, Graph]

Cancer magister: [growth, mating, moulting] 1. "mating system" compared among 4 cancroid species. Orensanz & Gallucci 1988 [Graph]

Cancer magister: [growth, latitudinal, moulting] 1. growth & moulting Alaska to California. Wainwright & Armstrong 1993 [Drawing, Graph]

Cancer magister: [breakage, claw, safety factor] 1. comparison with C. oregonensis. Taylor et al. 2000 [Graph]

Cancer magister: [omnivory] 1. juvenile instars are primarily herbivorous. 2. test various diets. Jensen & Aspien 1997 [Photo]

Cancer magister: [photo courtesy] 1. photo of 3rd-instar juvenile courtesy The Watershed Project, Richmond, Caliornia. The Watershed Project [Photo]

Cancer magister: [osmotic regulation] 1. some hyperosmotic regulation in dilute salinities. Hunter & Rudy 1975 [Photo, Graph]

Cancer magister: [osmotic regulation] 1. strong hypotonic regulation of magnesium ion. Engelhardt & Dehnel 1973 [Graph]

Cancer magister: [salinity, sensory] 1. sensitive and responsive to small changes in external salinity. Sugaman et al. 1983 [Text only]

Cancer magister: [development, osmotic regulation] 1. some ability for hyperosmotic regulation by all life stages. 2. magnesium ion regulated strongly. Brown & Terwilliger 1992 [Graph]

Cancer magister: [activity, diel, tides, biologging] 1. daily activities correspond with tidal and salinity cycles. Curtis & McGaw 2008 [Photo, Graph]

Cancer magister: [digestion, feeding, salinity] 1. feeding and food processing diminished in low salinities. Curtis et al. 2010 [Graph]

Cancer magister: [predation] 1. description of dietary items of west-coast late-Holocene peoples. Losey et al. 2004 [Photo]

Cancer magister: [ecological interaction] 1. mass mortality in Grayland, Washington. Stevens & Armstrong 1981 [Text only]

Cancer magister: [predation] 1. eaten by sculpins Leptocottus armatus in Grays Harbor, Washington. Armstrong et al. 1995 [Photo, Graph]

Cancer magister: [nutritional content, predation] 1. number 1 preferred prey of sea otters Enhydra lutris in Santa Cruz, California. Ostfeld 1982 [Photo, Table of Data]

Cancer magister: [fecundity, reproduction] 1. compares reproductive output in 10 west-coast species. 2. this is the most fecund. Hines 1982 [Photo, Graph]

Cancer magister: [mating, reproduction] 1. scratch marks on claws after copulation . [Photo]

Cancer magister: [photo courtesy] 1. photo courtesy Antan Phillips, DFO, Nanaimo. Phillips [Photo]

Cancer magister: [acoustic transmitter, larva, reproduction] 1. description of larval stages. Mackay 1942 [Drawing]

Cancer magister: [reproduction] 1. breeding in Haida Gwaii, British Columbia is in May-Sept. Butler 1960 [Photo, Graph]

Cancer magister: [photo courtesy] 1. photo courtesy Antan Phillips, DFO, Nanaimo. Phillips [Photo]

Cancer magister: [copulation] 1. description of spermatophore transfer during copulation. Snow & Nielsen 1966 [Photo]

Cancer magister: [development, larva, reproduction, prezoea larva] 1. presence of a prozoeal larva confirmed. Roesijadi 1976 [Photo, Drawing]

Cancer magister: [larva, morphology] 1. compares larvae from California and Alaska. Shirley et al. 1987 [Drawing, Graph]

Cancer magister: [mark-recapture, moulting, reproduction, egg extrusion] 1. large mark-recapture study in northern California. Hankin et al. 1989 [Graph]

Cancer magister: [egg extrusion] 1. aspects of egg extrusion in crabs in Alaska. Swiney & Shirley 2001 [Drawing]

Cancer magister: [egg extrusion, reproduction] 1. details of egg extrusion. Swiney et al. 2003 [Drawing, Graph]

Cancer magister: [quiz] 1. quiz on gonadosomatic index changes. []

Cancer magister: [functional morphology] 1. details of functional morphology of reproductive system in females. Jensen et al. 1996 [Drawing]

Cancer magister: [behaviour, migration, reproduction, telemetry] 1. seasonal reproductive migrations in Alaska. Stone & O'Clair 2001 [Drawing]

Cancer magister: [behaviour, home] 1. monitoring of homesite fidelity in Fritz Cove, Alaska. Stone & O'Clair 2002 [Photo]

Cancer magister: [reproduction, spermatophore] 1. survey of insemination success of crabs in northern California. Oh & Hankin 2004 [Photo]

Cancer magister: [reproduction, spermatophore] 1. information on insemination success. Hankin et al. 1997 [Text only]

Cancer magister: [larval dispersal, latitudinal, recruitment] 1. recruitment in relation to coastal currents. Johnson et al. 1986 [Graph]

Cancer magister: [megalopa, onshore transport] 1. correlation of nearshore abundance with degree of onshore transport. Hobbs et al. 1992 [Graph]

Cancer magister: [megalopa, vertical migration, zoea] 1. information on diel behaviour of zoeae and megalopae. 2. metamorphosis to megalopae in early spring. Hobbs & Bosford 1992 1992 [Graph]

Cancer magister: [cues, settlement] 1. history of Grays Harbor estuary oyster-shell mitigation project. Dumbauld et al. 1993 [Text only]

Cancer magister: [settlement] 1. recruitment in Grays Harbor, Washington may depend upon frequency of alongshore currents. McConnaughey et al. 1992 [Text only]

Cancer magister: [season, settlement] 1. settlement in Puget Sound May-August depending on region. Dinnel et al. 1993 [Drawing]

Cancer magister: [cannibalism, settlement] 1. settlement success in Grays Harbor, Washington relates in part to degree of cannibalism from infaunal 2nd-3rd instar juveniles. Fernandez et al. 1993 [Text only]

Cancer magister: [settlement] 1. settlement success in oyster-shell habitats. Iribarne et al. 1994 [Text only]

Cancer magister: [settlement] 1. factors affecting settlement. Iribarne et al. 1995 [Text only]

Cancer magister: [settlement] 1. settlement success in oyster-shell habitat in Grays Harbor relates partly to protection from sculpin predation. Fernandez et al. 1993 [Text only]

Cancer magister: [settlement] 1. in Grays Harbor, Washington megalopae tend to moult to juvenile instar during nighttime. Fernandez et al. 1994 [Graph]

Cancer magister: [recruitment, settlement] 1. detailed field experiments in Grays Harbor, Washington show that settlement and recruitment are favoured in shell habitat over mud. Eggleston & Armstrong 1995 [Drawing, Graph]

Cancer magister: [growth] 1. settlement times in Puget Sound and comparison of post-settlement grown of different larval cohorts. McMillan et al. 1995 [Drawing, Graph]

Cancer magister: [settlement, survival] 1. predation by crabs Hemigrapsus spp. affects post-settlement survival. Banks & Dinnel 2000 [Photo, Graph]

Cancer magister: [megalopa, settlement, tidal transport] 1. entry of megalopae into Coos Bay estuary is driven by wind and tide. Miller & Shanks 2004 [Drawing]

Cancer magister: [megalopa, tidal transport] 1. aspects of inshore transport of megalopae. Roegner et al. 2007 [Drawing]

Cancer magister: [larval dispersal, vertical migration, zoea] 1. no apparent depth regulation to aid in inshore transport in Glacier Bay, Alaska. Park & Shirley 2008 [Text only]

Cancer magister: [hatching] 1. hatching times in southeastern Alaska. Park & Shirley 2008 [Text only]

Cancer magister: [tidal transport, depth regulation] 1. factors involved in megalopae entering over the shallow sill of Glacier Bay, Alaska. Herter & Eckert 2008 [Drawing]

Cancer magister: [larval dispersal, megalopa, oceanic processes, upwelling] 1. relationship of cross-shelf transport of megalopae to upwelling and seasonal transitional events. Shanks & Roegner 2007 [Photo]

Cancer magister: [megalopa, settlement, cross-shelf transport] 1. means of seasonal onshore movement of megalopae in Oregon. Shanks 2006 [Text only]

Cancer magister: [oceanic processes] 1. seasonal northward transport of larvae in the Alaska Current. 2. possible northward directed gene flow. Park et al. 2007 [Drawing]

Cancer magister: [larval dispersal, season] 1. irregular pulses of larvae from offshore to inshore waters in southeastern Alaska. Smith & Eckert 2011 [Drawing]

Cancer magister: [survival, temperature stress, zoea] 1. effect of temperature on survival and duration of zoeal stages. Sulkin & McKeen 1989 [Graph]

Cancer magister: [parasitism] 1. eggs are parasitised by a nemertean Carciinonemertes errans. Wickham 1979 [Table of Data, Text only]

Cancer magister: [photo courtesy] 1. photograph courtesy Iain McGaw, U Nevada. McGaw []

Cancer magister: [aging, growth, maturation, moulting] 1. aspects of growth, moulting, maturation, and aging in Boundary Bay, British Columbia. MacKay & Weymouth 1935 [Graph]

Cancer oregonensis: [defense, hide away] 1. video of crab hiding in dead barnacle test. [Video]

Cancer oregonensis: [claw, efficacy, mechanical advantage] 1. comparison of shell-breaking efficacy in 4 species of crabs. 2. determination of mechanical advantages. Behrens Yamada & Boulding 1998 [Photo, Drawing, Graph]

Cancer oregonensis: [claw, function, lever, mechanical advantage] 1. general description of claw function. [Photo]

Cancer oregonensis: [function, ultraviolet, chromatophore] 1. behaviour of chromatophores in different light conditions. Miner et al. 2000 [Photo, Graph]

Cancer oregonensis: [growth, mating, moulting] 1. "mating systems" compared among 4 cancroid species. Orensanz & Gallucci 1988 [Graph]

Cancer oregonensis: [claw, safety factor, breakage] 1. comparison with C. magister. Taylor et al. 2000 [Graph]

Cancer oregonensis: [carnivore, food] 1. eats worms, small shellfishes, and other invertebrates. Knudsen 1964 [Photo]

Cancer oregonensis: [photo courtesy] 1. photo courtesy Ron Long, Simon Fraser University, Burnaby. Long [Photo]

Cancer oregonensis: [megalopa, reproduction] 1. compares larval morphology with Cancer productus and other species. DeBrosse et al. 1989 [Photo, Drawing]

Cancer oregonensis: [photo courtesy] 1. photo courtesy Ron Long, Simon Fraser University. Long [Photo]

Cancer oregonensis: [larva, megalopa] 1. light-trap collections of larvae and megalopae in Alaska. Daly & Konar 2008 [Graph]

Cancer oregonensis: [photo courtesy] 1. photo courtesy Ron Long, Simon Fraser University, British Columbia. Long [Photo]

Cancer oregonensis: [predator] 1. pest of oyster aquaculturists. 2. eat juvenile oysters in culture. Behrens Yamada et al. 1993 [Photo, Graph]

Cancer oregonensis: [photo courtesy] 1. photo courtesy Ron Long, Simon Fraser University, British Columbia. Long [Photo]

Cancer productus: [predator, preferences] 1. test of predator preference (2 crab species) for 3 species of bivalves. Dudas et al. 2005 [Photo, Graph]

Cancer productus: [burrowing, defense] 1. test of burial depth of prey clam Protothaca staminea on attack success. Smith et al. 1999 [Photo, Graph]

Cancer productus: [burrowing, defense] 1. test of burial depth of prey clam Protothaca staminea on attack success. Smith et al. 1999 [Photo, Graph]

Cancer productus: [camouflage, epibiont] 1. most epibiont growths recorded of all Cancer species studied. McGaw 2006 [Photo, Drawing, Graph]

Cancer productus: [camouflage, colour] 1. examination of colour patterns of juveniles . Krause-Nehring et al. 2010 [Photo]

Cancer productus: [energetics] 1. burial for defense and energy savings. 2. description of gill irrigation. McGaw 2005 [Photo]

Cancer productus: [claw, efficacy, mechanical advantage] 1. comparison of shell-breaking efficacy in 4 species of crabs. 2. determination of mechanical advantages. Behrens Yamada & Boulding 1998 [Photo, Drawing, Graph]

Cancer productus: [claw, function, lever, mechanical advantage] 1. general description of claw function. [Photo]

Cancer productus: [cardiovascular, physiological ecology] 1. survive longer in air when unfed than when fed. McGaw et al. 2009 [Photo, Graph]

Cancer productus: [claw, morphology] 1. factors in evolution leading to monomorphic vs. dimorphic claws. Smith & Palmer 1994 [Photo]

Cancer productus: [photo courtesy] 1. photo courtesy Iain McGaw, University of Nevada, now at Memorial University, Newfoundland. McGaw [Photo]

Cancer productus: [autotomy, regeneration] 1. details of regeneration of claws and walking legs after autotomy. Brock & Smith 1998 [Photo, Graph]

Cancer productus: [carapace] 1. compares carapace streamlining in 3 brachyurans, including 2 west-coast species C. productus and Lopholithodes mandtii. Blake 1985 [Photo]

Cancer productus: [growth, mating, moulting] 1. "mating systems" compared among 4 cancroid species. Orensanz & Gallucci 1988 [Graph]

Cancer productus: [carnivore, food] 1. eats a variety of shellfishes and worms. Knudsen 1964 [Photo]

Cancer productus: [behaviour, locomotion, acoustic transmitter] 1. in 23d an individual moves 410m. Boulding & Hay 1984 [Drawing]

Cancer productus: [carnivore, shell-breaking] 1. describe how crab cracks shell of bivalve Protothaca staminea. Boulding & LaBarbera 1986 [Photo]

Cancer productus: [behaviour, diet, foraging] 1. describe foraging behaviour and diet for crabs in Bamfield, British Columbia. Robles et al. 1989 [Graph]

Cancer productus: [digestion, emersion] 1. digestive efficacy when stressed by air emersion. McGaw 2007 [Drawing, Graph]

Cancer productus: [life cycle, reproduction, amplexus] 1. review of crab larvae and life cycles. Hines 1986 [Photo]

Cancer productus: [larva, reproduction] 1. description of larval stages. Trask 1970 [Photo, Drawing]

Cancer productus: [photo courtesy] 1. photo courtesy Iain McGaw, Memorial University, Newfoundland. McGaw [Photo]

Cancer productus: [development, larva, prezoea larva] 1. presence of a prezoeal larva confirmed. Roesijadi 1976 [Photo, Drawing]

Cancer productus: [megalopa, reproduction] 1. compares larval morphology with that of Cancer oregonensis and other species. DeBrosse et al. 1989 [Photo, Drawing]

Cancer productus: [photo courtesy] 1. photo courtesy Iain McGaw, Memorial University, Newfoundland. McGaw [Photo]

Cancer productus: [predator] 1. in San Juan Islands, Washington prey on littorinid snails Littorina sitkana and L. scutulata. 2. other predatory crabs include Lophopanopeus bellus and, to a lesser extent Hemigrapsus spp.. Behrens Yamada & Boulding 1996 [Photo, Drawing, Graph]

Cancer productus: [predator] 1. presence and especially if feeding alters behaviour of down-stream prey littorines L. sitkana. 2. laboratory experiments. Behrens-Yamada et al. 1998 [Photo, Graph]

Cancer productus: [defense, predator, secondary metabolite] 1. used as a naive predator in tests of deterrant potential of body extracts of nudibranch Doris montereyensis. 2. extracts in food pellets significantly deter feeding by the crab. Penney 2002 [Photo, Graph]

Cancer productus: [competition, interspecific] 1. dominant competitor in face of invasive green crabs Carcinus maenas in 3 locations in central California. Jensen et al. 2007 [Drawing]

Cancer productus: [predator, zoea] 1. are able to catch and eat young plutei larvae of sand dollars Dendraster excentricus in laboratory tests. Rumrill et al. 1985 [Drawing]

Cancer productus: [predator] 1. in Puget Sound, Washington prey on whelks Nucella ostrina and smaller sized N. lamellosa. Bertness 1977 [Photo]

Cancer productus: [defense, morph, predator, shell-breaking] 1. comparison of resistance of thick- and thin-shelled morphs of whelks Nucella lamellosa. Palmer 1985 [Photo, Graph]

Cancer productus: [defense, predator, shell] 1. comparison of shell-thickening response in whelks Nucella lamellosa to presence of single versus both types of predators, sea stars Pisaster ochraceus and crabs Cancer productus. Bourdeau 2009 [Photo, Drawing, Graph]

Cancer productus: [defense, morphology, shell, stimulus] 1. effect of upstream presence of predatory crabs Cancer productus on defensive shell features, such as thickness and mass, of whelks Nucella lamellosa. Bourdeau 2010 [Photo, Graph]

Cancer productus: [defense, morphology, predator, shell] 1. apertural teeth of whelk Nucella lamellosa enlarge and apertural edge thickens in presence of effluent from crab predator Cancer productus. Appleton & Palmer 1988 [Photo]

Cancer productus: [defense, predator, shell, varices] 1. defensive functions of varices of snails Ceratostoma foliatum examined in a series of varix-removed experiments with predatory crabs Cancer productus and sea stars Pycnopodia helianthoides. Donovan et al. 1999 [Photo, Graph]

Cancer productus: [behaviour, escape, invasive, predator] 1. test ability of non-indigenous snails Urosalpinx cinerea and U. inornata to recognise danger from native snail-eating crabs Cancer productus. Grason & Miner 2012 [Graph]

Cancer productus: [identification, larva, reproduction, zoea] 1. identification of zoea larvae of 10 genera of crabs in San Francisco Bay. 2. provides a dichotomous key for all 10 genera. Rice & Tsukimura 2007 [Drawing]

Cancer productus: [effects, feeding, predation, predator, shell-breaking] 1. comparison of upstream presence of this crab on feeding of whelks Nucella spp. . 2. factors of shell strength and susceptibility to predation by crabs Cancer productus are taken into account. Bourdeau 2013 [Graph]

Cancer spp: [allometry, claw, strength] 1. allometric relationships in claw sizes and biting forces in 6 species of Cancer crabs. 2. example cited for Cancer productus. Taylor 2001 [Drawing, Graph]

Cancer spp.: [burial, defense, energetics] 1. aspects of burying behaviour. McGaw 2005 [Photo]

Cancer spp.: [claw, safety factor] 1. breakage strengths compared in 6 species. Palmer et al. 1999 [Drawing]

Cancer spp.: [claw, strength] 1. comparison of crushing strengths in claws of 6 species. 2. comparative muscle stress . Taylor 2000 [Graph]

Cancer spp.: [digestion] 1. reference to work on effect of hypoxia on gastric processing in Cancer species. McGaw 2008 [Graph]

Cancer spp.: [development, larva] 1. comparative data for 3 species of Cancer crabs. DeBrosse 1990 [Text only]

Cancer spp.: [fecundity, reproduction, scaling] 1. lifetime output of eggs scales isometrically with body size for 6 species . Hines 1991 [Graph]

Cancer spp.: [larval dispersal, oceanic processes] 1. comparison of megalopae distribution off Vancouver Island, British Columbia in several species of Cancer crabs. Jamieson & Phillips 1988 [Drawing]

Cancer spp.: [megalopa, settlement, upwelling] 1. adventitious settlement by megalopae of Cancer magister, C. productus, and C. antennarius during upwelling relaxation events. Wing et al. 1995 []

Cancer spp.: [predator, shell-breaking] 1. description of killing methods used on limpets by crabs Cancer productus and C. oregonensis. Lowell 1968 [Photo, Table of Data]

Cancer spp.: [morphology, zoea, maxillae] 1. key to distinguishing zoea larvae of C. magister, C. antennarius, and C. anthonyi. Mir 1961 [Text only]

Cancer  magister: [photo courtesy] 1. photo courtesy Dave Cowles, Walla Walla University, Washington. Cowles [Photo]

Cancer  magister: [optimal foraging] 1. in areas of British Columbia prefer smaller clams Protothaca staminea over larger ones. Juanes & Hartwick 1990 [Text only]

Cancer  magister: [optimal foraging] 1. in areas of British Columbia prefer smaller clams Protothaca staminea over larger ones. Juanes & Hartwick 1990 [Text only]

Cancer  magister: [larval dispersal, megalopa, vertical migration] 1. plankton tows show megalopae swim to surface at night. Jacoby 1982 [Text only]

Cancer  productus: [predator, preferences] 1. tests of preference for 3 species of bivalves. Boulding 1984 [Photo, Graph]

Cancer  productus: [community, predator] 1. direct and indirect predatory effects on a mini food-web including invasive snails and a native and invasive oyster. Grason & Miner 2012 [Photo]

Cancer  productus: [defense, growth form, shell] 1. compare shell-thickening growth responses in whelks Nucella lamellosa to presence of local (Cancer productus) versus invasive (Carcinus maenas) crabs. Edgell & Neufeld 2008 [Photo, Graph]

Candelabrum fritchmanii: [feeding, food] 1. diet and description of prey capture. Hewitt & Goddard 2001 [Drawing]

Candelabrum fritchmanii: [development, reproduction] 1. description of early development from actinula "larva" stage. Hewitt & Goddard 2001 [Drawing]

Candidatus Xenohaliotis californiensis: [disease] 1. temperature effects on degree of expression in red abalone Haliotis rufescens. Moore et al. 2005 [Text only]

Candidatus Xenohaliotis californiensis: [disease] 1. treatment of disease with antibiotics. 2. aquacultural relevance. Friedman et al. 2002 [Text only]

Capitella capitata: [detritivory, food] 1. growth and survival are poorer on suspended detritus than on phytopankton. Qian & Chia 1990 [Graph]

Capitella capitata: [growth, larva] 1. compare growth rates of larvae with those of Polydora ligna on different concentrations of phytoplankton. Qian & Chia 1991 [Text only]

Capitella sp.: [juvenile, predation] 1. observe predation effects on marked juvenile worms. Qian & Chia 1994 [Graph]

Capitella sp.: [growth, settlement, starvation] 1. effect of food limitation on growth and settlement of larvae. Qian & Chia 1993 [Graph]

Capitella sp.: [development, growth, poecilogony] 1. two developmental modes are present: planktotrophic larvae grow faster than lecithotrophic ones. Qian & Chia 1992 [Graph]

Capitella sp.: [age, egg, fecundity] 1. older females produce fewer eggs of poorer quality than younger ones. Qian & Chia 1992 [Text only]

Capitella spp.: [predation] 1. preferred foods of flatfishes in Puget Sound, Washington. Becker & Chew 1987 [Photo]

Caprella californica: [] 1. observations on feeding. Saunders 1966 [Text only]

Caprella californica: [feeding] 1. feedin observations. Keith 1969 [Text only]

Caprella californica: [habitat, preferences] 1. habitat preferences. Keith 1971 [Photo]

Caprella californica: [feeding, habitat, preferences] 1. habitat and feeding preferences. Caine 1977 [Text only]

Caprella equilibra: [feeding] 1. feeding observations. Keith 1969 [Text only]

Caprella equilibra: [habitat, preferences] 1. lack of apparent habitat preference. Keith 1971 [Photo]

Caprella kennerlyi: [feeding] 1. observations on feeding. Saunders 1966 [Photo]

Caprella kennerlyi: [photo courtesy] 1. photo courtesy Gary McDonald, UC Santa Cruz, California. McDonald [Photo]

Caprella laeviuscula: [feeding] 1. observations on feeding. Saunders 1966 [Text only]

Caprella laeviuscula: [feeding, habitat, preferences] 1. habitat and feeding preferences. Caine 1977 [Text only]

Caprella laeviuscula: [competition, habitat] 1. habitat competitiveness on eelgrass blades. Caine 1980 [Photo]

Caprella laeviuscula: [photo courtesy] 1. photo courtesy Pearson College, Victoria, British Columbia. Pearson College [Photo]

Caprella laeviuscula: [reproduction, mating] 1. description of mating . Caine 1979 [Photo]

Caprella laeviuscula: [photo courtesy] 1. photo courtesy Pearson College, Vancouver Island. Pearson College [Photo]

Caprella laeviuscula: [predation] 1. report of numerous species of fishes preying on these amphipods in San Juan Islands, Washington. Caine 1979 [Photo]

Caprella laeviuscula: [photo courtesy] 1. photo courtesy Pearson College, British Columbia. Pearson College []

Caprella sp.: [photo courtesy] 1. photo courtesy Kevin Lee, Fullerton, California. Lee [Photo]

Caprella sp.: [] 1. video of some caprellids on a tunicate Styela montereyensis. [Video]

Caprella sp.: [] 1. crawling on an eel-grass blade; possible example of aposematic coloration. [Photo]

Caprella sp.: [photo courtesy] 1. photo courtesy Kevin Lee, Fullerton, California. Lee [Photo]

Caprella sp.2: [] 1. photo courtesy Kevin Lee, Fullerton, California. Lee [Photo]

Caprella spp.: [filter-feeding] 1. description of filter-feeding and scraping for food. Caine 1977 [Photo]

Caprella spp.: [habitat, preferences] 1. caprellids in general found on rhizomes of eelgrass. Carr et al. 2011 [Text only]

Carcinonemertes epialti: [parasitism] 1. parasitises several species of brachyuran crabs. 2. description of life cycle of parasite. Roe 1979 [Text only]

Carcinonemertes epialti: [life history ] 1. life history considerations of parasites on crabs Hemigrapsus oregonensis . Shields & Kuris 1988 [Photo]

Carcinonemertes epialti: [development, larva, reproduction] 1. describes development to pilidium larval stage. Roe 1979 [Text only]

Carcinonemertes epialti: [development, larva, morphology] 1. describes morphology of larva. Stricker & Reed 1981 [Photo, Drawing]

Carcinonemertes epialti: [larval dispersal] 1. larva disseminate to host crabs by swimming . Bauman 1984 [Text only]

Carcinonemertes errans: [parasitism] 1. parasitises eggs of Dungeness crabs Cancer magister. Wickham 1979 [Table of Data, Text only]

Carcinonemertes errans: [parasitism] 1. parasitises eggs of Dungeness crabs Cancer magister. Wickham 1979 [Photo, Graph]

Carcinonemertes errans: [parasitism] 1. parasitises eggs of Dungeness crabs Cancer magister. Wickham 1980 [Photo, Graph]

Carcinonemertes errans: [parasitism] 1. parasitises eggs of Dungeness crabs Cancer magister. Wickham 1986 [Photo, Graph]

Carcinonemertes errans: [parasitism] 1. description of parasite transfer during moult of host. Wickham 1980 [Photo]

Carcinonemertes errans: [energetics, nutrition, parasitism] 1. parasite able to subsist on amines in solution. Roe et al. 1981 [Text only]

Carcinonemertes spp.: [parasitism] 1. list of nemertean parasites of crab eggs. Kuris 1978 [Table of Data]

Carcinonemertes spp.: [parasitism] 1. list of nemertean parasites of crab eggs. Roe 1979 [Table of Data]

Carcinonemertes spp.: [parasitism] 1. list of nemertean parasites of crab eggs. Wickham 1980 [Table of Data]

Carcinonemertes spp.: [parasitism] 1. list of nemertean parasites of crab eggs. Wickham et al. 1984 [Table of Data]

Carcinonemertes spp.: [parasitism] 1. list of nemertean parasites of crab eggs. Wickham 1986 [Table of Data]

Carcinonemertes spp.: [parasitism] 1. list of nemertean parasites of crab eggs. Shields & Kuris 1988 [Table of Data]

Carcinonemertes spp.: [parasitism] 1. list of nemertean parasites of crab eggs. Shields et al. 1990 []

Carcinonemertes spp.: [parasitism] 1. list of nemertean parasites of crab eggs. Shields & Kuris 1990 [Table of Data]

Carcinonemertes spp.: [parasitism] 1. list of nemertean parasites of crab eggs. Kuris et al. 1991 [Table of Data]

Carcinonemertes spp.: [parasitism] 1. list of nemertean parasites of crab eggs. Torchin et al. 1996 []

Carcinonemertes spp.: [nutrition, parasitism] 1. parasites may be able to subsist on primary amines diffusing through arthrodial membranes that join exoskeleton parts. Crowe et al. 1982 [Photo]

Carcinonemertes spp.: [nutrition, parasitism] 1. parasites may subsist on primary amines diffusing through arthrodial membranes. Crowe et al. 1983 [Photo]

Carcinonemertes spp.: [nutrition, parasitism] 1. alternate nutritional sources for nemertean parasites of crab eggs. Roe et al. 1981 [Photo]

Carcinonemertes spp.: [nutrition, parasitism] 1. alternate source of nutrition for nemertean parasites of crab eggs. Wickham & Kuris 1985 [Photo]

Carcinonemertes spp.: [review] 1. early review of nemertean parasites of crabs. Coe 1902 [Text only]

Carcinonemertes spp.: [defense, parasitism, review] 1. review of possible defenses by crabs against nemertean parasites of their eggs. Kuris & Wickham 1987 [Text only]

Carcinonemertes spp.: [development, egg] 1. some eggs develop parthenogenetically. Roe 1986 [Text only]

Carcinus gracilis: [digestion, gut, specific dynamic action] 1. large comparison of different crustaceans of costs of specific dynamic action in relation to body size, ration, and transit time of food through the gut. McGaw & Curtis 2013 [Photo, Graph]

Carcinus gracilis: [photo courtesy] 1. photograph courtesy Dave Cowles, Walla Walla University, Washington. Cowles [Photo]

Carcinus maenas: [defense, growth form, shell] 1. compare shell-thickening growth responses in whelks Nucella lamellosa to presence of local (Cancer productus) versus invasive (Carcinus maenas) crabs. Edgell & Neufeld 2008 [Photo, Graph]

Carcinus maenas: [identification, larva, reproduction, zoea] 1. identification of zoea larvae of 10 genera of crabs in San Francisco Bay. 2. provides a dichotomous key for all 10 genera. Rice & Tsukimura 2007 [Drawing]

Carcinus  maenas: [photo courtesy] 1. photo courtesy Marine Invasive Species Monitoring Organization, Maine. Citizen Scientist Initiative [Photo]

Carcinus  maenas: [competition, interspecific, non-indigenous] 1. potential competition with indigenous species. 2. introduced into San Francisco Bay, California in 1989-90. Cohen et al. 1995 [Photo]

Carcinus  maenas: [aggression, competition, feeding] 1. records of prey eaten in Bodega Harbor, California. 2. out-competes local crabs Cancer magister and Hemigrapsus oregonensis. Grosholz & Ruiz 1995 [Photo]

Carcinus  maenas: [photo courtesy] 1. photo courtesy R.F. Uglow, University of Hull, England. Uglow []

Carcinus  maenas: [ecology] 1. ecological impact of green crabs Carcinus maenas introduced to several areas of the world. Grosholz & Ruiz 1996 [Table of Data]

Carcinus  maenas: [ecology, impact] 1. ecological impact of introduction of green crabs Carcinus maenas in Bodega Bay Harbor, California. Grosholz et al. 2000 [Drawing, Graph]

Carcinus  maenas: [ecology, impact] 1. description of ecological impact of arrival of green crabs at various west-coast locations. Grosholz et al. 2001 [Text only]

Carcinus  maenas: [ecology, impact] 1. review of potential impact of green crabs on west-coast fauna. Jamieson et al. 1998 [Text only]

Carcinus  maenas: [competition, exploitative] 1. juveniles out-competed by shore crab Hemigrapsus oregonensis juveniles in exploitative-type competitions for food. Jensen et al. 2002 []

Carcinus  maenas: [aggression, competition, interference] 1. out-competes Dungeness crabs Cancer magister for habitat space in both field and lab experiments. McDonald et al. 2001 [Graph]

Carcinus  maenas: [feeding, preferences] 1. favours Pacific oyster Ostrea lurida in preference test of several bivalves in Oregon. Palacios & Ferraro 2003 [Text only]

Carcinus  maenas: [growth] 1. compare growth rates in different west-coast locations and in Europe. Behrens Yamada et al. 2005 [Photo, Graph]

Carcinus  maenas: [growth] 1. discussion of future prospects for spread and survival on the west coast. Behrens-Yamada & Gillespie 2008 [Photo, Graph]

Carcinus  maenas: [photo courtesy] 1. . Museum Victoria Australia [Photo]

Carcinus  maenas: [photo courtesy] 1. . Museum Victoria Australia [Photo]

Carcinus  maenas: [energy budget] 1. comparative energy budgeting in different locations. 2. optimality models. McDonald et al. 2006 [Photo]

Carcinus  maenas: [competition, efficacy, feeding, morphology, mechanical advantage] 1. comparative efficiency of claws in green crabs versus Dungeness crabs Cancer magister. Behrens Yamada et al. 2010 [Drawing, Graph]

Carcinus  maenas: [growth, habitat] 1. uses carapace colour to estimate growth potential in different habitats. McGaw et al. 2011 [Photo]

Carcinus  maenas: [photo courtesy] 1. photos courtesy Iain McGaw, Ocean Sciences Centre, Memorial University, Newfoundland. McGaw [Photo]

Carcinus  maenas: [competition, density] 1. long-term study shows negative effects of green crabs on local shore crabs Hemigrapsus oregonensis. De Riviera et al. 2011 [Photo, Graph]

Carcinus  maenas: [dispersal, larva] 1. modeling approach to study larvae dispersion in Willapa Bay, Washington . Banas et al. 2009 [Drawing]

Carcinus  maenas: [dispersal, el Niño, oceanic processes, recruitment] 1. correlations with several oceanic events. Behrens Yamada & Kosro 2010 [Drawing]

Carcinus  maenas: [photo courtesy] 1. photo of megalopa stage. Zooplankton-Online [Photo]

Carcinus  maenas: [genetics] 1. population from California to British Columbia is genetically homogenous. 2. predict expansion into Aleutian Islands. De Rivera et al. 2011 [Drawing]

Carcinus  maenas: [growth] 1. compare growth rates in several regions. Behrens Yamada et al. 2005 [Graph]

Carcinus  maenas: [parasitism] 1. compares rates of parasitism by nemerteans Carcinonemertes epialti with that on local crabs Hemigrapsus oregonensis. Torchin et al. 1996 [Photo]

Carcinus  maenas: [competition, interspecific] 1. invasive green crabs are outcompeted for habitat space by native Cancer spp. in 3 locations in central California. Jensen et al. 2007 [Drawing]

Carcinus  maenas: [larva] 1. describe the makeup and operation of an in situ device for collecting, processing, and analysing larval plankton samples. 2. entirely unique and ingenious. Jones et al. 2008 [Photo]

Carcinus  maenas: [acclimation experiments, thermal maxima] 1. comparison of California and British Columbia populations. Kelley et al. 2011 [Drawing]

Cardisoma guanhumi: [gas exchange] 1. description of "ballooning" of carapace surrounding branchial chambers. [Photo]

Careproctus melanurus: [parasitism] 1. found living in the branchial chamber of lithode crab Lopholithodes foraminatus. Parrish 1972 [Photo]

Caribeopsyllus amphiodiae: [parasitism] 1. this copepod inhabits the gut of brittle stars Amphiodia urtica. Ho et al. 2003 [Photo, Drawing]

Cebidichthys  violaceus: [predation, prey, prey capture] 1. description of attack behaviour by predatory cone shell Conus californicus in the laboratory. Stewart & Gilly 2005 [Photo, Graph]

Centrostephanus coronatus: [defense, shelter] 1. a goby species Lythrypnus dalli shelters under the spine canopies of these sea urchins in Santa Catalina Island, California. Hartney & Grorud 2002 [Photo]

Centrostephanus coronatus: [photo courtesy] 1. photo courtesy Keven Lee, Fullerton, California. Lee [Photo]

Cephalopod : [beak, predation] 1. beaks used to identify and quantify cephalopod prey of Steller sea lions in Alaska. Pitcher 1981 [Text only]

Ceratostoma foliatum: [diet, preferences, prey] 1. preference in San Juan Islands, Washington for littleneck clams Protothaca staminea, but other bivalves also eaten. Spight et al. 1974 [Drawing]

Ceratostoma foliatum: [development, egg, reproduction] 1. introductory comments about development in egg cases to walk-away juveniles. [Photo]

Ceratostoma foliatum: [development, life cycle, life span, reproduction] 1. description of life-history events. 2. nurse eggs are apparently absent. Spight et al. 1974 [Drawing]

Ceratostoma foliatum: [drawing courtesy] 1. drawing courtesy D'Asaro 1991 Ophelia 35: 1. D'Asaro 1991 [Drawing]

Ceratostoma foliatum: [development, nurse eggs, reproduction] 1. comparison of hatching size and nurse-egg utilisation with several species of whelks Nucella. Spight 1976 [Text only]

Ceratostoma foliatum: [growth, shell, varices] 1. consider growth of shell varices. Spight & Lyons 1974 [Photo]

Ceratostoma foliatum: [function, shell, varices] 1. one function of the middle varix may be to rotate the shell during a fall through the water column such that it lands aperture-down. Palmer 1977 [Text only]

Ceratostoma foliatum: [] 1. video of snail falling through the water column. [Video]

Ceratostoma foliatum: [costs, defense, function, righting, varices] 1. experiments on righting times and costs from different starting orientations on different varix pairs. Carefoot & Donovan 1995 [Photo, Drawing, Graph]

Ceratostoma foliatum: [righting] 1. video of snail righting itself from the "hard" landing orientation. [Video]

Ceratostoma foliatum: [righting] 1. video of snail righting itself from the "easy" landing orientation. [Video]

Ceratostoma foliatum: [defense, scaling, shell, varices] 1. aspects of scaling relationships of varices to body length. Palmer 1977 [Graph]

Ceratostoma foliatum: [defense, scaling, shell, varices] 1. aspects of scaling relationships of varices to body length. Carefoot & Donovan 1995 [Graph]

Ceratostoma foliatum: [defense, predator, shell, varices] 1. defensive functions of varices examined in a series of varix-removed experiments with predatory crabs Cancer productus and sea stars Pycnopodia helianthoides. Donovan et al. 1999 [Photo, Graph]

Ceratostoma foliatum: [feeding, function, shell, spines, stability] 1. discusses possible functions for labial spine on shell aperture. Kent 1981 [Photo]

Cerebratulus  lacteus: [defense, toxin] 1. describes presence of neurotoxin. Kem 1976 [Text only]

Cerebratulus  montereyi: [photo courtesy] 1. photo courtesy Pamela Roe, California State University Stanislaus. Roe [Photo]

Cerebratulus  montgomeryi: [aposemetism] 1. possible warning coloration in nemerteans; research needed. [Photo]

Cerebratulus  spp.: [defense, regeneration, fragmentation] 1. possible defensive strategy of fragmentation followed by regeneration. [Photo]

Cerebratulus  spp.: [defense, toxin] 1. describes neurotoxins. Blumenthal & Kem 1976 []

Cerebratulus  spp.: [larva, metamorphosis] 1. among largest pilidium larva known. 2. juveniles develop within larva. Lacalli 2005 [Photo, Drawing]

Cerebratulus  montgomeri: [predation] 1. review of various vertebrate and invertebrate predators of nemerteans. McDermott 2001 [Photo]

Cerithidea californica: [predation] 1. in Bolinas Lagoon, California eaten by crabs Pachygrapsus crassipes. Sousa 1993 [Photo]

Cerithidea californica: [photo courtesy] 1. photo courtesy Kevin Lafferty, University of California, Davis. Lafferty [Photo]

Cerithidea californica: [environment, food, predator] 1. effects of food and predators on population vitality. Armitage & Fong 2006 [Photo]

Cerithidea californica: [competition, competitive exclusion, interference] 1. account of competitive exclusion of an endemic species of mud snail Cerithidea californica by a non-indigenous species Ilyanassa obsoleta. Race 1982 [Photo]

Cerithidea californica: [community, competitive exclusion, predation] 1. competitive and predatory interactions between the horn snail and a grapsid crab Pachygrapsus crassipes. Armitage & Fong 2006 [Photo]

Cerithidea californica: [photo courtesy] 1. photograph courtesy Kevin Lafferty and EPA, University of California. Lafferty [Photo]

Cerithidea californica: [growth, parasitism] 1. effect of trematode parasitism on shell growth. Sousa 1983 [Graph]

Cerithidea californica: [parasitism, stress, survival, temperature stress] 1. comparative survival of parasitised versus non-parasitised individuals in face of added stresses of temperature, salinity, desiccation, and so on. 2. both types seem to do equally well. Sousa & Gleason 1989 [Photo]

Cerithidea californica: [photo courtesy] 1. photo courtesy INaturalist.org. INaturalist.org 1989 [Photo]

Cerithidea californica: [genetics, maturation, parasitism, size] 1. effect of parasites on maturation size. 2. reciprocal translocations of individuals between areas of high- and low-parasite prevalence to determine whether effects are genetic or environmental. Lafferty 1993 [Graph]

Cerithidea californica: [density] 1. reference to work on effect of parasites on density. Lafferty 1993 [Text only]

Cerithidea californica: [defense, predation, size-selective] 1. size-selective predation by crabs Pachygrapsus crassipes. Sousa 1993 [Photo]

Cerithidea californica: [photo courtesy] 1. photo courtesy Kevin Lafferty, California and EPA, University of California, Davis. Lafferty [Photo]

Cerithidea californica: [development, environment, life cycle, reproduction] 1. describes development and life-history features; effects of various environmental effects such as temperature, salinity, and desiccation. Race 1981 [Photo]

Cerithidea californica: [density, distribution, light, physiological ecology] 1. effect of light intensity on distribution and density in the field. Lorda & Lafferty 2012 [Photo, Graph]

Chaetopterus sp.: [photo courtesy] 1. photo courtesy Kevin Lee, Fullerton, California. Lee [Photo]

Chaetopterus sp.: [functional morphology, ventilation] 1. description of ventilatory fan-beating to drive water through the burrow. Berrill 1927 [Text only]

Chaetopterus variopedatus: [suspension feeding] 1. detailed description of the feeding process. MacGinitie 1939 [Drawing]

Chama arcana: [] 1. competitive interactions with snails Chlorostoma spp. in Santa Catalina Island, Calfiornia. Schmitt 1987 [Photo, Graph]

Chama arcana: [camouflage, defense, prey] 1. coating of sessile organisms protects from predation by sea stars Pisaster giganteus. Vance 1978 [Photo]

Chama arcana: [predator] 1. defense from sea-star predators by close association with Corynactis californica. Patton et al. 1991 [Photo, Graph]

Chelonia  mydas: [predator] 1. in the Gulf of California are known to eat sea hares Aplysia vaccaria, along with their usual plant foods. Seminoff et al. 2002 [Text only]

Chelyosoma productum: [receptor, sensory] 1. description of mechano-sensory organs, or capsular organs on the branchial basket. Mackie & Singla 2004 [Photo]

Chelyosoma productum: [photo courtesy] 1. photo courtesy Dave Cowles, Walla Walla University, Washington. Cowles [Photo]

Chelyosoma productum: [larva, predator] 1. data on larvae eaten along with other food-stuffs. 2. comparison with other species Pyura haustor and Ascidia callosa. Bingham & Walters 1989 [Graph]

Chelyosoma productum: [predation] 1. describes feeding method as being torn apart by arms and tube feet of sea-star predator Evasterias troschelii. Young 1984 [Text only]

Chelyosoma productum: [gonad index] 1. experiments on effect of light cycle on seasonal gonadal indices. Bingham 1997 [Graph]

Chelyosoma productum: [gregariousness, settlement] 1. first description of gregarious settlement in a tunicate. Young & Braithwaite 1980 [Photo, Drawing]

Chelyosoma productum: [photo courtesy] 1. drawing courtesy Morris et al. 1980 Intertidal invertebrates of California. Stanford University Press, Stanford, California. Morris et al. 1980 [Drawing]

Chelysoma productum: [predation] 1. preferred prey of sea star Evasterias troschelii in San Juan Islands, Washington. Young 1985 [Photo, Graph]

Chione undatella: [competition, interspecific, intraspecific] 1. competition with another bivalve Protothaca staminea. Peterson 1982 [Photo, Graph]

Chione undatella: [competition, growth, intraspecific, reproduction] 1. intraspecific competition reduces both growth and reproduction. 2. no evidence of interspecific competition with another bivalve species Protothaca staminea. Peterson 1983 [Photo, Graph]

Chionoecetes bairdi: [camouflage, epibiont] 1. up to 39 different taxa recorded on crabs in Kodiak Island, Alaska. Dick et al. 1998 [Photo]

Chionoecetes bairdi: [epibiont, parasitism] 1. an individual bears sea anemones on its carapace. [Video]

Chionoecetes bairdi: [autotomy] 1. compares autotomy events in the Bering Sea with those in king crabs Paralithodes camtschaticus. Edwards 1972 [Photo, Drawing, Graph]

Chionoecetes bairdi: [reproduction] 1. aspects of reproduction in Alaska. Paul 1984 [Photo]

Chionoecetes bairdi: [mating, reproduction] 1. mating success in Alaska. Paul & Adams 1984 [Graph]

Chionoecetes bairdi: [mating, reproduction, spermatophore] 1. male mating success. Adams & Paul 1983 [Text only]

Chionoecetes bairdi: [mating, reproduction] 1. details of mating behaviour, egg incubation, and so on. Swiney 2008 [Graph]

Chionoecetes opilio: [photo courtesy] 1. photo courtesy Bill Eichenlaub, National Park Service & Tamone et al. Glacier Bay Sci Symposium. Eichenlaub [Photo]

Chionoecetes opilio: [moulting, maturation] 1. both sexes reach a terminal moult. Tamone et al. 2005 [Photo]

Chiton : [home] 1. introduction to chiton in home file for chiton part of the Odyssey. [Text only]

Chiton : [] 1. snail meets chiton animation. [Animation]

Chiton : [map] 1. snail's map with chiton highlighted. [Drawing]

Chiton : [classification] 1. classification of Class Polyplacophora, including chitons. [Text only]

Chiton : [feeding, radula] 1. description of radular feeding mechanism. [Drawing]

Chiton : [radula, composition] 1. elemental composition of radula is magnetite. [Photo]

Chiton : [orientation, radula] 1. early studies on chiton orientation. Tomlinson 1959 [Text only]

Chiton : [distribution, genetics] 1. study of genetic connectivity in 28 species of chitons from 130 sites from Alaska to Gulf of California. Kelly & Eernisse 2007 [Text only]

Chiton : [predation] 1. eaten by sea stars Pisaster ochraceus. Feder 1959 [Photo]

Chiton : [predation] 1. eaten by sea stars Pisaster ochraceus. Paine 1966 [Photo]

Chiton : [predation] 1. eaten by sea stars Pisaster ochraceus. Mauzey et al. 1968 [Photo]

Chiton : [life cycle, reproduction] 1. introductory description of reproduction. [Text only]

Chiton : [homing, quiz, mechanism] 1. quiz on possible mechanisms used in homing. []

Chiton : [] 1. animated "fly-by" showing gamete release. Young 1996 [Animation]

Chiton : [community, herbivory, production, reference only] 1. research studies on control of primary production in tidepools by consumers. Paine 2002 [Text only]

Chiton tuberculatus: [homing, orientation] 1. early description of homing in chitons. Crozier 1921 [Photo]

Chlamys hastata: [energetics, suspension feeding] 1. calculate energy cost of pumping. Bernard & Noakes 1990 [Text only]

Chlamys hastata: [age, growth] 1. individual of 8cm shell height is about 8yr old. 2. comparison of somatic and reproductive growth with C. rubida. MacDonald et al. 1991 [Photo, Graph]

Chlamys hastata: [defense, swimming] 1. video of scallop swimming from simulated attack by a sea star Pycnopodia helianthoides. [Video]

Chlamys hastata: [costs, energetics, swimming] 1. energy costs of carrying large barnacles on their shell plates when swimming. Donovan et al. 2003 [Photo, Graph]

Chlamys hastata: [energetics, swimming, anaerobic] 1. scallops rely on over 80% of their energy costs in swimming being met by anaerobic sources. Donovan et al. 2002 [Text only]

Chlamys hastata: [photo courtesy] 1. photo of scallop with parasitic barnacle Balanus sp. courtesy Deb Donovan, Western Washington University, Bellingham. Donovan [Photo]

Chlamys hastata: [parasitism, reference only] 1. in San Juan Islands, Washington area are parasitised by snails Odostomia columbiana. Collin & Wise 1997 [Text only]

Chlamys hastata: [ctenidia, pumping, scaling, size] 1. comparison of pumping rates with dry mass and surface area with mussels Mytilus californianus, cockles Clinocardium nuttallii, and bent-nose clams Macoma nasuta. Meyhofer 1985 [Photo, Graph]

Chlamys rubida: [fouling] 1. showing shell valve fouled with sponge. Lescinsky 1993 [Photo]

Chlamys rubida: [fouling] 1. showing shell valve fouled with tubeworms and barnacles. Lescinsky 1993 [Photo]

Chlamys rubida: [parasitism, reference only] 1. in San Juan Islands, Washington area are parasitised by snails Odostomia columbiana. Collin & Wise 1997 [Text only]

Chlamys rubida: [age, growth, reproduction] 1. comparison of age and growth with C. hastata. MacDonald et al. 1991 [Photo, Graph]

Chlamys sp.: [development, larva, metamorphosis, reproduction] 1. details of early development to settlement/metamorphosis. Hodgson & Burke 1988 [Photo, Drawing]

Chlamys sp.: [swimming] 1. video of scallop swimming. [Video]

Chlamys sp.: [defense, swimming] 1. video of several scallops swimming in response to the arrival of a juvenile sunflower star Pycnopodia helianthoides in their aquarium tank. [Video]

Chlamys sp.: [parasitism] 1. shell valve infested with parasitic tubeworm Spirorbis sp.. [Photo]

Chlamys sp.: [fouling] 1. sabellids, spirorbids, and bryozoans foul the shell valve. Lescinsky 1993 [Photo]

Chlamys sp.: [defense, fouling] 1. interesting experiments showing the types of interactions possible between barnacles parasitically fouling the shell valves and the sponges fouling the valves mutualistically. Farren & Donovan 2007 [Graph]

Chlamys spp.: [camouflage, defense] 1. sponge coatings may confer camouflaging coloration. 2. function of colours on velar curtains?. [Photo]

Chlamys spp.: [predator] 1. chief predators are Pynopodia sea stars, octopuses, and sea otters. [Photo]

Chlamys spp.: [anchor, defense] 1. function of anchoring threads is probably not defense. [Photo]

Chlamys spp.: [defense, mutualism] 1. sponge coatings on shell valves provide protection from sea-star predators. Bloom 1975 [Photo, Graph]

Chlamys spp.: [quiz] 1. quiz on sponge/scalllop mutualisms. [Text only]

Chlamys spp.: [quiz] 1. quiz on sponge/scallop mutualisms. [Text only]

Chlamys spp.: [energetics, mutualism, swimming] 1. energetic demand on swimming in scallops by carrying a load of sponge on their shell valves. Donovan et al. 2002 [Photo, Graph]

Chlamys spp.: [mutualism] 1. commonly host growths of sponges Myxilla incrustans on their shell valves. [Photo]

Chlamys spp.: [fouling, mutualism, parasitism] 1. survey of types of fouling growths on scallops in the San Juan Islands area of Washington. 2. good photo of bare shells of C. hastata and C. rubida showing different morphologies not seen until the sponge coatings are removes. Lescinsky 1993 [Photo, Drawing]

Chlamys spp.: [defense, eye, swimming] 1. comparison of eye morphology and visual sensitivity in eyes of swimming and sessile species of scallops. Speiser & Johnsen 2008 [Photo, Drawing]

Chlorostoma : [habitat] 1. habitat preferences of Chlorostoma and Promartynia snails. Lowry et al. 1974 [Drawing]

Chlorostoma : [habitat] 1. habitat preferences of Chlorostoma and Promartynia snails. Riedman et al. 1981 [Drawing]

Chlorostoma : [behaviour, defense] 1. escape behaviour to sea stars. 2. defensive responses of Chlorostoma and Promartynia snails. Feder 1963 [Photo]

Chlorostoma : [defense, behaviour] 1. defensive responses snails. Watanabe 1983 [Photo]

Chlorostoma : [defense, behaviour] 1. defensive responses snails. Watanabe 1984 [Photo]

Chlorostoma : [feeding] 1. radular tracks on inside of aquarium. [Photo]

Chlorostoma aureotincta: [competition] 1. competitive interactions with Chlorostoma eiseni on Santa Catalina Island, California. 2. intraspecific and interspecific interactions. Schmitt 1985 [Graph]

Chlorostoma aureotincta: [competition, food] 1. food competition with Chlorostoma eiseni. 2. Santa Catalina Island, California. Schmitt 1996 [Text only]

Chlorostoma brunnea: [chemical, defense] 1. algal coatings on snails provide defense from sea-star predators. Thomber 2007 [Graph]

Chlorostoma brunnea: [competition] 1. competition between 3 species of trochid snails. Watanabe 1984 [Photo, Drawing]

Chlorostoma brunnea: [photo courtesy] 1. 2 photos of trochid snails courtesy Gary McDonald, Long Marine Laboratory, Santa Cruz, California. McDonald [Photo]

Chlorostoma eiseni: [competition] 1. competitive interactions with Chlorostoma aureotincta. Schmitt 1985 [Graph]

Chlorostoma eiseni: [competition, food] 1. food competition with Chlorostoma aureotincta. 2. Santa Catalina Island, California. Schmitt 1996 [Text only]

Chlorostoma funebralis: [defense] 1. escape behaviour to sea stars. Yarnall 1964 [Table of Data]

Chlorostoma funebralis: [defense, habitat] 1. age-related habitat preference. 2. escape behaviour from predatory sea star. Feder 1963 [Photo]

Chlorostoma funebralis: [defense, behaviour] 1. escape behaviour of trochid snail to crab. Geller 1982 [Photo]

Chlorostoma funebralis: [defense, behaviour] 1. predation on trochid snails. Fawcett 1984 [Photo, Graph]

Chlorostoma funebralis: [feeding] 1. preferred foods are large fleshy kelps. 2. more than 20 species of algae are eaten. Best 1964 [Photo]

Chlorostoma funebralis: [feeding, preferences] 1. seaweed content of phenolics determines feeding preference. Steinberg 1985 [Photo, Graph]

Chlorostoma funebralis: [feeding, preferences] 1. phenolics important determinant of feeding preferences. Steinberg 1985 []

Chlorostoma funebralis: [locomotion] 1. comparison of normal and escape speeds of locomotion with those in abalone Haliotis kamtschatkana. Miller 1974 [Photo]

Chlorostoma funebralis: [] 1. relationship of foot area and tenacity. Miller 1974 [Photo, Graph]

Chlorostoma funebralis: [] 1. foot tenacity in black turban snail. Gabaldon 1982 [Photo]

Chlorostoma funebralis: [] 1. description of radula mechanics in feeding. MacDonald & Maine 1964 [Photo, Drawing]

Chlorostoma funebralis: [feeding] 1. radula mechanics. Morris & Hickman 1981 [Photo, Drawing]

Chlorostoma funebralis: [feeding] 1. description of radular tracks. Hickman & Morris 1985 [Photo]

Chlorostoma funebralis: [migration] 1. settle in high intertidal area, then migrate lower with increasing size and age. Paine 1969 [Drawing, Graph]

Chlorostoma funebralis: [survival] 1. survives attack by sea stars Pisaster ochraceus by withdrawing into shell. Markowitz 1980 [Graph]

Chlorostoma funebralis: [desiccation] 1. daily vertical movements possibly related to temperature stress. Wara & Wright 1964 [Text only]

Chlorostoma funebralis: [desiccation] 1. use of mantle water in osmoregulation. Marchetti & Geller 1987 [Photo, Graph]

Chlorostoma funebralis: [genetics, habitat] 1. relationship of genotype with preferred habitats. Byers 1982 [Photo]

Chlorostoma funebralis: [genetics, habitat] 1. experiments on relationship between genotype and preferred habitats. Byers & Mitton 1981 [Photo]

Chlorostoma funebralis: [size gradient] 1. shore-level size gradient. 2. sizes greater lower in the intertidal zone. Doering & Phillips 1983 [Graph]

Chlorostoma funebralis: [size gradient] 1. shore-level size gradient. 2. larger individuals lower in intertidal zone. Wara & Wright 1964 [Text only]

Chlorostoma funebralis: [sensory] 1. description of bursicles on the gills, possibly used in chemosensory-mediated defense. Szal 1971 [Drawing]

Chlorostoma funebralis: [development, reproduction] 1. embryonic development through to metamorphosis and early juvenile. Moran 1997 [Photo, Drawing]

Chlorostoma funebralis: [reproduction, sex determination] 1. sex determined by colour of foot. Frank 1969 [Photo]

Chlorostoma funebralis: [growth, reproduction] 1. embryonic development through to metamorphosis and early juvenile. 2. growth rate of juvenile over 60 days. Guzman del Proo et al. 2006 [Drawing, Graph]

Chlorostoma funebralis: [growth] 1. age and growth of black turban shells in different parts of the west coast. Darby 1964 [Photo, Graph]

Chlorostoma funebralis: [growth, age] 1. age and growth of black turban shells in different regions of the west coast. Frank 1965 [Photo, Graph]

Chlorostoma funebralis: [age, growth] 1. age and growth of black turban shells in different regions of the west coast. Frank 1975 [Photo, Graph]

Chlorostoma funebralis: [age, growth] 1. age and growth of black turban shells in different regions of the west coast. Paine 1969 [Photo, Graph]

Chlorostoma funebralis: [growth, shell] 1. shell growth and damage repair. Geller 1982 [Photo]

Chlorostoma funebralis: [shell, repair] 1. frequency of shell repair as a measure of fitness. Geller 1983 [Text only]

Chlorostoma funebralis: [repair, shell] 1. electron-microscopic views of shell repair. Reed-Miller 1983 [Photo]

Chlorostoma funebralis: [repair, shell] 1. electron-microscopic views and description of shell repair. Reed-Miller 1983 [Photo]

Chlorostoma funebralis: [repair, shell] 1. electron-microscopic views and description of shell repair. Reed-Miller 1981 [Photo]

Chlorostoma funebralis: [water flow] 1. description of water flow and its functions. MacDonald & Maine 1964 [Drawing]

Chlorostoma funebralis: [aggregation, desiccation] 1. does clustering with chitons Mopalia muscosa mutually reduce desiccation?. Fitzgerald 1975 [Photo]

Chlorostoma funebralis: [defense, intertidal level, migration] 1. migrate down the shore with age. Paine 1969 [Photo]

Chlorostoma funebralis: [heat-shock proteins] 1. introduction to heat-shock proteins in Chlorostoma. [Text only]

Chlorostoma funebralis: [latitudinal] 1. size differences found latitudinally and with local habitat conditions. Cooper & Shanks 2011 [Drawing]

Chlorostoma funebralis: [host] 1. often host limpets Lottia asmi, but whether larvae preferentially settle on the Chlorostoma shells is not known. Test 1945 [Photo]

Chlorostoma funebralis: [host] 1. are host to sometimes several slipper limpets Crepidula adunca. Putnam 1964 [Photo, Drawing]

Chlorostoma funebralis: [competition, food, space] 1. juveniles compete with Littorina scutulata for food and space at Pacific Grove, California. Jensen 1981 [Photo, Graph]

Chlorostoma funebralis: [drilling, predation] 1. in the San Diego area are preyed upon by octopuses. Fotheringham 1974 [Photo]

Chlorostoma funebralis: [morphology, radula] 1. comparison of radula morphology in several species of trochid snail, including Chlorostoma spp., Tegula spp., and Promartynia sp.. Fritchmann 1965 [Drawing]

Chlorostoma funebralis: [host, parasitism, preferred] 1. preferred host of sabellid parasite Terebrasabella heterouncinata. 2. unique and successful biological-control plan described involving mass removal of this species from around abalone-culture facilities. Culver & Kuris 2000 [Photo]

Chlorostoma funebralis: [host, preferences, preferred] 1. data on speed of transmission of parasite from host-to-host. 2. faster transmission between Haliotis rufescens individuals than between turban snail Chlorostoma funebralis individuals. Moore et al. 2007 [Text only]

Chlorostoma montereyi: [competition] 1. competition between 3 species of trochid snails. Watanabe 1984 [Photo, Drawing]

Chlorostoma spp.: [growth] 1. trochid snails in kelp forests in California do best on a mixed seaweed diet. Watanabe 1984 [Photo]

Chlorostoma spp.: [photo courtesy] 1. photos courtesy Gary McDonald, Long Marine Laboratory, Santa Cruz. McDonald [Photo]

Chlorostoma spp.: [feeding, preferences] 1. phenolic content of seaweeds important determinant of feeding preferences. Steinberg 1988 [Photo, Graph]

Chlorostoma spp.: [heat-shock proteins] 1. explanation of function of heat-shock proteins . [Text only]

Chlorostoma spp.: [heat-shock proteins] 1. heat-tolerances of 3 Chlorostoma species: funebralis, brunnea, and monteryi. 2. induction temperatures for 3 Chlorostoma species: funebralis, brunnea, and monteryi. Tomanek & Somero 1999 [Photo, Graph]

Chlorostoma spp.: [heat-shock proteins, review] 1. review of thermal stress and heat-shock proteins in Chlorostoma spp. and other invertebrates. Tomanek & Helmuth 2002 []

Chlorostoma spp.: [] 1. time-course and magnitude of heat-shock responses in trochid snails Chlorostoma funebralis and C. brunnea. Tomanek & Somero 2000 [Photo, Graph]

Chlorostoma spp.: [heat-shock proteins] 1. heat-shock proteins in marine invertebrates. Tomanek 2002 [Graph, Text only]

Chlorostoma spp.: [heat-shock proteins] 1. heat-shock proteins in marine invertebrates. Tomanek & Somero 2002 [Graph, Text only]

Chlorostoma spp.: [heat-shock proteins] 1. heat-shock proteins in relation to intertidal level and changing environmental conditions in trochid snails. Tomanek & Sanford 2003 []

Chlorostoma spp.: [locomotion] 1. use of retrograde-ditaxic type of locomotion. Miller 1974 [Drawing]

Chlorostoma spp.: [parasitism] 1. limpets Lottia asmi and slipper limpets Crepidula adunca inhabiting the shells of trochid snails are parasites that the snails cannot defend against. Evans 1992 [Photo]

Chlorostoma spp.: [Q10] 1. temperature effects on activity in several species. 2. comparison north and south of Point Conception, California. Yee & Murray 2004 [Drawing]

Chlorostoma spp.: [temperature stress] 1. thermal limits of heart function in 3 species. Stenseng et al. 2005 [Graph]

Chromodoris spp.: [aposemetism] 1. field tests of aposematic or warning coloration in Papua New Guinea. Gosliner 2001 [Text only]

Chromopleustes oculatus: [aposemetism] 1. photograph of several specimens on a sea pen. [Photo]

Chromopleustes oculatus: [commensalism] 1. photograph in close view of a specimen crawling on a sea anemone. [Photo]

Chromopleustes sp.: [aposemetism] 1. photo of many specimens crawling on a bull kelp Nereocystis luetkeana. [Photo]

Chrysaora colorata: [] 1. video of an individual swimming in an aquarium tank. [Video]

Chrysaora fuscescens: [competition, diet] 1. diet in Oregon mainly euphausid eggs and larvae. 2. some overlap with various fishes and Aurelia labiata. Brodeur et al. 2008 [Graph]

Chrysaora fuscescens: [diet] 1. adults in Oregon opportunistically prey on a variety of planktonic animals. Suchman et al. 2008 [Photo]

Chrysaora fuscescens: [photo courtesy] 1. photo courtesy Kevin Lee, Fullerton, California. Lee [Photo]

Chrysaora fuscescens: [development, reproduction] 1. study at Monterey Bay Aquarium, California of development to young adult stage. Widmer 2008 [Photo]

Chrysaora fuscescens: [abundance, season] 1. ascertain causative factors relating to blooms off the west coast. Suchman et al. 2012 [Photo, Graph]

Chrysaora spp.: [] 1. video of individuals swimming in an aquarium tank. [Video]

Chrysaora  fuscescens: [] 1. video of it swimming in an aquarium tank. [Video]

Chthamalus dalli: [cyprid larva, nauplius larva] 1. how to distinguish west-coast chthamalids. Miller et al. 1989 [Photo, Drawing]

Chthamalus dalli: [distribution] 1. overlapping distribution with C. fissus. Wares & Castaneda 2005 [Photo]

Chthamalus dalli: [cirrus, scaling] 1. comparison with 3 other species. Marchinko & Palmer 2003 [Photo, Graph]

Chthamalus dalli: [heat-shock proteins, growth, upwelling, wave exposure] 1. comparison of wave exposure and upwelling on growth in 2 species of barnacles. Sanford & Menge 2001 [Drawing, Graph]

Chthamalus dalli: [density, reproduction] 1. effect of crowding on reproductive output. Wethey 1984 [Graph]

Chthamalus dalli: [habitat, recruitment] 1. aspects of habitat in relation to recruitment. Schubart et al. 1995 [Photo, Graph]

Chthamalus dalli: [competition, interspecific] 1. competition with Balanus glandula and Semibalanus cariosus. Dayton 1971 [Photo]

Chthamalus dalli: [competition, interspecific] 1. competition with Balanus glandula. Paine 1981 [Graph]

Chthamalus dalli: [competition, interspecific] 1. competition with barnacles Balanus glandula and various seaweeds. Farrell 1991 [Photo, Graph]

Chthamalus dalli: [character displacement, cirrus, competitive exclusion] 1. analysis of 6 species of barnacles with respect to character displacement of ramus length of cirri. Marchinko et al. 2004 [Drawing, Graph]

Chthamalus dalli: [competition, predation] 1. survival favoured when limpets bulldoze away potential competing barnacle species Balanus glandula and Semibalanus cariosus. Dayton 1971 [Photo]

Chthamalus dalli: [predator, survival] 1. survival favoured if limpets Lottia digitalis are excluded from the habitat. Paine 1981 [Photo, Graph]

Chthamalus dalli: [spat, survival] 1. spat survive limpet bulldozing better than spat of Balanus glandula. Menge et al. 2010 [Text only]

Chthamalus dalli: [latitudinal, recruitment] 1. effect of headlands in Oregon and California on recruitment. Connolly et al. 2001 [Drawing, Graph]

Chthamalus dalli: [substratum preference] 1. preferential settlement on other species of barnacles. [Photo]

Chthamalus dalli: [distribution, intertidal level, predation] 1. differential predation by whelks Nucella spp. sets lower limits of intertidal distribution. Connell 1970 [Photo, Drawing]

Chthamalus dalli: [reproduction, settlement] 1. in Monterey Bay settlement tends to be random. 2. comparison with acorn barnacle Balanus glandula and goose barnacle Pollicipes polymerus. Satchell & Farrell 1993 [Photo, Graph]

Chthamalus dalli: [competition, space] 1. bulldozing by limpets Lottia pelta minimised by living in depressions and on the limpets' shells. [Photo]

Chthamalus dalli: [community, predation] 1. large study on community interactions between barnacles and several species of whelks Nucella. Comnell 1970 [Drawing]

Chthamalus dalli: [community, effects, predator] 1. large, comprehensive study on the effect of predation by whelks Nucella canaliculata and N. ostrina on community structure including 6 prey barnacle and mussel species, and a sea-anemone species. Navarrete 1996 [Graph]

Chthamalus fissus: [cyprid larva, nauplius larva] 1. how to distinguish west-coast chthamalids. Miller et al. 1989 [Photo, Drawing]

Chthamalus fissus: [growth] 1. comparison of growth rates with 2 other species of barnacles. Hines 1979 [Graph]

Chthamalus fissus: [character displacement, cirrus, competitive exclusion] 1. analysis of 6 species of barnacles with respect to character displacement of ramus length of cirri. Marchinko et al. 2004 [Drawing, Graph]

Chthamalus fissus: [acontia] 1. effect of Point Conception headland on genetic structure along the west coast. Wares et al. 2001 [Drawing]

Chthamalus fissus: [broods, reproduction] 1. comparative brood numbers seasonally including Balanus glandula and Tetraclita squamosa. Hines 1978 [Photo, Graph]

Chthamalus fissus: [broods, intertidal level, reproduction] 1. effect of intertidal level and other factors on brood production. 2. comparison with Balanus glandula and Tetraclita squamosa. Hines 1979 [Graph]

Chthamalus fissus: [cyprid larva, settlement] 1. comparison of settlement times and features with 2 other species Balanus glandula and Tetraclita squamosa. Hines 1979 [Photo]

Chthamalus fissus: [predator] 1. narrow aperture may provide protection against whelk predator Mexacanthina lugubris. Jarrett 2008 [Photo, Graph]

Chthamalus spp.: [predation, competitive exclusion] 1. discussion of chthamaloid evolution. Newman & Stanley 1981 [Photo]

Chthamalus spp.: [evolution] 1. discussion of chthamaloid and balanoid evolution. Stanley & Newman 1980 []

Chthamalus spp.: [larva, settlement, upwelling] 1. oceanic conditions favouring settlement of larvae. Farrell et al. 1991 [Photo]

Chthamalus spp.: [larval dispersal, mortality] 1. larval distribution and mortality in inshore waters. Tapia & Pineda 2007 [Graph]

Chthamalus spp.: [larval dispersal, tides, upwelling] 1. transport of larvae related to advection of subsurface waters and tidal cycles. Pineda 1991 [Text only]

Chthamalus spp.: [el Niño, latitudinal, recruitment] 1. recruitment along the California coast in an el Nino year. Connolly & Roughgarden 1999 [Drawing, Graph]

Chthamalus spp.: [oceanic processes, settlement, thermocline, water flow] 1. comparison of settlement in 2 areas differing in features of thermocline and water flow. Pineda & Lopez 2002 [Graph]

Chthamalus spp.: [recruitment, temperature ] 1. recruitment breaks along the west coast in relation to sea-surface temperatures. Broitman et al. 2008 [Drawing, Graph]

Chthamalus spp.: [ecology, recruitment, succession] 1. role of recruitment and succession in community ecology. Forde & Raimondi 2004 [Photo]

Chthamalus spp.: [fertilisation success, recruitment, reproduction] 1. self-fertilisation in chthamalids. Barnes & Barnes 1958 [Photo]

Chthamalus spp.: [reproduction, settlement] 1. settlement at La Jolla, California related to large internal tidal bores. 2. compares with goose barnacles Pollicipes polymerus. Pineda 1994 [Graph]

Chthamalus spp.: [larva, recruitment, temperature , upwelling] 1. investigate barnacle recruitment on Santa Cruz Island, California. Broitman et al. 2005 [Drawing]

Chthamalus spp.: [predation] 1. in Pacific Grove, California preferred as food by whelks Acanthinucella punctulata. Sleder 1981 [Photo, Graph]

Ciona : [development, reproduction] 1. miscellaneous observations on early cleavage. Morgan 1941 [Text only]

Ciona intestinalis: [competition] 1. aggressive recruitment tends to drive other space-inhabiting species away. Blum 2007 [Photo, Graph]

Ciona intestinalis: [distribution, invasive] 1. record of invasive tunicate species on the west coast. Lambert & Lambert 1998 [Photo]

Ciona intestinalis: [photo courtesy] 1. photo courtesy Angus Jackson & Marine Biol Assoc UK. Jackson [Photo]

Ciona intestinalis: [taxonomy] 1. genetic, reproductive, and morphological evidence suggests splitting into 2 species. Nydam & Harrison 2007 [Photo]

Ciona intestinalis: [life cycle] 1. description of reproductive events. Svane & Havenhand 1993 [Photo]

Ciona intestinalis: [photo courtesy] 1. photo courtesy Angus Jackson and the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom. Jackson [Photo]

Ciona intestinalis: [quiz] 1. quiz on density effects observed in field experiments in Australia. [Text only]

Ciona savignyi: [development, growth, juvenile, life cycle, scaling] 1. detailed comparative survey of growth and scaling dimensions of post-metamorphic juveniles of several solitary and colonial tunicates. Sherrard & LaBarbera 2005 [Photo]

Ciona  intestinalis: [density, juvenile, larva, size] 1. effects of larval size and recruitment density on survival. Marshall & Keough 2003 [Photo, Graph]

Cirolana harfordi: [photo courtesy] 1. photo courtesy Gary McDonald, Santa Cruz, California. McDonald [Photo]

Cirolana harfordi: [predation] 1. eaten by several species of fishes in southern California. Mitchell 1953 [Text only]

Cirolana harfordi: [egg, fecundity, reproduction, season] 1. seasonality of egg release. Johnson 1976 [Graph]

Cirolana harfordi: [energy budget, population] 1. energy budget has too many dubious entries to be useful. Johnson 1976 [Table of Data]

Cirolana harfordi: [feeding, morphology, mouth, appendage] 1. series of scanning-electron microscopical photos of mouthpart appendages, with suggestions of their function. Thomson 2012 [Photo]

Cirolana sp.: [predation] 1. one of several types of isopods eaten by nearshore fishes in Santa Catalina Island, California. Hobson & Chess 1976 [Text only]

Cirolana  harfordi: [carnivore, diet, digestion] 1. feed mainly on animal matter, both live and dead. Johnson 1976 [Photo]

Cladorhiza  evae: [carnivore, predator, prey] 1. description of of deep-sea glass sponge thought to be carnivorous. Lundsten et al. 2014 [Photo]

Cladorhiza  evae: [photo courtesy] 1. photograph courtesy Monterey Bay Aquarium Research Institute, pilots of the deep-sea ROVs Doc Ricketts, crews of the surface support vessels Western Flyer and Rachel Carson, and the Magnolia Press. Lundsten et al. 2014 [Photo]

Cladorhizidae : [carnivore, predator, prey] 1. description of several new species of deep-sea glass sponges thought to be carnivorous. Lundsten et al. 2014 [Photo]

Clam : [home] 1. introduction to clam in home file for CLAMS & RELATIVES part of the Odyssey. [Text only]

Clam : [] 1. snail meets clam animation. [Animation]

Clam : [map] 1. snail's map with clam highlighted. [Drawing]

Clam : [classification] 1. classification of SubClass Heterodonta, including clams. [Text only]

Clam : [predation] 1. several species eaten by crabs. Boulding 1984 [Photo]

Clam : [quiz] 1. quiz on features of clams that make them more or less vulnerable to being attacked and eaten. [Text only]

Clam : [suspension feeding] 1. description of feeding in a clam. [Text only]

Clam : [burrowing] 1. description of burrowing in soft substrata. Ansell & Nair 1969 [Drawing]

Clam : [larva, predation] 1. introductory remarks about predators of clams during their llfe cycle. [Photo]

Clam : [life cycle, reproduction] 1. generalised life cycle information. Abraham & Dillon 1986 [Drawing]

Clam : [habitat, diversity] 1. brief introduction to bivalve diversity on the west coast. [Photo]

Clam : [habitat, diversity] 1. brief introduction to bivalve diversity on the west coast. [Photo]

Clam : [PSPs] 1. compare efficacy of 5 tests for PSPs on several types of bivalves in Kodiak, Alaska. Costa et al. 2009 []

Clathria sp.: [quiz] 1. quiz on whether a published experiment on water flow properly tested the hypothesis. [Text only]

Clathria  prolifera: [morphology, structure, water flow] 1. describes water flow through the sponge in relation to overall structure; compare with Haliclona permolis. Reiswig 1975 [Drawing]

Clathria  sp.: [functional morphology, experiment] 1. test of hypothesis that a growing sponge adopts a form that minimises the amount of exhaled water re-entering its incurrent pores. Warburton 1960 [Drawing]

Clathria  sp.: [drag, water flow] 1. consideration of alternative explanations for results of Warburton's chimney-function experiment. [Text only]

Clavelina huntsmani: [alarm, pheromone] 1. describes possible alarm pheromone released on being damaged by a predator. Pelletier 2004 [Photo]

Clinocardium nuttallii: [prey] 1. cockles are main prey of octopuses Enteroctopus dofleini. Hartwick et al. 1981 [Photo]

Clinocardium nuttallii: [prey] 1. eaten by sea stars Pisaster brevispinus. [Photo]

Clinocardium nuttallii: [defense, prey] 1. illustrates defense-escape mechanism of Clinocardium from an attacking sunflower star Pycnopodia helianthoides. [Photo]

Clinocardium nuttallii: [] 1. cockle escapes attack by juvenile sunflower star Pycnopodia helianthoides. [Video]

Clinocardium nuttallii: [predation, vulnerability] 1. comparison of 8 species of clams for vulnerability to predation. Boulding 1984 [Photo, Drawing]

Clinocardium nuttallii: [energetics, suspension feeding] 1. energy cost of pumping. Bernard & Noakes 1990 [Text only]

Clinocardium nuttallii: [age, growth] 1. comparison of age and growth in different populations in Netarts Bay, Oregon. Ratti 1978 [Graph]

Clinocardium nuttallii: [growth, tides] 1. growth lines correspond with daily tides. Evans 1972 [Graph]

Clinocardium nuttallii: [age, growth, season] 1. use of growth lines to estimate age. Gallucci & Gallucci 1982 [Photo]

Clinocardium nuttallii: [nutrition, symbiont] 1. green algal symbionts may contribute to nutrition. Cooke 1975 [Photo]

Clinocardium nuttallii: [acontia, predation] 1. in northern Washington preyed upon by gulls Larus glaucescens. Kvitek 1991 [Photo]

Clinocardium nuttallii: [hermaphroditism, reproduction] 1. no evidence of self-fertilisation. Galucci & Galluci 1982 [Photo]

Clinocardium nuttallii: [reproduction] 1. compares with 3 other bivalve species in Oregon. Robinson & Breese 1982 [Text only]

Clinocardium nuttallii: [] 1. . [Photo]

Clinocardium nuttallii: [preferred, prey] 1. preferred prey of octopuses Enteroctopus dolfleini in Barkley Sound, British Columbia. Hartwick et al. 1981 [Photo, Table of Data]

Clinocardium nuttallii: [quiz] 1. quiz on what features of cockles make them preferred prey for octopuses Enteroctopus dolfleini. [Photo]

Clinocardium nuttallii: [photo courtesy] 1. photos courtesy Brian Hartwick, Simon Fraser University, British Columbia. Hartwick [Photo]

Clinocardium nuttallii: [age, growth] 1. compare growth of individuals in Washington and Alaska. Weymouth & Thompson 1931 [Photo, Graph]

Clinocardium nuttallii: [photo courtesy] 1. photograph courtesy Ron Long, Simon Fraser University, British Columbia. Long [Photo]

Clinocardium nuttallii: [map, population, recruitment, survival] 1. one of 5 major clam species monitored in clam recruitment/survival study in Puget Sound, Washington. Dethier et al. 2012 [Text only]

Clinocardium nuttallii: [ctenidia, pumping, scaling, size] 1. comparison of pumping rates with dry mass and surface area with mussels Mytilus californianus, bent-nose clams Macoma nasuta, and scallops Chlamys hastata. Meyhofer 1985 [Photo, Graph]

Clinocardium nuttallii: [hermaphroditism, reproduction] 1. in Puget Sound spawn April-November. 2. hermaphroditic. Gallucci & Gallucci 1982 [Photo]

Clinocardium nuttallii: [hermaphroditism, protandry, reproduction] 1. in Oregon spawn in late summer. 2. tendency to protandric hermaphroditism. Ratti 1978 [Graph]

Clinocardium nuttallii: [feeding, pumping, settlement] 1. effects of exhalent current from bivalve siphon on settlement patterns of larvae of other invertebrates. Ertman & Jumars 1988 [Photo, Drawing]

Clinocardium nuttallii: [commensalism, parasitism] 1. reports on a crab Pinnixa faba being found in the mantle cavity of a museum-specimen in Puget Sound collected in 1937. Schneider 1993 [Text only]

Clinocottus globiceps: [predator] 1. predator of sea anemones Anthopleura elegantissima and Epiactis prolifera. Yoshiyama et al. 1996 [Photo]

Clinocottus globiceps: [predator] 1. comments on resistance to nematocysts of its sea-anemone prey. Yoshiyama et al. 1996 [Text only]

Cliona californiana: [parasitism] 1. grows parasitically within the shells of living and dead molluscs. [Photo]

Cliona californiana: [boring, parasitism] 1. describes process of boring into mollusc shells, done enzymatically. Cobb 1969 [Drawing]

Clione californiana: [predation, prey] 1. at least 10 species of sponges eaten in Barkley Sound, of which this species is one of the 2 most common. Penney 2013 [Photo]

Clupea harengus pallasi: [predation] 1. preferred prey of hydromedusan Aequorea victoria . Purcell et al. 1987 [Photo]

Clupea harengus pallasi: [preferences, prey] 1. eaten preferentially by 8 species of pelagic soft-bodied predators, including several species of hydromedusans. Purcell 1990 [Drawing]

Clupea harengus pallasi: [predation, prey] 1. as larvae eaten by jellyfish Aurelia labiata. Arai & Hay 1982 [Drawing]

Clupea  harengus pallasi: [predation] 1. eaten by several species of hydromedusans. Arai & Hay 1982 [Graph]

Clymenella californica: [feeding] 1. comparson of feeding in 3 maldanid species in Tomales Bay, California including Axiothella rubrocincta and Praxillella pacifica. Kudenov 1977 [Drawing]

Clytia gregaria: [development, skeleton] 1. carbohydrates deposited during development play a skeletal supporting role. Bonner 1955 [Drawing]

Clytia gregaria: [predation, preferences] 1. a common prey item in Oregon is copopods Arcartia clausi and related species. 2. several hydromedusan species included in study. McCormick 1969 [Photo]

Clytia gregaria: [feeding] 1. relationship of feeding and growth with seasonal plankton blooms. Huntley & Hobson 1978 [Text only]

Clytia gregaria: [food, predation, preferences] 1. prefer to eat euphausid eggs in Saanich Inlet in springtime. Larson 1987 [Text only]

Clytia gregaria: [development, life cycle, reproduction] 1. . Roosen-Runge 1962 [Drawing]

Clytia gregaria: [density, physiological ecology, salinity] 1. experiments on perception of salinity discontinuities. Arai 1973 [Text only]

Clytia hemisphaerica: [development, life cycle, reproduction] 1. . Roosen-Runge 1970 [Photo]

Clytia lomae: [food, predator, preferences] 1. prefer to eat euphausid eggs in Saanich Inlet in springtime. Larson 1987 [Text only]

Clytia spp.: [digestion, feeding, ration] 1. comparative information for 3 Clytia species eating euphausid eggs. Larson 1987 [Graph]

Cnemidocarpa finmarkiensis: [predation] 1. being attacked by predatory sea star Pycnopodia helianthoides. [Photo]

Cnemidocarpa finmarkiensis: [behaviour, light, settlement] 1. negative phototaxes during settlement in 8 species of tunicate. Young & Chia 1985 [Photo]

Cnemidocarpa finmarkiensis: [aggregation, behaviour] 1. comments on benefits of an "aggregating" strategy in this species. Svane & Havenhand 1993 [Photo]

Codium sitchensis: [photo courtesy] 1. photo courtesy Gary McDonald, Long Marine Laboratory, UC Santa Cruz. McDonald [Photo]

Colidotea rostrata: [brooding, reproduction, symbiont] 1. breed all year long, but with spring/summer peaks. 2. live symbiotically with sea urchins Strongylocentrotus spp.. Stebbins 1989 []

Colidotea rostrata: [brooding, reproduction, symbiont] 1. breed all year long, but with spring/summer peaks. 2. live symbiotically with sea urchins Strongylocentrotus spp.. Stebbins 1989 []

Community : [community] 1. discussion of "top-down" and "bottom-up" concepts in community ecology. Menge 1992 [Photo, Text only]

Conus californicus: [function, morphology, radula, cusp] 1. early description of harpoon and its function. Hanna & Strong 1949 [Drawing]

Conus californicus: [toxin] 1. description of effect of toxin of cone shells Conus californicus on different prey or neurological systems. Whysner & Saunders 1966 [Text only]

Conus californicus: [toxin] 1. description of effect of toxin of cone shells Conus californicus on different prey or neurological systems. Cotrell & Twarog 1972 [Text only]

Conus californicus: [toxin] 1. description of effect of toxin of cone shells Conus californicus on different prey or neurological systems. Elliott & Kehoe 1978 [Text only]

Conus californicus: [toxin] 1. description of effect of toxin of cone shells Conus californicus on different prey or neurological systems. Elliott 1979 [Text only]

Conus californicus: [toxin] 1. description of effect of toxin of cone shells Conus californicus on different prey or neurological systems. Elliott & Rafferty 1979 [Text only]

Conus californicus: [toxin] 1. description of effect of toxin of cone shells Conus californicus on different prey or neurological systems. Bingham et al. 2000 [Text only]

Conus californicus: [toxin] 1. description of effect of toxin of cone shells Conus californicus on different prey or neurological systems. Gilly et al. 2011 [Text only]

Conus californicus: [food, preferences] 1. in laboratory setting preferred foods are snails, polychaetes, and sometimes bivalves and fishes. Saunders 1959 [Photo]

Conus californicus: [photo courtesy] 1. photo courtesy Kevin Lee, Fullerton, California . Lee [Photo]

Conus californicus: [cusp, functional morphology, toxin, harpoon] 1. good description of functioning of all parts of the harpoon system. Marshall et al. 2002 [Photo, Drawing]

Conus californicus: [predator, prey, prey capture] 1. description of attack behaviour on fishes in the laboratory. Stewart & Gilly 2005 [Photo, Graph]

Conus californicus: [photo courtesy] 1. photo courtesy Kevin Lee, Fullerton, California. Lee [Photo]

Conus californicus: [biochemistry, toxin] 1. identify about 50 putative toxins, or conotoxins. 2. compare with other world species of cone shells. Elliger et al. 2011 [Text only]

Conus californicus: [diet, preferences, prey] 1. preferred diet in California includes mostly snails, bivalves, and polychaetes. Kohn 1966 [Text only]

Conus spp.: [feeding, functional morphology] 1. general introductory material explaining how the harpoon cusps in cone shells are used to attack prey. []

Conus spp.: [drawing courtesy] 1. drawing courtesy Gladys Archerd Shell Collection, Natural History Museum, Richland, Washington. Archerd []

Conus spp.: [photo courtesy] 1. photo courtesy Clay Brice in Australian Marine Shells, Odyssey Publ., San Diego, California. Brice []

Conus spp.: [photo courtesy] 1. photo courtesy Alan Kohn, University of Washington, Seattle . Brice []

Conus spp.: [drawing courtesy] 1. drawing of Conus dissection courtesy A. Traica. Traica []

Conus spp.: [preferences, prey] 1. discussion of harpoon morphology in relation to prey types eaten. 2. California cones shells C. californicus have a broad dietary range. Nybakken 1990 [Drawing]

Conus spp.: [evolution, genetics, phylogeny] 1. comprehensive study on 57 Conus species, including C. californicus. Biggs et al. 2010 [Drawing]

Corallina vancouveriensis: [growth, habitat, stimulus] 1. presence of this coralline alga stimlates growth of sponge Halichondria panicea. Palumbi 1985 [Photo, Graph]

Corambe steinbergae: [photo courtesy] 1. photo courtesy Bill Rudman, Sea Slug Forum, Australia. Rudman [Photo]

Corambe steinbergae: [competition, exploitative, feeding, habitat] 1. co-occurs with C. pacifica and exploitative competition for food occurs. Yoshioka 1986 [Photo]

Corambe steinbergae: [photo courtesy] 1. photo courtesy Bill Rudman, Sea Slug Forum, Australia. Rudman [Photo]

Corambe steinbergae: [food] 1. feeds exclusively on bryozoans Membranipora membranacea. Yoshioka 1986 [Photo]

Corambe steinbergae: [photo courtesy] 1. photo courtesy Clinton Bauder, California. Bauder [Photo]

Corambe steinbergae: [feeding] 1. description of feeding on a bryozoan Membranipora. McBeth 1968 [Text only]

Corambe steinbergae: [distribution] 1. distribution along kelp frond correlates with % cover of food bryozoan Membranipora colonies. Seed 1976 [Drawing]

Corambe steinbergae: [defense, predator, prey] 1. its presence stimulates prey bryozoan Membranipora membranacea to grow defensive spines. Iyengar & Harvell 2002 [Photo]

Corambe steinbergae: [development, exploitative, larva, reproduction] 1. details through to metamorphic competency. Bickell & Chia 1979 [Photo, Graph]

Corambe steinbergae: [photo courtesy] 1. photo courtesy Clinton Bauder, Monterey. Bauder [Photo]

Corambe steinbergae: [development, gut, larva, metamorphosis, morphology] 1. interesting change in gut morphology during and after metamorphosis. Bickell et al. 1981 [Drawing]

Cordylophora caspia: [habitat, physiological ecology, preferences] 1. relationship of certain environmental factors such as temperature and salinity to population growth in San Francisco estuary. 2. introduced species from Black and Caspian Seas. Meek et al. 2012 [Text only]

Corella inflata: [brooding, egg, reproduction] 1. description of unique brooding in these solitary forms. 2. eggs contain cells with ammonium ions for flotation. Lambert & Lambert 1978 [Photo]

Corella inflata: [larva, settlement, ultraviolet] 1. UV component of sunlight is toxic to the settling larvae. Binham & Reitzel 2000 [Photo, Graph]

Corella inflata: [juvenile, settlement, survival] 1. large comparative study comparing post-settlement survival of juveniles in light vs. shade in shallow vs. deeper areas in 6 species. 2. in general, survival better in shade in shallow water conditions. Young & Chia 1984 [Graph]

Corella inflata: [predation] 1. being attacked by predatory sea star Dermasterias imbricata. [Photo]

Corella sp.: [brooding, reproduction] 1. brooding in solitary tunicates. Lambert et al. 1995 [Photo]

Corella sp.: [receptor, sensory] 1. description of mechano-sensory organs, or cupula organs on the branchial basket. Bone & Ryan 1978 [Photo]

Corella spp.: [] 1. on vertical surfaces orientate with brood chamber uppermost. 2. this position minimises risk of larvae being sucked in as food. Young 1988 [Drawing]

Corella willmeriana: [predation] 1. in areas of the northwest are eaten by flatworms Eurylepta leoparda. Lambert 1968 [Photo]

Corella willmeriana: [predation] 1. in areas of the northwest are eaten by flatworms Eurylepta leoparda. Lambert 1968 [Photo]

Corella willmeriana: [brooding, egg, reproduction] 1. description of unique brooding in these solitary forms. 2. eggs contain cells with ammonium ions for flotation. Lambert & Lambert 1978 [Photo]

Corella willmeriana: [predation] 1. eaten by flatworms Eurylepta leoparda. Lambert 1968 [Photo]

Coronula diadema: [development, settlement, substratum preference] 1. preferentially settle on humpback whales Megaptera novaeangliae. Nogata & Matsumura 2006 [Photo]

Corophium spp.: [feeding] 1. description of variable feeding modes in Corphium spp.. Miller 1984 [Drawing]

Corophium spp.: [photo courtesy] 1. drawing courtesy Meadows & Read 1966 J Zool 150L 387. Meadows & Read 1966 [Drawing]

Corophium spp.: [predation] 1. eaten by introduced Asian gobies Tridentiger bifasciatus in San Francisco Bay Estuary. Matern & Brown 2005 [Photo]

Corvus caurinus: [diet, preferences] 1. in paired preference tests the crows invariably choose the heavier of the 2 prey items. O'Brien et al. 2005 [Photo]

Corvus caurinus: [behaviour, predator] 1. interesting account of behaviour when dropping whelks Nucella lamellosa in order to break their shells. Zack 1978 [Drawing, Graph]

Corvus caurinus: [behaviour, predator] 1. interesting account of behaviour when dropping whelks Nucella lamellosa in order to break their shells. Zack 1979 [Drawing, Graph]

Corvus corax: [predator] 1. prey on sand crabs Emerita analoga in Oregon. 2. prefer gravid crabs. Hendricks & Hendricks 2011 [Photo]

Corvus corax: [photo courtesy] 1. photo courtesy My Audio School website. My Audio School [Photo]

Corymorpha palma: [development, reproduction] 1. aspects of life cycle in California. Torrey 1907 [Photo, Drawing]

Corymorpha sp: [camouflage, mimicry] 1. description of an amphipod species that closely resembles the colour and pattern of its host hydroid . [Photo]

Corymorpha  palma: [aesthete, photo courtesy] 1. photo courtesy Kevin Lee, Fullerton, California. Lee [Photo]

Corymorpha  palmata: [anchor] 1. polyp anchors in mud substrata using stolons. Campbell 1968 [Photo]

Corynactis californica: [heat-shock proteins, aggression] 1. levels of Hsp70 in relation to warrior-polyp stress. Rossi & Snyder 2001 [Photo, Graph]

Corynactis californica: [aggression, clone] 1. levels of intra- and interspecific aggression. [Photo]

Corynactis californica: [acontia] 1. use of acontia or mesenterial filaments in aggression. [Photo]

Corynactis californica: [aggression] 1. interspecific aggression against cup corals and sea anemones. Chadwick 1987 [Drawing]

Corynactis californica: [aggression] 1. tests of interspecifica aggress against other cnidarians. Chadwick 1987 [Photo, Table of Data]

Corynactis californica: [locomotion] 1. locomotion of polyps after asexual division. Chadwick & Adams 1991 [Photo, Graph]

Corynactis californica: [] 1. photo courtesy Joseph Dougherty, California. Doutherty [Photo]

Corynactis californica: [clone, physiological ecology] 1. effect of reciprocal transplants of clones on several physiological parameters. Edmunds 2007 [Photo]

Corynactis californica: [reproduction, spawning] 1. first description of sexual reproduction in C. californica. Holts & Beauchamp 1993 [Photo]

Corynactis californica: [interspecific] 1. competitively dominant over cup corals Balanophyllia elegans. Chadwick 1991 [Photo, Graph]

Corynactis californica: [predation] 1. in Monterey Bay, California is the preferred prey of leather stars Dermasterias imbricata. Annett & Pierotti 1984 [Photo]

Corynactis  californica: [defense] 1. provides the bivalve Chama arcana protection from sea-star predators. Patton et al. 1991 [Photo, Graph]

Coryne sp.: [functional morphology, nematocyst] 1. review of nematocyst action . Kass-Simon & Scappaticci 2002 [Photo, Drawing]

Crab : [cardiovascular, locomotion] 1. cardiac shunting to leg muscles during walking. Wachter & McMahon 1996 [Text only]

Crab : [] 1. reference to work on osmotic abilities. Gross 1957 [Graph]

Crab : [osmotic regulation] 1. reference to work on osmotic abilities. Gross 1959 [Graph]

Crab : [osmotic regulation] 1. reference to general work on osmotic relations of crabs. Prosser et al. 1955 [Text only]

Crab : [home] 1. introduction to crabs in Crab part of home file in A Snail's Odyssey website. [Text only]

Crab : [] 1. animation of snail meeting crab. [Animation]

Crab : [] 1. snail's map with crab highlighted. [Drawing]

Crab : [classification] 1. classification of Order Decapoda with emphasis on brachyuran and anomuran crabs. [Text only]

Crab spider: [predation] 1. in Pacific Grove, California are eaten by at least 12 species of fishes. Hines 1982 [Text only]

Crabs : [map, settlement, upwelling] 1. more on settlement of crabs around the Bodega Head region of California. Mace & Morgan 2006 []

Crangon nigricauda: [diet] 1. diet in San Pablo Bay, California is mainly amphipods. 2. compares with diet of Crangon franciscorum in same area. Wahle 1985 [Drawing]

Crangon spp.: [distribution, fecundity, growth, life cycle] 1. detailed descriptions of life history, growth, and so on in California crangonids. Siegfried 1989 [Drawing, Graph]

Crangon spp.: [distribution, fecundity, growth, life cycle] 1. detailed descriptions of life history, growth, and so on in California crangonids. Siegfried 1980 [Drawing, Graph]

Crangon  franciscorum: [diet, feeding] 1. compare feeding habits with shrimp Palaemon macrodactylus in California estuary. Sitts & Knight 1979 [Graph]

Crangon  franciscorum: [diet, specific dynamic action] 1. preliminary information on SDA effects on different diets. Nelson et al. 1985 [Text only]

Crangon  franciscorum: [diet, ontogenetic shift] 1. diet in San Pablo Bay, California consists of amphipods, bivalves, and foraminiferans. 2. compares with diets of C. nigricauda in the same area, which consist mainly of amphipods. Wahle 1985 [Drawing]

Crangon  franciscorum: [diet, ontogenetic shift] 1. diet in San Pablo Bay, California consists of amphipods, bivalves, and foraminiferans; diet shifts with age to shrimps. 2. compares with diets of C. nigricauda in the same area, which consist mainly of amphipods. Wahle 1985 [Drawing]

Crangon  franciscorum: [fecundity, reproduction] 1. compares with C. nigricauda; fecundity about 4000 eggs. 2. early observation of possible sex change with age. Krygler & Horton 1975 [Photo]

Crangon  franciscorum: [hermaphroditism, protandry, reproduction] 1. first description of life cycle involving development first through male stage, then changing to female. Gavlo et al. 2006 [Photo]

Crangon  handi: [camouflage, chromatophore, defense] 1. possible camouflaging function of the different-coloured chromatophores. Kuris & Carlton 1977 [Photo]

Crangon  nigricauda: [fecundity, life cycle, reproduction] 1. compares with C. franciscorum; fecundity up to about 4000 eggs. 2. early suggestion of sex change, later confirmed by other authors. Krygler & Horton 1975 [Photo]

Crangon  nigricauda: [photo courtesy] 1. photo courtesy Cal Acad Sci Res. California Academy of Sciences [Photo]

Crangon  spp.: [predation] 1. in Grays Harbor, Washington represent a sizeable component of the diet of staghorn sculpins Leptocottus armatus. 2. in addition to ghost shrimps and mud shrimps, comprise almost half of the sculpins' summer diet. Armstrong et al. 1995 [Drawing, Table of Data]

Craniella villosa: [defense, spicules] 1. description of spicule types and their possible functions. [Photo]

Craniella villosa: [photo courtesy] 1. photos courtesy Bill Austin, Victoria, British Columbia. Austin [Photo]

Crassadoma gigantea: [camouflage, defense] 1. growths of colonial invertebrates on shell valves may confer camouflaging?. [Photo]

Crassadoma gigantea: [age, growth] 1. specimen of 17cm shell height may be 25yr old. MacDonald et al. 1991 [Photo, Graph]

Crassadoma gigantea: [growth] 1. near San Diego growth is best at deeper depths, possibly because there is less algal fouling to interfere with growth. Monical 1980 [Photo]

Crassadoma gigantea: [anchor, defense] 1. anchors by byssus threads as a juvenile, then cements firmly to the substratum. [Photo]

Crassadoma gigantea: [] 1. data on size at which attachment occurs and preferred substrata for attachment. Culver et al. 2006 [Graph]

Crassadoma gigantea: [photo courtesy] 1. photo courtesy Dave Cowles, Walla Walla University, Washington. Cowles [Photo]

Crassadoma gigantea: [age, life cycle] 1. aspects of life cycle. [Photo]

Crassadoma gigantea: [photo courtesy] 1. photo courtesy Linda Schroeder, Pacific Northwest Shell Club, Seattle, Washington. Schroeder [Photo]

Crassadoma gigantea: [energetics, metamorphosis, nutrition, reproduction] 1. details of energy/nutritional requirements for metamorphosis and early life. Whyte et al. 1992 [Text only]

Crassadoma gigantea: [energetics, nutrition, reproduction] 1. energy and nutritional requirements for early life. Whyte et al. 1990 [Text only]

Crassadoma gigantea: [photo courtesy, proteomics] 1. photo courtesy Ron Long, Simon Fraser University, Burnaby, British Columbia. Long [Photo]

Crassadoma gigantea: [parasitism] 1. note that shell valves often infested with the parasitic boring sponge Cliona celata. [Photo]

Crassadoma gigantea: [parasitism] 1. shell is often infested with boring organisms, including sponges Cliona californiana. [Photo]

Crassadoma gigantea: [borehole, parasitism] 1. describes shell-thickening in abalones through presence of boring sponges Cliona californiana. Hansen 1970 [Photo]

Crassadoma gigantea: [gonad, maturation, reproduction, season] 1. individuals in Humboldt Bay, California are reproductive for most of the year. Malachowski 1988 [Photo]

Crassadoma gigantea: [age, growth, size] 1. age versus size of individuals from Vancouver Island, British Columbia. MacDonald & Bourne 1989 [Photo, Graph]

Crassadoma gigantea: [depth, growth] 1. growth measured at 6 different depths down to 120m. Leighton 1979 [Drawing]

Crassadoma gigantea: [oogenesis, protandry, reproduction] 1. mature eggs present year-round in individuals in Puget Sound, Washington. Lauren 1982 [Photo, Graph]

Crassadoma gigantea: [feeding, water flow] 1. general over-view of biology of specimens collected in the Monterey,
California area. Yonge 1951 [Photo, Drawing]

Crassicorophium bonelli: [defense] 1. produces silk from glands in its legs to help construct its protective tube. Kronenberger et al. 2011 [Photo, Drawing]

Crassostrea gigas: [suspension feeding] 1. energy cost of pumping. Bernard & Noakes 1990 [Text only]

Crassostrea gigas: [food web, predator] 1. effect of top predator Cancer productus on food-web dynamics. Grason & Miner 2012 [Photo]

Crassostrea gigas: [habitat] 1. compare eelgrass and oysters as habitat for fishes and invertebrates. Hosack et al. 2006 [Graph]

Crassostrea gigas: [community, interactions] 1. examination of the ways in which community elements may resist colonisation by a non-native species. Ruesink 2007 [Photo]

Crassostrea gigas: [community, competition] 1. presence of oysters on Cortez Island, British Columbia negatively affects survival of eelgrass. Kelly & Volpe 2007 [Photo]

Crassostrea gigas: [review] 1. reference to review on impacts of oysters on west-coast intertidal communities. Padilla 2010 [Text only]

Crassostrea gigas: [morphology, suspension feeding] 1. detailed description of filter-feeding. Barnard 1974 [Drawing]

Crassostrea gigas: [energy budget, feeding, growth] 1. calculation of energy budget for oysters in southern British Columbia. Bernard 1974 [Photo, Drawing]

Crassostrea gigas: [ctenidia, food, selectivity] 1. study of particle selectivity by the ctenidia. Cognie et al. 2003 [Photo]

Crassostrea gigas: [chemical, composition, shell] 1. distribution of calcite versus aragonite in the shells of oysters. Stenzel 1964 [Photo, Drawing]

Crassostrea gigas: [growth, shell] 1. detailed analysis of growth of shell. Yamaguchi 1994 [Drawing]

Crassostrea gigas: [competitive exclusion, growth, shell] 1. photographs of oysters overgrowing or displacing barnacles Balanus glandula. [Photo]

Crassostrea gigas: [colour, genetics] 1. genetics study of pigmentation. Brake et al. 2004 [Photo]

Crassostrea gigas: [predation] 1. under laboratory circumstances the larvae may be consumed by larvae of several polychaete species. Johnson & Brink 1998 [Photo]

Crassostrea gigas: [culture, juvenile, predation] 1. young stages in culture eaten by crabs including Cancer oregonensis. Behrens Yamada et al. 1993 [Photo, Graph]

Crassostrea gigas: [photo courtesy] 1. photo courtesy Linda Schroeder, Pacific Northwest Shell Club, Seattle, Washington. Schroeder [Photo]

Crassostrea gigas: [gonad growth, reproduction] 1. in Oregon spawning occurs in autumn. Robinson 1992 [Graph]

Crassostrea gigas: [development, larva, reproduction] 1. details on larval growth. Bochenek et al. 2001 [Photo, Graph]

Crassostrea gigas: [photo courtesy] 1. larval photos courtesy Wallace et al. 2008 in Oyster Hatchery Techniques SRAC Publ no. 4302, USDA. Wallace et al. 2008 [Photo]

Crassostrea gigas: [food, larva, plasticity] 1. in conditions of food scarcity, larvae grow larger vela and cilia. Strathmann et al. 1993 [Graph]

Crassostrea gigas: [diet, food, larva] 1. may utilise bacteria as food. Douillet 1993 [Text only]

Crassostrea gigas: [diet, larva] 1. use of bacteria as a food source. Douillet 1993 [Text only]

Crassostrea gigas: [DOM, larva] 1. larvae are capable of uptake of Dissolved Organic Matter. Manahan 1983 [Text only]

Crassostrea gigas: [juvenile, larva] 1. feeding of larvae and juvenile. Gerdes 1983 [Photo]

Crassostrea gigas: [photo courtesy] 1. photo courtesy Dave Cowles, Walla Walla University, Washington. Cowles [Photo]

Crassostrea gigas: [food, larva] 1. metabolic requirements, and nutrition during periods of food deprivation. Moran & Monahan 2004 [Graph]

Crassostrea gigas: [inducer, larva, reproduction, settlement] 1. experiments with settlement inducers such as L-DOPA. Coon et al. 1985 [Photo]

Crassostrea gigas: [inducer, larva, reproduction, settlement] 1. experiments with settlement-inducing chemicals, such as L-DOPA and norepinephrine. Coon et al. 1990 [Drawing]

Crassostrea gigas: [inducer, larva, settlement] 1. experiments on the efficacy of various neurotransmitters to induce settlement. Beiras & Widdows 1995 [Graph]

Crassostrea gigas: [distribution, genetics, larva] 1. study genetic dispersal of individual larvae. Li & Hedgecock 1998 [Text only]

Crassostrea gigas: [larva, reproduction, settlement] 1. risk of death of larvae by settling too near adults and being sucked in is actually quite low, and is more than balanced by benefits accrued from joining an "oyster reef". Tamburri et al. 2007 [Photo]

Crassostrea gigas: [acidification, aragonite, growth, larva] 1. low levels of aragonite saturation during early development to the D-hinge stage negatively affects later larval development. Barton et al. 2012 [Graph]

Crassostrea spp.: [pheromone, spawning] 1. protein in sheath surrounding sperm may have spawn-inducing pheromonal properties. Rice et al. 2002 [Text only]

Crassostrea spp.: [quiz] 1. quiz on the need for a spawn-inducing pheromone in oysters. [Text only]

Crassostrea gigas gigas: [acidification, growth, larva] 1. effect of carbon dioxide on growth of D-hinge larvae over 3d. Timmins-Schiffman et al. 2013 [Photo, Graph]

Crepidula adunca: [parasitism] 1. commonly inhabit the shells of trochid snails. 2. usually considered parasites. Evans 1992 [Photo]

Crepidula adunca: [parasitism] 1. occupies the shells of numerous gastropods. 2. may benefit from some sea-star predation, as the host may itself run from the predator. Vermeij et al. 1987 [Photo, Graph]

Crepidula adunca: [behaviour, mating, protandry, reproduction] 1. description of mating behaviour, fecundity, and development to crawl-away juveniles. Coe 1949 [Drawing]

Crepidula adunca: [behaviour, host] 1. behaviour on host snails Chlorostoma funebralis. 2. crawl-away juveniles of Crepidula often fall off the parent's host snail. Putnam 1964 [Photo, Drawing]

Crepidula adunca: [host, parasitism, predation] 1. account of the interaction between slipper limpets and host snails Calliostoma and Tegula, and sea-star predators. Vermeij et al. 1987 [Photo]

Crepidula norrisiarum: [brooding, host, parasitism] 1. breeding is throughout the year. 2. a common host is the trochid snail Norrisia norrisi. MacGinitie & MacGinitie 1964 [Photo]

Crepidula onyx: [behaviour, larva, protandry, reproduction] 1. description of mating, fecundity, and free-living larval life. Coe 1949 [Drawing]

Crepidula onyx: [genetics] 1. find general lack of population structure in the Mission Bay, California area. Plutchak et al. 2006 [Photo]

Crepidula onyx: [photo courtesy] 1. photo courtesy Linda Schroeder, Pacific Northwest Shell Club, Seattle, Washington. Schroeder [Photo]

Crepidula plana: [protandry, reproduction] 1. description of penis morphology during change from male to female in sexual development. Coe 1938 [Drawing]

Crepidula spp.: [protandry, reproduction] 1. conditions relating to sexual change from male to female during development. Coe 1938 [Text only]

Crepidula  fornicata: [larva, reproduction, settlement] 1. settlement is accompanied by bursts of nerve impulses that stop ciliary beating of the velar lobes. Penniman et al. 2013 [Photo]

Cribrinopsis fernaldi: [development, reproduction, brooding] 1. sexual reproduction involves brooding, then release of planulae. Siebert & Spaulding 1976 [Photo]

Cribrinopsis fernaldi: [defense, warning] 1. hosts the colorful candy-stripe shrimp Leggeus grandimanus, and possibly provides it with protection. 2. possible warning coloration?. [Photo]

Crimora coneja: [food] 1. principal food is bryozoans Hincksina minuscula. Goddard 1987 [Photo]

Crimora coneja: [photo courtesy] 1. photos courtesy Jeff Goddard, UC Santa Barbara, California. Goddard [Photo]

Crossaster papposus: [predation] 1. photograph in connection with possible role as predator of sea anemone Stomphia. [Photo]

Crossaster papposus: [feeding] 1. has a larger than expected mouth for ingesting prey whole. [Photo]

Crossaster papposus: [growth, mark-recapture, regeneration] 1. slow regeneration of arms and slow growth in general in Alaska. Carlson & Pfister 1994 [Drawing]

Crossaster papposus: [prey, resource] 1. list of prey resources in Auke Bay, Alaska. Carlson & Pfister 1999 [Photo]

Crossaster papposus: [prey, resource] 1. prey resources in Puget Sound, Washington. Mauzey et al. 1968 [Photo]

Crossaster papposus: [prey, resource] 1. prey resources for Mingan Islands, Gulf of St. Lawrence. Gaymer et al. 2004 [Photo]

Crossaster papposus: [feeding] 1. describes process of feeding on a mussel. Hancock 1974 [Drawing]

Crossaster papposus: [arm, development] 1. compares arm number and appearance in development with Pycnopodia helianthoides and Solaster dawsoni. Hotchkiss 2000 [Photo, Drawing]

Crossaster papposus: [development, larva, metamorphosis, reproduction] 1. description of early development to juvenile stage. 2. study done on representatives in Scotland. Gemmill 1920 [Photo, Drawing]

Crossaster papposus: [acidification, climate change, growth, juvenile, larva, pH, physiology] 1. comparison of growth of larvae and juveniles in pHs of 7.7 and 8.1. 2. study on effects of climate change. Dupont et al. 2010 [Photo, Graph]

Crossaster  papposus: [predator] 1. eats sea urchins whole by engulfing them. [Photo]

Cryptochiton stelleri: [gas exchange, ctenidia] 1. describes counter-current exchange system in ctenidia. Petersen & Johansen 1973 [Photo, Drawing]

Cryptochiton stelleri: [exretory] 1. reference to a detailed account of the circulatory and excretory systems. Heath 1905 [Text only]

Cryptochiton stelleri: [distribution, habitat, preferences, aging] 1. aging based on growth lines on shell plates. Lord 2011 [Photo, Graph]

Cryptochiton stelleri: [photo courtesy] 1. photo courtesy Linda Schroeder, Pacific Northwest Shell Club, Seattle. Schroeder [Photo]

Cryptochiton stelleri: [orientation, radula, homing] 1. discovery of magnetite in chiton radulae. Lowenstam 1962 [Text only]

Cryptochiton stelleri: [radula] 1. histological study of mineralisation of radular cusps. 2. deposition of magnetite. Carefoot 1965 [Photo]

Cryptochiton stelleri: [mineralisation, radula] 1. mineralisation of radular cusps. Lowenstam 1967 [Photo, Drawing]

Cryptochiton stelleri: [feeding] 1. video of Cryptochiton stelleri in field. [Video]

Cryptochiton stelleri: [aging, growth] 1. aging through count of growth lines on shell plates. MacGinitie & MacGinitie 1968 [Photo]

Cryptochiton stelleri: [mark-recapture] 1. use mark-recapture study to determing growth rate and age. Palmer & Frank 1974 [Graph]

Cryptochiton stelleri: [predator] 1. defensive curling of body. [Photo]

Cryptochiton stelleri: [acontia, predation] 1. preyed upon by whelk Ocinebrina lurida. Talmadge 1975 [Photo]

Cryptochiton stelleri: [gonad index, season, spawning] 1. both sexes spawn in Mar/May. Tucker & Giese 1962 [Photo, Graph]

Cryptochiton stelleri: [development, growth, inducer, settlement] 1. algal inducers to settlement and early growth of juveniles. Lord 2011 [Photo, Graph]

Cryptochiton stelleri: [acontia, repair, shell] 1. comparison with Katharina tunicata. Tucker & Giese 1959 [Photo]

Cryptochiton stelleri: [morphology, symbiont] 1. skin bears protective tufts of spicules that appear to keep away symbionts and settling algal spores. MacGinitie & MacGinitie 1968 [Photo]

Cryptochiton stelleri: [chemical, symbiont, attractant] 1. Y-tube experiments on attractant factor. Webster 1968 [Photo]

Cryptochiton stelleri: [chemical, symbiont, attractant] 1. Y-tube experiments on attractant factor. Webster 1968 [Photo]

Cryptochiton stelleri: [composition, feeding, functional morphology, radula] 1. up-to-date account of functional morphology of radula cusps. Weaver et al. 2010 [Photo, Drawing, Graph]

Cryptochiton stelleri: [age, growth, growth line] 1. comparison of growth and age in chitons, including the black-leather, Katharina tunicata, collected from California, Oregon, and Washington. Lord 2012 [Photo, Graph]

Cryptochiton stelleri: [functional morphology, radula, structure] 1. description of structure and process of mineralisation of cusps. Nemoto et al. 2012 [Photo, Drawing]

Cryptochiton stelleri: [age, reproduction, spawning] 1. brief comment on spawning, growth ,and age at reproduction. Heath 1905 [Photo]

Cryptolithodes typicus: [defense, locomotion, walking] 1. good view of undersurface of carapace. [Video]

cryptolithodes  typicus: [defense] 1. overhanging carapace does double duty in camouflaging and physical protection. [Video]

Cryptomya californica: [burrowing, commensalism] 1. describes relationship with host shrimp Neorymaea californiensis. Lawry 1987 [Drawing]

Cryptomya californica: [photo courtesy] 1. drawing courtesy C.M. Yonge, England. Yonge 1952 [Drawing]

Cryptomya californica: [commensalism] 1. inhabit burrows of mud- and ghost-shrimps. MacGinitie & MacGinitie 1968 [Photo]

Cryptomya californica: [burrow, commensalism, habitat, parasitism] 1. symbiotic clam co-inhabiting burrows of ghost shrimps Neotrypaea californiensis in British Columbia. Swinbanks & Murray 1981 [Drawing]

Cryptomya californica: [competition, density, depth, distribution, space] 1. interesting account of habitat segregation in Mugu Lagoon, California involving 6 suspension-feeding invertebrates. Peterson 1977 [Photo, Graph]

Cryptophyton goddardi: [predation] 1. eaten by nudibranchs Tritonia festiva. Gomez 1973 [Photo]

Cryptophyton goddardi: [predation] 1. eaten by nudibranch Tritonia festiva. Goddard 2008 [Photo]

Cryptophyton goddardi: [photo courtesy] 1. photo courtesy Jeff Goddard, UC Santa Barbara, California. Goddard [Photo]

Cthamalus fissus: [diet, nutritional content, optimal foraging] 1. in choice tests, less preferred by snails Acanthinucells spirata than barnacles Balanus glandula, possiby because of their lesser relative nutritional content. Perry 1987 [Photo, Graph]

Cucumaria frondosa: [connective tissue] 1. agents such as calcium and proteins involved in state-transformation of collagenous connective-tissues. Koob et al. 1999 [Photo]

Cucumaria frondosa: [photo courtesy] 1. photo courtesy Barcode of Life Data Systems. [Photo]

Cucumaria miniata: [genetics, larval dispersal] 1. compare genetic structure with a brooding species Cucumaria pseudocurata. Arndt & Smith 1998 [Drawing]

Cucumaria miniata: [development, lecithotrophic] 1. overview of developmental modes in west-coast holothuroids. 2. similar lecithotrophic development to C. piperata, Eupentacta quinqesemita, and Psolus chitonoides. Rutherford 1973 [Photo]

Cucumaria miniata: [tentacle] 1. description of tentacle withdrawal. [Photo]

Cucumaria miniata: [locomotion] 1. description of state-transformation of collagen in body wall. 2. crawls through the tiniest cracks. [Photo]

Cucumaria miniata: [behaviour, spawning] 1. in San Juan Islands, Washington spawn in March-May. 2. description of egg pellet. Shimek 1987 [Photo]

Cucumaria miniata: [spawning] 1. description of egg pellets. McEuen 1988 [Photo]

Cucumaria miniata: [spawning] 1. description of spawning incident in British Columbia in March. Sewell & Levitan 1992 [Photo]

Cucumaria miniata: [fertilisation success, quiz] 1. quiz on conditions for optimal fertilisation success. [Text only]

Cucumaria miniata: [defense, egg, larva] 1. possible defensive toxins in eggs and larvae. Iyengar & Harvell 2001 [Photo, Graph]

Cucumaria miniata: [suspension feeding] 1. brief description of process. [Photo]

Cucumaria piperata: [suspension feeding] 1. brief description of process. [Photo]

Cucumaria pseudocurata: [growth, life cycle] 1. possible 5yr lifespan. Rutherford 1973 [Graph]

Cucumaria pseudocurata: [brooding, genetics] 1. compares genetic structure with a larval dispersing species. Arndt & Smith 1988 [Drawing, Graph]

Cucumaria pseudocurata: [gonad index, reproduction, season] 1. broods through winter in Sonoma County, California. Rutherford 1973 [Graph]

Cucumaria spp.: [defense, toxin] 1. compares toxicity of different body extracts of 14 species of sea cucumbers on fishes in California. Bakus 1974 [Text only]

Cucumaria spp.: [brooding, genetics, reproduction] 1. most west-coast species exhibit direct development with brooding. 2. brooding in F. Cucumariidae has arisen in at least 2 separate lineages. Arndt et al. 1996 [Text only]

Cupcoral : [map] 1. snail's map highlighting cup coral. [Drawing]

Cupcoral : [classification] 1. classification of Order Scleractinia, emphasising cup corals. [Text only]

Cupcoral : [home] 1. introduction to CUP CORAL in home file for Cup-coral part of Odyssey. [Photo]

Cupcoral : [] 1. snail meets cup coral. [Animation]

Cuthona divae: [food] 1. eats hydroids Hydractinia spp.. Goddard 1987 [Photo]

Cuthona divae: [photo courtesy] 1. photo courtesy Jeff Goddard, UC Santa Barbara, California. Goddard [Photo]

Cyamus boopis: [parasitism] 1. whale lice on a dead humpback whale. 2. different instars visible. Rowntree 1996 [Photo]

Cyanea capillata: [diet] 1. summer diet in Alaska is primarily larvaceans. Purcell & Sturdevant 2001 [Photo]

Cyanea capillata: [photo courtesy] 1. photo courtesy Dan Leus, DFO, Nanaimo. Leus [Photo]

Cyanea capillata: [diet] 1. diets in Alaska. 2. some dietary overlap with commercial fishes. Purcell 2002 [Photo]

Cyanea capillata: [photo courtesy] 1. photo courtesy Dave Cowles, Walla Wall University, Washington. Cowles [Photo]

Cyanea capillata: [predation] 1. off the coast of Nova Scotia are eaten by leatherback turtles Dermochelys coriacea. Heaslip et al. [Photo]

Cyanea sp.: [behaviour, predator] 1. video showing jellyfishes getting caught up in the tentacles of sea anemones Metridium sp.. [Video]

Cyanoplax dentiens: [egg, morphology, reproduction] 1. comparative egg morphology in several species of chitons. 2. shape of cupules on egg surface. Buckland-Nicks 2008 [Photo]

Cyanoplax dentiens: [metabolic rate, scaling] 1. measures of oxygen consumption and scaling exponents for 6 species of sympatric chitons, also including Katharina tunicata, Mopalia lignosa, M. muscosa, Tonicella lineata, and Placiphorella velata. 2. data suggest that the concept of a universal scaling law relating to metabolism and body size is invalid. Carey et al. 2013 []

Cyanoplax fernaldi: [egg, morphology, reproduction] 1. comparative egg morphology in several species of chitons. 2. shape of cupules on egg surface. Buckland-Nicks 2008 [Photo]

Cyanoplax hartwegii: [osmotic regulation, freshwater] 1. volume regulation in face of freshwater diluteion. McGill 1976 [Photo, Graph]

Cyanoplax hartwegii: [photo courtesy] 1. photo courtesy James Watanabe, California. Watanabe [Photo]

Cyanoplax hartwegii: [diet] 1. eats several types of plant material, but with emphasis on Silvetia compressa. Robb 1975 [Photo]

Cyanoplax hartwegii: [photo courtesy] 1. photo courtesy Jim Watanabe, Hopkins Marine Station, Pacific Grove, California. Watanabe [Photo]

Cyanoplax hartwegii: [defense, hide away] 1. seek protection from covering of algae Sivetia compressa from sea-star protection. DeBevoise 1975 [Photo]

Cyanoplax hartwegii: [photo courtesy] 1. photo courtesy Jim Watanabe, Stanford University, California. Watanabe [Photo]

Cyanoplax hartwegii: [homing] 1. weak tendency only for homing. Lyman 1975 [Photo]

Cyanoplax hartwegii: [photo courtesy] 1. photo courtesy Jim Watanabe, Hopkins Marine Station, Pacific Grove, California. Watanabe [Photo]

Cyanoplax hartwegii: [predation, preferences] 1. western gulls Larus occidentalis prefer Nuttallina californica over this species. Moore 1975 [Photo]

Cystodytes lobatus: [predation] 1. eaten by velutinid snails Lamellaria diegoensis. Lambert 1980 [Photo]

Cystodytes lobatus: [predation] 1. being attacked by predatory sea star Dermasterias imbricata. [Photo]

Cystodytes  lobatus: [predation] 1. preyed on by certain flatworms. Lambert 1979 [Photo]

Decapod larvae: [drawing courtesy] 1. drawing of decapod larvae courtesy Alistair Hardy, London. Hardy 1956 [Drawing]

Dendraster excentricus: [feeding, mechanism] 1. description of feeding mechanics. Chia 1969 [Photo, Drawing]

Dendraster excentricus: [diet, prey, capture] 1. description of prey capture by the spines and tube feet. Timko 1976 [Photo, Drawing]

Dendraster excentricus: [age, growth, growth line] 1. method for estimating growth and age from polished ossicles. Birkeland & Chia 1971 [Photo, Graph]

Dendraster excentricus: [density, deposit feeding, suspension feeding] 1. population density seems to regulate whether and individual deposit-feeds or suspension-feeds. Fodrie et al. 2007 [Photo, Graph]

Dendraster excentricus: [feeding, larva] 1. description of larval feeding. Strathmann 1971 [Drawing]

Dendraster excentricus: [larva, nutrition] 1. larvae have the ability to take up dissolved organic matter. de Burgh & Burke 1983 [Text only]

Dendraster excentricus: [capture, food, larva] 1. describes particle capture on the arms of the larva. Hart 1991 [Drawing]

Dendraster excentricus: [abundance, larva] 1. video of larva catching a microsphere particle courtesy Mike Hart, Simon Fraser University. [Video]

Dendraster excentricus: [feeding, larva, morphology] 1. in times of food shortage the larvae increase the relative lengths of ciliated bands on their arms. Boldron-Metairon 1988 [Drawing]

Dendraster excentricus: [cilia, feeding, larva, ration] 1. relationship of ciliated band length in larva to ration. Hart & Strathmann 1994 [Photo, Graph]

Dendraster excentricus: [food, larva, selectivity, particle] 1. demonstrates particle selection (size, flavour) at both the ciliated-band and mouth levels. Appelmans 1994 [Text only]

Dendraster excentricus: [depth, growth, habitat, larva] 1. compares growth of larvae at different water depths. Reitzel et al. 2004 [Drawing, Graph]

Dendraster excentricus: [feeding, food, larva, particle] 1. describes mechanism of concentrating food particles prior to ingestion. Strathmann 2007 [Photo]

Dendraster excentricus: [development, larva, metamorphosis] 1. describes development through metamorphosis. Burke 1983 [Photo, Drawing]

Dendraster excentricus: [] 1. photo of gastrula courtesy Burke 1983 Cell Tiss Res 229: 145. Burke 1983 [Photo]

Dendraster excentricus: [allometry, growth, larva] 1. growth of ciliated bands is allometric. McEdward 1984 [Drawing, Graph]

Dendraster excentricus: [juvenile, orientation] 1. juveniles selectively sequester heavy grains of iron oxide at anterior end of gut to form a sort of "weight belt" to help in orientation of the body in sand. Chia 1973 [Drawing]

Dendraster excentricus: [orientation] 1. whether positioned flat or inclined on the substratum depends upon water flow. Merrill & Hobson 1970 [Photo]

Dendraster excentricus: [] 1. video of sand dollars in an aquarium tank. [Video]

Dendraster excentricus: [aggregation, population] 1. individuals tend to aggregate in field populations. Birkeland & Chia 1971 [Photo]

Dendraster excentricus: [aggregation, feeding, space] 1. optimal spacing distance between individuals for most effective feeding. O'Neill 1978 [Drawing]

Dendraster excentricus: [juvenile, locomotion, adult] 1. locomotory rates differ in adults and juveniles. Chia 1969 [Photo, Drawing]

Dendraster excentricus: [aggregation] 1. use side-scan sonar to detect beds of sand dollars. Fenstermacher et al. 2001 [Drawing]

Dendraster excentricus: [juvenile, larva, predation] 1. larval and young stages preyed on by tanaid crustacean Leptochelia dubia. Highsmith 1982 [Photo, Drawing]

Dendraster excentricus: [defense, skeleton] 1. description of endoskeleton and its role in defense. Emlet 1983 [Photo]

Dendraster excentricus: [age, defense, pluteus, predation, zoea] 1. young plutei eaten by zoea larvae of crab Cancer productus, but not old, as they can swim away to evade capture. Rumrill et al. 1985 [Drawing]

Dendraster excentricus: [pluteus, predation, gastrula] 1. laboratory tests with various vertebrate and invertebrate predators show that gastrulae tend to be more eaten by the latter, and both developmental stages by the former. Pennington et al. 1986 [Drawing]

Dendraster excentricus: [planktotrophic, predator, benthic] 1. use tethered baits made agarose-set extracts of eggs to test the relative importance of benthic vs. planktonic predators. Allen & McAllister 2007 [Drawing, Graph]

Dendraster excentricus: [adult, predation] 1. adults preyed upon by various bird, crab, and sea-star predators. [Photo]

Dendraster excentricus: [budding, pluteus, predator] 1. budding of larvae stimulated by presence of fish mucus, suggesting a defensive strategy. Vaughn & Strathmann 2008 [Photo]

Dendraster excentricus: [gonad index, reproduction, wave exposure] 1. comparison of two populations based on degree of wave exposure in habitat. Niesen 1977 [Graph]

Dendraster excentricus: [egg, fertilisation success] 1. jelly-coat volume of eggs is important in determining fertilisation success. Levitan & Irvine 2001 [Photo]

Dendraster excentricus: [clone, development, larva] 1. reference to study on organogenesis in bisected larval clones. Vickery et al. 2002 [Text only]

Dendraster excentricus: [competition, density, depth, distribution, space] 1. interesting account of habitat segregation in Mugu Lagoon, California involving 6 suspension-feeding invertebrates. Peterson 1977 [Photo, Graph]

Dendraster excentricus: [egg, larva, morphology, scaling] 1. scaling relationships of ciliated band lengths on larvae to original egg size. McEdward 1986 [Graph]

Dendraster excentricus: [functional morphology, skeleton, spicules] 1. fenestrated nature of the spicules comprising the arm skeletons of sand dollars and sea urchins adds great strength to them. Emlet 1982 [Photo]

Dendraster excentricus: [behaviour, larva, swimming] 1. comparison of swimming of blastulae in several echinoid species. McDonald 2004 [Graph]

Dendraster excentricus: [embryo, reference only, swimming] 1. reference only to effects of turbulence and shear forces on swimming behaviour in early development. McDonald 2012 [Text only]

Dendraster spp.: [pigments] 1. several water- and ether-soluble pigments identified in southern California species D. excentricus and D. laevis. Goodwin & Fox 1955 [Text only]

Dendraster  excentricus: [larva, morphology, pluteus] 1. aspects of arm morphology in relation to propulsion and feeding. Emlet 1983 [Text only]

Dendraster  excentricus: [behaviour, density, diel, locomotion, vertical migration] 1. swimming behaviour in relation to density, light levels, and so on. swimming behaviour [Graph]

Dendraster  excentricus: [pluteus, swimming, temperature ] 1. effect of temperature and water viscosity on swimming speed of pluteus larva. Podolsky & Emlet 1993 [Drawing, Graph]

Dendraster  excentricus: [orientation] 1. feeding position is to be angled in the sand with anterior end buried. O'Neill 1978 [Photo, Drawing]

Dendraster  excentricus: [burrowing, defense] 1. escape from sea stars by burrowing away. Feder 1963 [Photo]

Dendrobeania lichenoides: [predation] 1. in northern California eaten by nudibranchs Triopha catalinae. Goddard 1987 [Photo]

Dendrodoris behrensi: [development, larva, reproduction] 1. details of unusual larval development. 2. hatches to a crawl-away juvenile. Goddard 2005 [Photo]

Dendrodoris behrensi: [photo courtesy] 1. photo courtesy Jeff Goddard, UC Santa Barbara, California. Goddard [Photo]

Dendrodoris fulva: [colour, food, pigments] 1. colours derived from sponge foods. McBeth 1972 [Photo]

Dendronotus : [food, preferences] 1. preferred foods are jellyfishes. Robilliard 1970 [Photo]

Dendronotus : [photo courtesy] 1. photos of radula and jaw courtesy Shaw 1991 Can J Zool 69: 2805. Shaw 1991 [Photo]

Dendronotus dalli: [polyp, predator] 1. in Puget Sound eats the polyp phase of jellyfishes Aurelia labiata . Hoover et al. 2012 [Text only]

Dendronotus excentricus: [aggregation, feeding, population] 1. theorises that aggregating enhances feeding. O'Neill 1978 [Photo, Drawing]

Dendronotus frondosus: [behaviour, feeding, food] 1. description of feeding behaviour on hydroid prey. Robilliard 1970 [Photo]

Dendronotus frondosus: [photo courtesy] 1. photo courtesy Kevin Lee, Fullerton, California. Lee [Photo]

Dendronotus frondosus: [photo courtesy] 1. photo of radula courtesy Phil Lambert 1991 Biol Bull 181: 248. Lambert 1991 [Photo]

Dendronotus frondosus: [development, larva, reproduction] 1. details of development prior to metamorphosis. Williams & Somero 1971 [Photo, Drawing]

Dendronotus frondosus: [photo courtesy] 1. photo courtesy Peter van Bragt, Netherlands. van Bragt [Photo]

Dendronotus iris: [food] 1. favour burrowing anemones as food. Robilliard 1970 [Photo]

Dendronotus iris: [behaviour, feeding, food] 1. description of feeding behaviour on burrowing anemones Pachycerianthus spp.. Robilliard 1970 [Photo]

Dendronotus iris: [behaviour, parasitism, predator] 1. describes feeding behaviour on burrowing anemones Pachycerianthus sp. as a kind of host-parasitism. Wobber 1970 [Photo]

Dendronotus iris: [predation] 1. video of 2 individuals attacking a burrowing anemone Pachycerianthus fimbiatus. [Video]

Dendronotus iris: [defense, swimming] 1. side-to-side thrashing mode. Kjerschow Agersborg 1922 [Photo]

Dendronotus iris: [swimming] 1. video of it swimming. [Video]

Dendronotus rufus: [photo courtesy] 1. photo courtesy Jan Kocian, Washington. Kocian [Photo]

Dendronotus rufus: [polyp, predator] 1. in Puget Sound eats the polyp phase of jellyfishes Aurelia labiata . Hoover et al. 2012 [Text only]

Dendronotus sp.: [egg masses] 1. photograph of egg mass. [Photo]

Dendronotus spp.: [defense, swimming] 1. observations on swimming function in dendronotids. Robilliard 1970 [Text only]

Dentella californica: [] 1. description of mating . 2. taxonomy of this species is uncertain. Caine 1979 [Text only]

Dentella californica: [] 1. preyed on by fishes in San Juan Islands, Washington. Caine 1979 [Photo]

Dermasterias imbricata: [predation] 1. predator on sea anemones Stomphia spp. and Urticina spp.. Lawn & Ross 1982 [Photo]

Dermasterias imbricata: [predation] 1. predator of sea anemones Urticina spp.. Elliott et al. 1985 [Drawing]

Dermasterias imbricata: [predation] 1. photograph in connection with its role as predator of sea anemone Stomphia. [Photo]

Dermasterias imbricata: [chemical, predation] 1. skin secretion induces swimming in sea anemone Stomphia. Ross & Sutton 1964 [Photo]

Dermasterias imbricata: [predation, stimulus] 1. tests on swimming induction in sea anemones Stomphia spp. using various extracts and exudates of skin. Ward 1965 [Text only]

Dermasterias imbricata: [predation, stimulus] 1. report structure of imbricatine, swimming stimulus for sea anemones. Pathirana & Andersen 1986 [Text only]

Dermasterias imbricata: [predation, stimulus] 1. description of secretory cells in skin possibly involved in swimming induction in sea anemones Stomphia spp.. Ward 1965 [Photo]

Dermasterias imbricata: [predation, stimulus] 1. forces sea-anemone prey Stomphia to live at deeper depths. Dalby et al. 1988 [Text only]

Dermasterias imbricata: [predation, symbiont] 1. fate of symbionts of prey sea anemone Anthopleura elegantissima after being consumed by sea star. Bachman & Muller-Parker 2007 [Photo, Graph]

Dermasterias imbricata: [predator] 1. predator of many types of cnidarians, including sea anemones. [Photo]

Dermasterias imbricata: [stimulus] 1. cause sea pens Ptilosarcus gurneyi to burrow more vigorously than other sea-star species. Weightman & Arsenault 2002 [Photo, Graph]

Dermasterias imbricata: [digestion] 1. showing location of anus. [Photo]

Dermasterias imbricata: [feeding, larva] 1. videotaping of larva capturing plastic microspheres. Hart 1991 [Photo, Drawing]

Dermasterias imbricata: [abundance, prey, resource] 1. prey resources in Puget Sound, Washington. Mauzey et al. 1968 [Photo]

Dermasterias imbricata: [prey, resource] 1. prey resources in San Juan Islands, Washington. Mauzey et al. 1968 [Photo]

Dermasterias imbricata: [prey, resource] 1. prey resources in Pt. Loma, California. Rosenthal & Chess 1972 [Photo]

Dermasterias imbricata: [abundance, prey, resource] 1. prey resources in Pt. Loma, California. Rosenthal & Chess 1972 [Photo]

Dermasterias imbricata: [abundance, prey, resource] 1. prey resources in Monterey Bay, California. Annett & Pierotti 1984 [Photo]

Dermasterias imbricata: [feeding] 1. video of leather star feeding. [Video]

Dermasterias imbricata: [preferences, prey] 1. preference for corallimorpharian Corynactis californica in Monterey Bay, California. Annett & Pierotti 1984 [Photo]

Dermasterias imbricata: [mutualism] 1. host polynoid worm Arctonoe vittata. 2. relationship may be mutualism, rather than commensalism. Wagner et al. 1979 [Photo]

Dermasterias imbricata: [photo courtesy] 1. photo courtesy Ron Long, Simon Fraser University, Burnaby, British Columbia. Long [Photo]

Dermasterias imbricata: [photo courtesy] 1. photograph courtesy Ron Long, Simon Fraser University, Burnaby, British Columbia. Long [Photo]

Dermasterias imbricata: [predator] 1. attacks tunicates Corella inflata. [Photo]

Dermasterias imbricata: [predator] 1. in Point Loma, California 47% eat purple urchins Strongylocentrotus purpuratus. [Photo]

Dermochelys coriacea: [diet, predator, preferences] 1. review of predation on jellyfishes, including leatherback turtles. 2. prefers jellyfishes in its diet. Arai 2005 [Photo]

Dermochelys coriacea: [photo courtesy] 1. photo courtesy Jeff Stillwell. Stillwell [Photo]

Dermochelys coriacea: [diet, predator] 1. off the California coast eat various species of jellyfishes. Benson et al. 2007 [Photo]

Dermochelys coriacea: [photo courtesy] 1. photo couresy M. Hastings. Hastings [Photo]

Dermochelys coriacea: [biologging] 1. use echosounders to monitor leatherback turtles in California. Graham et al. 2010 [Text only]

Dermochelys coriacea: [biologging, diet, predator] 1. use attached cameras to monitor the turtle's feeding on jellyfishes, Cyanea capillata. 2. study off Cape Breton Island, Nova Scotia. Heaslip et al. [Photo]

Desmarestia spp.: [community, herbivory, interactions] 1. field experiments relating to competitive dominance of brown seaweeds Desmarestia spp. in the Aleutian Islands, Alaska and their defenses against grazing by sea urchins Strongylocentrotus polyacanthus. Konar 2000 [Graph]

Dialula sandiegensis: [copulation, food] 1. a pair copulating amongst their food sponges. [Photo]

Dialula sandiegensis: [defense, secondary metabolite] 1. identify 9 chlorinated acetylene products in extracts of whole bodies. Walker & Faulkner 1981 [Photo]

Dialula sandiegensis: [defense, secondary metabolite] 1. identify steroids in whole-body extracts. 2. this and other evidence suggests that Dialula is opportunistic in the types of compounds sequestered from its sponge foods in different localities. Williams et al. 1986 [Text only]

Dialula sandiegensis: [defense, secondary metabolite] 1. evidence for de novo synthesis of certain potentially defensive steroids. Kubanek & Andersen 1999 [Text only]

Dialula sandiegensis: [defense, spicules] 1. one of 16 species of dorid nudibranchs studied for spicule pattern. 2. has a cobweb network of spicules; contrast with Cadlina luteomarginata that has a ramifying dendritic pattern. Penney 2008 [Photo, Drawing]

Dialula sandiegensis: [photo courtesy] 1. photo courtesy Linda Schroeder, Pacific Northwest Shell Club, Seattle, Washington. Schroeder [Photo]

Diaulula sandiegensis: [diet, preferences] 1. in Barkley Sound, British Columbia, show a preference for sponges Myxilla incrustans and Hamacantha hyaloderma. Penney 2013 [Photo]

Diaulula sandiegensis: [egg, egg masses, size] 1. gives example of number of eggs in a single egg mass. Costello 1938 [Photo]

Didemnum carnulentum: [competition, space] 1. numerous small colonies appear to have a sea anemone Anthopleura elegantissima imprisoned. [Photo]

Didemnum carnulentum: [larva, light, settlement] 1. in tropical Didemnum species, larvae are released mid-morning. Olson 1985 [Photo]

Didemnum sp.: [defense, predation, toxin] 1. colonial tunicate likely has chemical defenses against, in this case, predation by sunflower stars Pycnopodia helianthoides. [Photo]

Didemnum sp.: [chemical, competition, space] 1. are well able to compete for space with cup corals Balanophyllia spp.. [Photo]

Didemnum sp.: [competition, space] 1. reaches standoff competition for space with sea anemones Urticina spp.. [Photo]

Didemnum spp.: [larva, light, settlement] 1. studies in Hawai'i show that larvae become negatively geotactic at settlement, leading to occupation of downward-facing surfaces. Hurlbut 1993 [Text only]

Didemnum vexillum: [morphology, spicules] 1. based on spicule morphology, world populations seem to be one and the same species. Lambert 2009 [Photo]

Didemnum vexillum: [culture, fouling] 1. methods of controlling fouling in oyster culture. Switzer et al. 2011 [Text only]

Didemnum vexillum: [distribution, habitat, invasive, model] 1. develop model to predict future invasion spots along the west coast of British Columbia. 2. known as "ecological niche-modelling". Herborg et al. 2009 [Photo]

Diodora  aspera: [growth, shell] 1. details of formation of hole. Pernet 1997 [Photo, Graph]

Diodora  aspera: [camouflage, chemical camouflage, defense] 1. shells usually covered in growths of tunicates, sponges, and bryozoans, but whether for visual or chemical camouflage, or something else, not known. [Photo]

Diodora  aspera: [defense] 1. employs novel mantle response to presence of sea-star predators. Margolin 1964 [Photo]

Diodora  aspera: [defense] 1. video showing a keyhole limpet erecting its mantle defenses in response to the presence of a sea star Orthasterias koehleri. [Video]

Diodora  aspera: [defense, morphology, phylogeny] 1. lists sea stars that provoke a mantle response and ones that don't. Margolin 1964 [Graph]

Diodora  aspera: [defense, morphology, phylogeny, mantle response] 1. investigates whether there is a morphological phylogeny of mantle responses to different taxa of sea stars. Blake 1987 [Graph]

Diodora  aspera: [defense, mantle response, phylogeny, molecular] 1. can a phylogeny derived from morphological/molecular characters be helpful in predicting mantle responses to various taxa of sea-star predators. Lafay et al. 1995 [Graph]

Diodora  aspera: [defense, mantle response, molecular, phylogeny] 1. is a molecular-phylogeny approach useful in predicting whether mantle responses occur in the presence of certain taxa of sea stars?. Wada et al. 1996 [Graph]

Diodora  aspera: [defense, mantle response] 1. does analysis of diet or habitat of sea stars help in predicting whether a mantle response occurs to a certain species of sea star?. Margolin 1964 []

Diodora  aspera: [photo courtesy] 1. photo courtesy Dave Cowles, Walla Walla University, Washington. Cowles [Photo]

Diodora  aspera: [gas exchange, water flow] 1. water flow augmented by passive suction action. Voltzow & Collin 1995 [Photo, Drawing]

Diodora  aspera: [gas exchange, water flow] 1. water-flow patterns traced and analysed. Voltzow 2004 [Drawing]

Diodora  aspera: [defense, symbiont] 1. symbiotic scaleworm Arctonoe vittata in the mantle cavity is known to come out to bite at the tube-feet of attacking sea stars. [Photo]

Dirona albolineata: [food] 1. foods include shelled snails, bryozoans, hydroids. 2. prefers snails Lacun over Margarites or Pupillaria. Robilliard 1971 [Photo]

Dirona albolineata: [food] 1. eating a colonial phoronid Phoronis ijimai. [Photo]

Dirona albolineata: [development, feeding, metamorphosis] 1. at 5mm length is already feeding. Hurst 1967 [Photo, Drawing]

Dirona albolineata: [development, feeding, metamorphosis] 1. at 5mm length is already feeding. Hurst 1967 [Photo, Drawing]

Dirona picta: [food, preferences] 1. prefers bryozoans Scrupocellaria californica in regions of northern California. Goddard 1987 [Photo]

Dirona picta: [photo courtesy] 1. photo courtesy Jeff Goddard, UC Santa Barbara, California. Goddard [Photo]

Discophyton rudyi: [predation] 1. in Newport, Oregon eaten by nudibranchs Tritonia festiva. Goddard 2006 [Photo]

Distaplia occidentalis: [parasitism, symbiont] 1. multiple colour morphs growing on the shell of a keyhole limpet Diodora aspera. [Photo]

Distaplia occidentalis: [photo courtesy] 1. photo of this and other tunicate species courtesy C. Sorte, Bodega Marine Laboratory, California. Sorte [Photo]

Distaplia occidentalis: [development, growth, juvenile, life cycle, scaling] 1. detailed comparative survey of growth and scaling dimensions of post-metamorphic juveniles of several solitary and colonial tunicates. Sherrard & LaBarbera 2005 [Photo]

Distaplia occidentalis: [adult, allometry, juvenile, pumping, isometry] 1. comparison of pumping rates in several species of solitary and colonial tunicates. 2. test of prediction that pumping power will undergo an ontogenetic shift from an allometric relationship when the tunicate is small size to an isometric relationship at larger size. Sherrard & LaBarbera 2005 [Photo, Graph]

Distaplia occidentalis: [larva, light, preferences, settlement] 1. tadpole larvae are released at dawn and settle in shady spots. Watanabe & Lambert 1973 [Photo, Graph]

Distaplia occidentalis: [larva, orientation, swimming] 1. tail-flapping in swimming tadpole larvae leads to helical swimming orientation. McHenry 2001 [Photo, Drawing]

Distaplia occidentalis: [functional morphology, larva, metamorphosis] 1. details of metamorphosis of the tadpole larva. Cloney 1982 [Drawing]

Distaplia occidentalis: [behaviour, settlement] 1. larval behaviour during settlement. Walters & Wethey 1991 [Photo]

Distaplia occidentalis: [metamorphosis, settlement] 1. events during settlement and metamorphosis. Cloney 1978 [Drawing]

Distaplia occidentalis: [metamorphosis, settlement] 1. events during settlement and metamorphosis. Cloney 1982 [Drawing]

Distaplia occidentalis: [morphology] 1. morphology of a social type of colonial tunicate. Mackie 1974 [Photo, Drawing]

Distaplia occidentalis: [feeding, predator, preferences] 1. cafeteria-style feeding and choice tests, and Y-tube-type tests indicate that colonial tunicates Distaplia occidentalis and jellyfish polyps Aurelia labiata are preferred prey of the aeolid nudibranch Hermissenda crassicornis. Hoover et al. 2012 [Photo]

Distaplia sp.: [metamorphosis] 1. comparison of tail resorption in 4 genera including Botryllus, Boltenia, and Molgula. Cloney 1982 [Drawing]

Distaplia sp.: [metamorphosis] 1. comparison of tail resorption in 4 genera including Botryllus, Boltenia, and Molgula. Cloney 1982 [Drawing]

Dodecaceria caulleryi: [asexual, reproduction] 1. this European species has an unusual mode of asexual reproduction involving budding. DeHorne 1933 [Photo]

Dodecaceria fewksii: [asexual, larva, reproduction, sexual] 1. describe an unusual mode of asexual reproduction involving budding. 2. sexual reproduction occurs involving typical trochophore larvae. Berkeley & Berkeley 1954 [Photo]

Dodecaceria sp.: [competition, space] 1. able to withstand competition with various colonial tunicates. [Photo]

Dorids : [depth, digestion, gut, morphology] 1. comprehensive study relating gut morphology, depth of water, and other features with sponge-foods preferred. Bloom 1981 [Photo]

Doriopsilla albopunctata: [marking] 1. marking with subcutaneous injections of tattoo ink seems to work. Kleist 1990 [Text only]

Doriopsilla albopunctata: [colour, food, pigments] 1. colours derived from sponge foods. McBeth 1972 [Photo]

Doriopsilla gemela: [egg masses, morphology, reproduction] 1. egg masses are flat, rather than standing upright like most other dorid masses. [Photo]

Doriopsilla gemela: [photo courtesy] 1. photo courtesy Jeff Goddard, UC Santa Barbara, California. Goddard [Photo]

Doris montereyensis: [egg masses, morphology, reproduction] 1. description of egg masses. Hurst 1967 [Photo]

Doris montereyensis: [development, gas exchange, reproduction] 1. oxygen diffusion may be a limiting factor in growth and development within egg capsule. 2. comparative study on several west-coast species including D. montereyensis. Strathmann & Strathmann 1995 [Photo]

Doris montereyensis: [food] 1. eats sponges. 2. this species cannot be differentiated from a related species Peltodoris nobilis on the usual features of radula morphology. Bloom & Bloom 1977 [Photo]

Doris montereyensis: [development, larva, reproduction] 1. surprisingly fast larval development described. 2. possibly just early mortality. McGovern & Pratt 1953 [Photo]

Doris montereyensis: [cross-shelf transport, development, egg-laying, habitat] 1. adults select habitats for egg-laying that are favourable for early development. Biermann et al. 1992 [Photo]

Doris montereyensis: [defense, secondary metabolite] 1. injection of aqueous extracts of several dorid nudibranchs into shore crabs and mice prove to be lethal. 2. call the defensive compound "dorid toxin". Fuhrman et al. 1979 [Photo]

Doris montereyensis: [defense, predation, secondary metabolite] 1. acid-glyceride extracts when incorporated into food pellets reduce feeding by sculpins Oligocottus maculosus. Andersen & Fuk Wah Sum 1980 [Photo]

Doris montereyensis: [defense, secondary metabolite] 1. survey of individuals in different west-coast localities shows the same array of metabolites, suggesting strict biosynthesis. Faulkner et al. 1990 [Photo]

Doris montereyensis: [defense, predation, secondary metabolite] 1. food pellets made up with body extracts deters feeding by crabs Cancer productus. Penney 2002 [Photo, Graph]

Doris montereyensis: [quiz] 1. quiz on enhanced growth of the nudibranch when feeding on sponge prey Halichondria panicea with its symbionts. Knowlton & Highsmith 2005 [Text only]

Doris montereyensis: [diet, preferences] 1. little confidence in this owing to small sample size. Penney 2013 [Text only]

Doris odhneri: [food] 1. preferred prey is sponges. Cook 1962 [Photo]

Doris odhneri: [diet, preferences] 1. little confidence in this report owing to small sample size. Penney 2013 [Text only]

Doris odhneri: [predator] 1. in the Strait of Georgia, British Columbia along with nudibranchs Peltodoris lentignosa feed on glass sponges Aphrocallistes vastus and Heterochone calyx. 2. first known molluscan predators of glass sponges outside of Antarctica. Chu & Leys 2012 [Photo]

Doris ohdneri: [defense, secondary metabolite] 1. extracts contain acid glycerides of possible defensive function. Andersen & Fuk Wah Sum 1980 [Photo]

Doris spp.: [food] 1. favoured foods are sponges. Bloom 1976 [Photo]

Doris spp.: [food] 1. favoured foods are sponges. Elvin & Gonor 1977 [Photo]

Doris spp.: [food] 1. favoured foods are sponges. Bloom 1981 [Photo]

Doris spp.: [defense, secondary metabolite] 1. studies on potentially defensive metabolites sequestered from sponge foods. Gustafson et al. 1984 [Photo]

Doris spp.: [defense, secondary metabolite] 1. studies on acid glycerides sequestered from sponge foods. Gustafson & Andersen 1985 [Photo]

Doris spp.: [defense, secondary metabolite] 1. studies on metabolite sequestration from sponge foods . Hellou et al. 1982 [Photo]

Doris  montereyensis: [food] 1. eats sponges and other bottom-dwelling organisms. Cook 1962 [Photo]

Doris  montereyensis: [predator] 1. ecological interactions of prey and predator. Knowlton & Highsmith 2000 [Photo]

Doris  montereyensis: [nutritional yield, predator, symbiont] 1. eats sponges Halichondria panicea along with their symbiotic zoochlorella cells and benefits nutritionally from the nutrient content of the symbionts. Knowlton & Highsmith 2005 [Photo, Graph]

Doryteuthis opalescens: [photo courtesy, pigments] 1. photo courtesy Kevin Lee, Fullerton, California. Lee [Photo]

Doryteuthis opalescens: [behaviour, egg-laying, reproduction] 1. photo courtesy Kevin Lee, Fullerton, California. Lee [Photo]

Doryteuthis opalescens: [behaviour, copulation, reproduction] 1. description of copulation. McGowan 1954 [Drawing]

Doryteuthis opalescens: [life cycle, reproduction] 1. description of life cycle. Hixon 1983 [Text only]

Doryteuthis opalescens: [behaviour, reproduction, spawning] 1. description of spawning in California. Hobson 1965 [Text only]

Doryteuthis opalescens: [egg-laying, reproduction] 1. description of egg-laying in Barkley Sound, British Columbia. Shimek et al. 1984 [Photo]

Doryteuthis opalescens: [photo courtesy] 1. photos of egg cases courtesy Kevin Lee, Fullerton, California. Lee [Photo]

Doryteuthis opalescens: [egg-laying, egg masses, reproduction] 1. describe eggs and egg mops in a spawning in Monterey Bay, California. Zeidberg et al. 2004 [Text only]

Doryteuthis opalescens: [egg, hatching, predation] 1. hatch best in the dark at cool temperatures. 2. predatory worm eats gelatinous mass surrounding eggs; termed a mutual by the authors. Zeidberg et al. 2011 [Photo, Graph]

Doryteuthis opalescens: [distribution, egg-laying, reproduction] 1. density and distribution of egg mops in Monterey Bay, California. Young et al. 2011 [Photo]

Doryteuthis opalescens: [distribution, egg masses, reproduction] 1. use side-scan sonar to plot distributions. Zeidberg et al. 2011 [Drawing]

Doryteuthis opalescens: [preferred, prey] 1. analyse gut contents. 2. euphausid shrimps are most common prey. Karpov & Cailliet 1978 [Text only]

Doryteuthis opalescens: [growth] 1. uses growth lines in statoliths to estimate age. Spratt 1978 [Drawing, Graph]

Doryteuthis opalescens: [food, growth] 1. growth in laboratory culture. Yang et al. 1986 [Drawing, Graph]

Doryteuthis opalescens: [growth] 1. growth studies in laboratory culture. Yang 1983 [Drawing, Graph]

Doryteuthis opalescens: [age, growth] 1. uses age estimates from statolith ring counts. 2. evidence points to earlier maturation in laboratory culture. Jackson 1994 [Graph]

Doryteuthis opalescens: [age, growth, growth line, life span] 1. use statolith growth lines to estimate age. 2. life span estimated at about 240d for both sexes. Jackson & Domeler 2003 [Graph]

Doryteuthis opalescens: [locomotion, mechanism] 1. description of mantle-wall muscle antagonism to produce jet flow. Gosline et al. 1983 [Photo, Drawing]

Doryteuthis opalescens: [escape, locomotion] 1. factors influencing escape-jetting . Neumeister et al. 1983 [Photo, Drawing]

Doryteuthis opalescens: [escape, locomotion] 1. factors affecting escape-jetting. Preuss & Gilly 2000 [Photo, Drawing]

Doryteuthis opalescens: [costs, energetics, locomotion] 1. cost-of-transport of swimming squids compared with fishes and crustaceans. D'Or & Webber 1986 [Graph]

Doryteuthis opalescens: [swimming, speed] 1. records of swimming speeds taken from a remote vehicle in Monterey Bay, California. Zeidberg 2004 [Text only]

Doryteuthis opalescens: [culture, juvenile, reproduction, survival] 1. early attempts to culture juvenile squids have poor success. Hurley 1976 [Graph]

Doryteuthis opalescens: [culture, juvenile, reproduction] 1. culture success improved by feeding the juveniles live copepods rather than brine shrimps. Hanlon et al. 1979 [Photo]

Doryteuthis opalescens: [photo courtesy] 1. photo courtesy NOAA Fisheries Service, La Jolla, California. [Photo]

Doryteuthis opalescens: [dispersal, juvenile] 1. dispersal in the Southern California Bight during an El Nino event. Zeldberg & Hamner 2002 [Text only]

Doryteuthis opalescens: [chemical fingerprint, dispersal] 1. trace-elemental composition of statoliths used to match pelagic juveniles with adult source stock. Warner et al. 2009 [Photo]

Doryteuthis opalescens: [food web, predation] 1. represent an important component of fish/bird/seal/porpoise/sea lion/shark food web in Monterey Bay, California. Morejohn et al. 1978 [Drawing]

Doryteuthis opalescens: [behaviour, prey capture, survival] 1. squids successfully reared to juvenile stage in laboratory culture. 2. good data on learning behaviour in attacking prey. Hurley 1976 [Graph]

Doryteuthis opalescens: [aggression, behaviour] 1. unique description of egg-guarding behaviour in aquarium situations. Hurley 1977 [Photo]

Doryteuthis opalescens: [genetics, habitat] 1. genetic homogeneity in populations ranging from Mexico to British Columbia. Reichow & Smith 2001 [Drawing]

Doryteuthis opalescens: [genetics, habitat] 1. studies on extent of genetic differentiation in a range of habitats. Reichow & Smith 1999 [Drawing]

Doryteuthis opalescens: [predation] 1. eaten when dead or moribund by sunflower stars Pycnopodia helianthoides. Wobber 1973 [Photo, Drawing]

Doryteuthis opalescens: [development, larva, reproduction] 1. provide a definition for the term "paralarva" to describe a free-living stage of development. 2. should not be shortened to "larva", as cephalopods have no larval stage. Young & Harman 1988 [Text only]

Doryteuthis robusta: [behaviour, prey capture] 1. detailed descriptions of both successful and unsuccessful attacks. Chen et al. 1996 [Drawing]

Dosidicus  gigas: [chromatophore] 1. video of chromatophore activity in a stranded Humboldt squid. [Video]

Dosidicus  gigas: [culture, egg, temperature ] 1. culture eggs at different temperatures. Staaf et al. 2011 [Drawing]

Dosidicus  gigas: [food, gut] 1. use DNA "barcoding" methods to identify prey in gut contents. 2. favoured prey are sardines and herring. Braid et al. 2012 [Photo, Drawing]

Dosidicus  gigas: [photo courtesy] 1. photo courtesy Josie Osborne, Tofino, British Columbia. Osborne [Photo]

Dosidicus  gigas: [ventilation] 1. video showing forceful expulsion of water from the mantle cavity via the siphon. [Video]

Dosidicus  gigas: [predation, technique] 1. use stable-isotope ratios to determine trophic relationships with sperm whales Physeter macrocephalus in the Gulf of California. 2. technique is non-invasive for the whales. Ruiz-Cooley et al. 2004 [Text only]

Dosidicus  gigas: [morphology] 1. anatomy of beak, suckers, tentacles, and armoured rings on tentacle suckers. Osborne 2010 [Photo]

Dosidicus  gigas: [habitat, sighting] 1. reports first appearance of this species in southern California in 1974. Hochberg 1974 [Text only]

Dosidicus  gigas: [distribution, habitat] 1. data from ROV video records on northward expansion of range. Zeidberg & Robinson 2007 [Photo]

Dosidicus  gigas: [photo courtesy] 1. photo courtesy authors and Monterey Ba;y Aquarium Research Institute, California. Zeidberg & Robinson [Photo]

Dosidicus  gigas: [depth, habitat] 1. records of dive depths of tagged individuals in the Gulf of California. Davis et al. 2007 [Photo, Graph]

Dosidicus  gigas: [photo courtesy] 1. photo courtesy Josie Osborne, Tofino, British Columbia. Osborne [Photo]

Dosidicus  gigas: [distribution, genetics] 1. distributions along west coast related to oxygen minimum layer that may provide protection from whale predators. Staaf et al. 2010 [Drawing]

Dosidicus  gigas: [ink] 1. video showing ink release by a stranded individual. [Video, Text only]

Doto amyra: [development, feeding, juvenile, larva, reproduction] 1. description of early development and feeding. Goddard 1996 [Photo, Drawing]

Doto amyra: [photo courtesy] 1. photo courtesy Gary McDonald, Long Marine Laboratory, Santa Cruz, California. McDonald [Photo]

Doto columbiana: [predator] 1. eats hydroids such as Aglaeophenia sp.. [Photo]

Doto columbiana: [photo courtesy] 1. photo courtesy Jeff Goddard, UC Santa Barbara, California. [Photo]

Doto  columbiana: [photo courtesy] 1. photo courtesy Jeff Goddard, UC Santa Barbar. Goddard [Photo]

Echinoderm : [connective tissue] 1. overview of state-transformation of collagenous connective-tissues in different echinoderms. Wilkie 1983 [Text only]

Echinopluteus : [functional morphology, larva, skeleton] 1. consider functions of the larval skeleton. Pennington & Strathmann 1990 [Drawing]

Echinopluteus : [functional morphology, larva, skeleton] 1. drawing courtesy the authors. Sinervo & McEdward 1998 [Drawing]

Ecteinascidia turbinata: [chemical, defense, larva] 1. experiments on chemical defenses and warning coloration in a Floridian species of colonial tunicate. 2. good ideas for research project. Young & Bingham 1987 [Text only]

Elliptochloris marina: [symbiont, zoochlorella] 1. confirm designation of green-algal symbiont in Anthopleura spp. as Elliptochloris marina. Letsch et al. 2009 [Text only]

Elliptochloris marina: [abundance, distribution, habitat, season, symbiont, tidal level] 1. factors affecting seasonal intertidal distributions and abundances of symbionts . Dimond et al. 2011 [Drawing]

Elysia hedgpethi: [development, egg masses, shell, veliger] 1. description of egg masses and veliger shells of 3 species of sacoglossan opisthobranchs also including Placida dendritica and Aplysiopsis enteromorphae. Greene 1968 [Photo, Drawing]

Elysia hedgpethi: [photo courtesy] 1. photo courtesy F.M. MacFarland, California and California Academy of Sciences. MacFarland []

Elysia viridis: [defense] 1. possibly protective discs in skin called spindles. 2. may protect against stings from prey's nematocysts. Martin et al. 2007 [Photo]

Emerita analoga: [defense] 1. camouflage defense against speckly sand. Mead 1917 [Photo]

Emerita analoga: [aggregation, settlement] 1. aggregations favour reproduction. Efford 1965 [Photo]

Emerita analoga: [burial, burrowing, defense] 1. bury in sand for protection. 2. description of burrowing process. Faulkes & Paul 1997 [Photo, Drawing]

Emerita analoga: [burial, burrowing, defense] 1. aspects of defensive burial. Faulkes & Paul 1997 [Photo, Drawing]

Emerita analoga: [burial, defense] 1. aspects of behaviour . Paul 1981 [Photo, Drawing]

Emerita analoga: [burrowing, efficacy] 1. comparison with 2 other Californian species of mole crabs. Dugan et al. 2000 [Graph]

Emerita analoga: [burial, defense, predation] 1. burial rates in relation to coarseness of sand, and degree of gravidity and parasite load. Kolluru et al. 2011 [Photo]

Emerita analoga: [photo courtesy] 1. photo courtesy Lovell & Libby Langstroth, California. Langstroth [Photo]

Emerita analoga: [behaviour, orientation] 1. beach orientation after eye removal. Mead 1917 [Drawing]

Emerita analoga: [aggregation, intertidal level, tides, movement] 1. movement of aggregations up and down the beach with the tides. MacGinitie 1938 [Photo]

Emerita analoga: [aggregation, behaviour, movement, tides] 1. . Efford 1965 [Graph]

Emerita analoga: [behaviour, movement, tides] 1. movements may relate to avoidance of "puddled" sand. Cubit 1969 [Drawing]

Emerita analoga: [behaviour, mark-recapture, movement] 1. monitor down-beach movements of aggregations. Dillery & Knapp 1970 [Text only]

Emerita analoga: [aggregation, behaviour] 1. new insights on an old problem. Fusaro 1980 [Text only]

Emerita analoga: [genetics] 1. no significant population subdivision over entire west-coast distribution. Dawson et al. 2011 [Drawing]

Emerita analoga: [dispersal, larva] 1. study of dispersal of zoeae. Johnson 1939 [Photo]

Emerita analoga: [el Niño, megalopa, oceanic processes, settlement] 1. settlement and recruitment under different oceanic conditions. Sorte et al. 2001 [Text only]

Emerita analoga: [growth, moulting] 1. comparison of growth in 2 areas. Fusaro 1978 [Photo, Graph]

Emerita analoga: [predation] 1. in Oregon eaten by ravens Corvus corax. 2. gravid crabs most preferred. Hendricks & Hendricks 2011 [Photo]

Emerita analoga: [predation] 1. on beaches in Peru eaten by several species of sea gulls. Hidalgo et al. 2010 [Photo]

Emerita analoga: [copulation, mating, reproduction] 1. details of mating behaviour of crabs in southern California. MacGinitie 1938 [Photo]

Emerita analoga: [larva] 1. description of zoeal stages. Johnson & Lewis 1942 [Drawing]

Emerita analoga: [ovigerous, reproduction, season] 1. seasonality of egg-bearing at Pacific Grove, California. Boolootian et al. 1959 [Graph]

Emerita analoga: [copulation, reproduction, spermatophore] 1. reproductive behaviour of small-sized males. Efford 1967 [Drawing]

Emerita analoga: [reproduction, season] 1. possibility of protandric hemaphrotidism. Barnes & Wenner 1968 [Graph]

Emerita analoga: [protandry, reproduction] 1. early reference to protandric hermaphrotidism. Weymouth 1919 [Text only]

Emerita analoga: [reproduction, season] 1. possibly several broods per season. Cox & Dudley 1968 [Photo]

Emerita analoga: [photo courtesy] 1. photo courtesy Lovell & Libby Langstroth. Langstroth [Photo]

Emerita analoga: [egg, biochemistry] 1. identify several types of carotenoid substances. Gilchrist & Lee 1972 [Text only]

Emerita analoga: [larval dispersal, recruitment, upwelling] 1. study of larval recruitment in relation to upwelling and shore topography. Diehl et al. 2007 [Photo, Drawing, Graph]

Emerita analoga: [photo courtesy] 1. photo courtesy G. Jensen, California. Jensen [Photo]

Emerita analoga: [suspension feeding] 1. detailed study of mechanism of feeding. Knox & Boolootian 1963 [Drawing]

Emerita analoga: [burrowing] 1. mechanism of burrowing as part of general feeding process. Truman & Ansell 1969 [Photo, Drawing]

Emerita analoga: [suspension feeding] 1. structure of filtering setae on antennae. MacGinitie 1938 [Photo, Drawing]

Emerita analoga: [PSPs, suspension feeding] 1. uptake of PSPs through consumption of dinoflagellates provides a natural indicator of toxin's presence . Bretz et al. 2002 [Text only]

Emerita rathbunae: [behaviour, copulation, reproduction, spermatophore] 1. reproductive behaviour of small-sized males. Efford 1967 [Drawing]

Emerita rathbunae: [development, larva, zoea] 1. details of larval development. Knight 1967 [Drawing, Graph]

Emerita  analoga: [parasitism] 1. parasitised by tematodes and acanthocephelans in areas of California. Smith 2007 [Graph]

Emplectonema kandai: [luminescent] 1. describes luminescence. Kanda 1937 [Text only]

Enhydra lutris: [predation] 1. sea-otter predation on abalone stocks. Woodby et al. 2000 [Photo, Graph]

Enhydra lutris: [behaviour, feeding] 1. describes fishing behaviour of sea otters for abalone. Houk & Geibel 1974 [Photo]

Enhydra lutris: [photo courtesy] 1. photo courtesy SIERRASOL and an unknown photographer. SIERRASOL [Photo]

Enhydra lutris: [predator] 1. favour clams as prey in the Kodiak Archipelago, Alaska. Doroff & DeGange 1994 [Photo]

Enhydra lutris: [feeding, nutrition, costs] 1. biomass of clam prey differs with species and burial depth in Elkhorn Slough, California. 2. compares 2 prey speces: Saxidomus nuttallii and Tresus nuttallii. Kvitek et al. 1988 [Drawing]

Enhydra lutris: [predator, nutritional yield] 1. compare flesh yield from prey bivalves Tresus spp., Protothaca staminea, and Macoma spp. in Kodiak Archipelago, Alaska. Kvitek et al. 1992 [Drawing, Graph]

Enhydra lutris: [predator] 1. ranking of prey in Santa Cruz, California based on net energy benefit. Ostfeld 1982 [Photo, Table of Data]

Enhydra lutris: [energetics] 1. ranks several prey types in Prince William Sound, Alaska based on energy yield. Garshells et al. 1986 [Drawing, Table of Data]

Enhydra lutris: [predator] 1. in areas of Prince William Sound, Alaska diet is about 75% clams. Wolt et al. 2012 [Graph]

Enhydra lutris: [diversity, effects, predator, size] 1. comparison of effects of sea-otter predation on size and diversity of sea-mussel beds at different sites along the west coast. Singh et al. 2013 [Photo, Drawing, Graph]

Enhydra lutris: [community] 1. interactions between sea urchins, kelp, and sea otters. McLean 1962 [Drawing]

Enhydra lutris: [photo courtesy] 1. drawing of sea otter eating a red sea urchin courtesy Sue Coleman. Coleman [Drawing]

Enhydra lutris: [community, diversity] 1. effect of sea otters on seaweed diversity in Alaska. Duggins 1980 [Graph]

Enhydra lutris: [community, interactions, pollution] 1. follow-up on effects of Exxon-Valdez oil spill in Alaska in 1989 on sea-otter abundances and their effects on population abundances of green sea-urchins Strongylocentrotus droebachiensis. Dean et al. 2000 [Photo]

Enhydra lutris: [predator] 1. in Pacific Grove, California each otter may eat about 90 red urchins Strongylocentrotus franciscanus per day. McLean 1962 [Photo]

Enhydra lutris: [behaviour, foraging] 1. aspects of foraging behaviour on sea urchins and other prey. Estes 1982 [Drawing]

Enhydra lutris: [predator, preferences] 1. describe prey preferences of individual otters, especially relating to sea urchins Strongylocentrotus spp.. Estes et al. 2003 [Text only]

Enhydra lutris: [predator] 1. in Carmel Bay, California intense predation pressure has driven sea urchins Strongylocentrotus spp. into crevice shelters. Kenner 1992 [Text only]

Enhydra lutris: [predation, preferred, size] 1. at sites in the Aleutian Islands, Alaska sea otters Enhydra lutris prefer sea urchins of 2-3cm test diameter, significantly larger than those available in the habitats. Estes & Duggins 1995 [Graph]

Enhydra lutris: [ecological interaction, ecology] 1. detailed study of interaction of sea otters Enhydra lutris, sea urchins Strongylocentrotus polyacanthus, and kelps in the Aleutian Islands, Alaska. Estes & Duggins 1995 [Photo]

Enhydra lutris: [community, introduction, structure] 1. assessment of impact of sea-otter introduction to community structure along the Olympic Peninsula, most notably sea urchins Strongylocentrotus franciscanus. Kvitek et al. 1998 [Photo, Graph]

Enhydra lutris: [community, ecological interaction, introduction, map, reference only] 1. assessment of effects on community structure following introduction of sea otters Enhydra lutris along the Olympic Peninsula coast. Kvitek et al. 1989 [Photo, Drawing]

Enhydra lutris: [community, ecology, interactions, predation] 1. effects on community composition of sea-otter predation on red sea-urchins Strongylocentrotus franciscanus. Breen et al. 1982 [Photo]

Enhydra lutris: [map, predator] 1. preferentially eat sea urchins Strongylocentrotus franciscanus in areas of the Olympic Peninsula, Washington. Lairdre & Jameson 2006 [Drawing]

Enteroctopus dofleini: [predator] 1. preys mainly on bivalves Clinocardium nuttallii and Protothaca staminea. Hartwick et al. 1981 [Photo]

Enteroctopus dolfleini: [camouflage, chromatophore, colour, defense] 1. colour change by fast change in chromatophores. Page 1998 [Photo, Drawing]

Enteroctopus  dofleini: [defense, bite] 1. general account of octopuses using their beaks in biting defense. High 1976 [Photo]

Enteroctopus  dofleini: [morphology, beak] 1. relationship of beak size with live mass. Robinson & Hartwick 1983 [Drawing, Graph]

Enteroctopus  dofleini: [habitat, home, tagging] 1. use of sonic tags for monitoring movements, home ranges, and preferred habitats. Mather et al. 1985 [Graph]

Enteroctopus  dofleini: [borehole, drilling] 1. drills into crabs in Alaska. 2. most drilled is Cancer oregonensis that has a hard carapace. Dodge & Scheel 1999 [Drawing]

Enteroctopus  dofleini: [crawling] 1. video showing an octopus crawling in an aquarium tank. [Video]

Enteroctopus  dofleini: [photo courtesy] 1. photos courtesy Shawn Robinson, Simon Fraser University, British Columbia. Robinson [Photo]

Enteroctopus  dofleini: [morphology, spermatophore] 1. detailed morphology of reproductive system in a male and of formation of spermatophores. Mann et al. 1970 [Drawing]

Enteroctopus  dofleini: [behaviour, copulation, morphology, spermatophore] 1. morphology of spermatophore and details of copulatory events. Mann et al. 1966 [Photo]

Enteroctopus  dofleini: [copulation, morphology, spermatophore] 1. aspects of copulation and role of spermatophores. Mann et al. 1970 [Photo]

Enteroctopus  dolfleini: [chromatophore, colour] 1. video of octopus changing colour by chromatophore expansion/contraction. [Video]

Enteroctopus  dolfleini: [camouflage, eyebar] 1. distinctive eyebar may confer camouflage protection. [Photo]

Enteroctopus  dolfleini: [egg, size] 1. reports egg size. Pickford 1964 [Photo]

Enteroctopus  dolfleini: [food, preferred] 1. list dietary items in octopus dens in British Columbia. Hartwick & Thorarinsson 1978 [Photo]

Enteroctopus  dolfleini: [diet] 1. itemisation of 3500 prey items from 117 dens in British Columbia. 2. cockles and crabs are preferred prey. Hartwick et al. 1981 [Photo]

Enteroctopus  dolfleini: [preferred, prey] 1. list of prey items from 42 dens in Alaska. 2. crabs Tellmessus and Cancer preferred. Dodge & Scheel 1999 [Photo, Table of Data]

Enteroctopus  dolfleini: [preferred, prey] 1. 6 prey species make up 80% of den litter in areas of Alaska. Vincent et al. 1988 [Photo]

Enteroctopus  dolfleini: [predator] 1. attacks on humans rare; octopuses may have been especially hungry. Anderson et al. 2007 [Drawing]

Enteroctopus  dolfleini: [growth, size] 1. anecdotal records of maximum size. [Photo]

Enteroctopus  dolfleini: [food, growth] 1. two growth periods: fast in summer, slow in winter. 2. no reliable way to age an octopus. Robinson & Hartwick 1986 [Graph]

Enteroctopus  dolfleini: [senescence] 1. consider senescence in octopuses. Anderson et al. 2002 [Photo]

Enteroctopus  dolfleini: [habitat, size, den] 1. relationship of body size to den size. Hartwick et al. 1978 [Photo, Graph]

Enteroctopus  dolfleini: [photo courtesy] 1. photo courtesy Shawn Robinson, Simon Fraser University, Burnaby, British Columbia. Robinson [Photo]

Enteroctopus  dolfleini: [den, habitat] 1. aspects of den occupation: movements between dens and times occupied. Hartwick et al. 1984 [Graph]

Enteroctopus  dolfleini: [habitat, size] 1. comparison of size in offshore and inshore habitats in British Columbia. Hartwick et al. 1988 [Graph]

Enteroctopus  dolfleini: [tagging, technique] 1. comparison of different tagging methods for octopuses. 2. recommend visible-implant elastomer tags. Barry et al. 2011 [Photo]

Enteroctopus  dolfleini: [behaviour, drilling, feeding, prey, prey capture] 1. description of prey capture, handling, drilling, and eating. 2. different methods for different prey. Hartwick et al. 1978 [Photo]

Enteroctopus  dolfleini: [toxin] 1. description of salivary-gland toxin and its effects on prey after drilling. Songdahl & Shapiro 1974 [Photo]

Enteroctopus  dolfleini: [behaviour, predator] 1. catches prey in web spread between arm bases. Mather 1998 [Photo]

Enteroctopus  dolfleini: [learning] 1. apparent ability to learn to open a glass jar with a crayfish inside. Anderson & Mather 2010 [Photo, Graph]

Enteroctopus  dolfleini: [ventilation] 1. video showing an octopus ventilating its mantle cavity. [Video]

Enteroctopus  dolfleini: [function, jet] 1. functions include digging up clams, cleaning the den, and chasing away intruders. Mather & Anderson 1999 [Photo]

Enteroctopus  dolfleini: [crawling, locomotion] 1. video of sucker use in crawling. [Video]

Enteroctopus  dolfleini: [crawling] 1. video showing agility of a crawling octopus. [Video]

Enteroctopus  dolfleini: [cross-shelf transport, defense, morphology, skin] 1. swelling of skin papulae may be a strategy to make the body seem larger as protection from predators. [Photo]

Enteroctopus  dolfleini: [activity, nocturnal] 1. generally some activity throughout the daylight hours, so not strictly nocturnal. Mather et al. 1985 [Photo]

Enteroctopus  dolfleini: [dispersal, hatchling] 1. dispersal off the Aleutian Islands, Alaska monitored by plankton-net sampling. Kubodera 1991 [Photo, Drawing]

Enteroctopus  dolfleini: [photo courtesy, predation] 1. photo courtesy Shawn Robinson, Simon Fraser University, British Columbia. Robinson [Photo]

Enteroctopus  dolfleini: [behaviour] 1. suggestive evidence that octopuses engage in "play" behaviour. Mather & Anderson 1999 [Photo]

Enteroctopus  dolfleini: [survival, captivity] 1. survival prospects for octopuses held for long periods in captivity, then released. Anderson 2000 [Photo]

Enteroctopus  dolfleini: [behaviour, habitat] 1. octopuses in captivity may need "environmental enrichment" for best health. Anderson & Wood 2001 [Photo]

Enteroctopus  dolfleini: [defense, den, hide away, refuge] 1. use sonic tags to monitor activity and behaviour. 2. spend 40% of each day in den-refuge. Mather et al. 1985 [Text only]

Enteroctopus  dolfleini: [prey capture] 1. video of an octopus catching a prey crustacean. [Video]

Enteroctopus  dolfleini: [prey capture] 1. video of an individual holding a prey crab in its web. [Video]

Enteroctopus  dolfleini: [behaviour, feeding] 1. observations in laboratory culture. 2. unusual feediing behaviour involves attaching to the surface film to feed on floating pieces of krill. Marliave 1981 [Photo]

Enteroctopus  dolfleini: [photo courtesy] 1. photo of octopus hatchling courtesy Shawn Robinson, Simon Fraser University, British Columbia. Robinson [Photo]

Enteroctopus  dolfleini: [prey capture] 1. description of capture of live fishes. Anderson 1991 [Photo, Text only]

Enteroctopus  dolfleini: [behaviour, prey capture] 1. in situ description of "web-over" or "speculative hunting" where an octopus is seen to pounce more or less indiscriminately on different areas of substratum, then seek out possible trapped prey with its tentacles. Cosgrove 2003 [Photo]

Enteroctopus  dolfleini: [behaviour, copulation] 1. description of copulatory behaviour, including use of hectocotylus arm. Gabe 1975 [Photo]

Enteroctopus  dolfleini: [copulation, reproduction] 1. description of copulatory behaviour. Anderson et al. 2003 [Photo, Drawing]

Enteroctopus  dolfleini: [photo courtesy] 1. drawing courtesy Pearse et al. and Blackwell Scientific Publ Ltd, Palo Alto, California. Pearse et al. 1987 [Drawing]

Enteroctopus  dolfleini: [behaviour, copulation, courtship] 1. describe fighting and attacks between 2 individuals, and suggest that the behaviour may actually have been reproductive in nature. Kyte & Courtney 1977 [Photo]

Enteroctopus  dolfleini: [life cycle] 1. details of life cycle. Hartwick 1983 [Photo]

Enteroctopus  dolfleini: [circulatory system, lever, locomotion] 1. details of hemolymph circulation, heart function, ctenidia function, and so on with some data on locomotory costs. Johansen & Martin 1962 [Photo, Drawing]

Enteroctopus  dolfleini: [response, ventilation, touch] 1. octopus responds to touch irritation with increased ventilatory rate. 2. food elicits decreased ventilatory rate. Anderson et al. 2010 [Text only]

Enteroctopus  dolfleini: [diet, specialisation] 1. comparison of diets ranging from Puget Sound, Washington to the Aleutian Islands, Alaska show that the species is a generalist feeder. Scheel & Anderson 2012 [Drawing, Graph]

Enteroctopus  dolfleini: [depth, habitat, preferences] 1. common habitat preferences in Prince William Sound, Alaska are shallow boulder areas on non-rocky substrata. Scheel 2002 [Graph]

Enteroctopus  dolfleini: [habitat, telemetry] 1. habitat use by octopuses in Alaska using sonic transmitters. Scheel & Bisson 2012 [Graph]

Enteroctopus  dolfleini: [ecology, habitat, reference only] 1. review of habitat ecology in Alaska. Scheel et al. 2007 [Text only]

Enteroctopus  dolfleini: [predation] 1. constitute only 0.5 % frequency of occurrence in the guts of sea lions Mirounga angustirostris at San Miguel Island, California in spring/summer. Antonelis et al. 1994 [Text only]

Enteroctopus  dolfleini: [photo courtesy] 1. photos of developmental stages courtesy Shawn Robinson, Simon Fraser University, Burnaby. Robinson [Photo]

Enteroctopus  dolfleini: [growth] 1. compare growth rates with other species of cephalopods, including the west-coast Octopus bimaculoides and squid Doryteuthis opalescens. Wood & O'Dor 2000 [Graph]

Enteroctopus  dolfleini: [food, preferences] 1. prefers bivalves, and preferences seem to related to difficulty in opening one species or another. 2. Protothaca preferred in different types of tests. Mather 2007 [Photo]

Enteroctopus  dolfleini: [defense, hide away] 1. high proportion of amputated arms on individuals hiding in dens in British Columbia. 2. common response is to extend an exploratory arm when something comes near the den. Hartwick et al. 1978 [Photo]

Enteroctopus  dolfleini: [defense, ink, withdrawal] 1. incidence of arm loss and other damage to specimens in British Columbia. Hartwick et al. 1978 [Text only]

Epiactis prolifera: [feeding, stimulus] 1. experiments on feeding stimuli. Lenhoff1965 [Photo]

Epiactis prolifera: [behaviour, locomotion] 1. locomotory movements in the field. Dunn 1977 [Photo]

Epiactis prolifera: [reproduction, parthenogenesis] 1. sexual reproduction may involve hermaphroditism and parthenogenesis. 2. young are brooded externally. Bucklin et al. 1984 [Photo]

Epiactis prolifera: [brooding, reproduction, hermaphroditism] 1. aspects of sexual reproducion, including external brooding. Edmands & Potts 1997 [Photo]

Epiactis prolifera: [quiz] 1. quiz on advantage of being self-fertile. [Text only]

Epiactis prolifera: [brooding, reproduction, sexual] 1. features of brooding. Dunn 1975 [Photo]

Epiactis prolifera: [brooding, reproduction, sexual] 1. features of brooding. Dunn 1977 [Photo]

Epiactis prolifera: [camouflage, habitat] 1. colour morphs match habitat colour. Dunn 1977 [Photo]

Epiactis prolifera: [quiz] 1. quiz on advantages of brooding. [Text only]

Epiactis prolifera: [quiz] 1. quiz on morphological features relating to brooding. [Text only]

Epiactis spp.: [reproduction, sexual] 1. reproduction in Epiactis spp. compared. Dunn 1975 [Photo]

Epiactis spp.: [reproduction, sexual] 1. reproduction in Epiactis spp. compared. Fautin & Chia 1986 [Photo]

Epitonium indianorum: [feeding, preferences] 1. favours tentacles of sea anemones Urticina spp. as food. Smith 1977 [Photo]

Epitonium spp.: [behaviour, feeding] 1. observations of their biology. Salo 1977 [Photo]

Epitonium tinctum: [feeding, preferences] 1. favours tentacles of sea anemones Anthopleura spp.. Smith 1977 [Photo]

Epitonium tinctum: [photo courtesy] 1. photo courtesy Linda Schroeder, Pacific Northwest Shell Club, Seattle, Washington. Schroeder [Photo]

Eriocheir sinensis: [identification, larva, reproduction, zoea] 1. identification of zoea larvae of 10 genera of crabs in San Francisco Bay. 2. provides a dichotomous key for all 10 genera. Rice & Tsukimura 2007 [Drawing]

Eschrichtius robustus: [predation] 1. first description of gray whales feeding on subtidal populations of amphipods. Oliver et al. 1984 []

Eschrichtius robustus: [predation] 1. gray whales feed on subtidal populations of amphipods in British Columbia. Dunham & Duffus 1984 [Text only]

Eubranchus spp.: [aposemetism, defense, cerata] 1. describes the possible role of ceratal glands in defense. 2. warning coloration. Edmunds 1966 [Drawing]

Eudendrium spp.: [predation] 1. eaten by aeolid nudibranchs such as Flabellina picta. [Photo]

Eudistylia polymorpha: [skeleton, cartilage] 1. cartilaginous supporting structures are present at the bases of the feeding tentacles. Person & Mathews 1967 [Photo]

Eudistylia sp.: [suspension feeding] 1. general description of filter- or suspension-feeding. [Photo, Drawing]

Eudistylia sp.: [growth, tube] 1. brief description of tube-growth. [Drawing]

Eudistylia sp.: [growth, tube] 1. video showing tube growth. [Video]

Eudistylia vancouveri: [host] 1. describes relationship of hydroid Proboscidactyla flavicirrata as an obligate commensalism. Strickland 1971 [Photo]

Eudistylia vancouveri: [gas exchange] 1. most gas exchange is via the crown of tentacles, but is augmented by epidermal diffusion. Giangrande 1991 [Photo]

Eudistylia vancouveri: [current, current velocity, feeding] 1. feeding current of an individual enhanced by current flow over the cluster of individuals. Merz 1984 [Photo, Drawing, Graph]

Eudistylia vancouveri: [predation] 1. protection conferred by deep withdrawal into their tubes may be enough to deter predators like sunflower stars Pycnopodia helianthoides. [Photo]

Eudistylia vancouveri: [defense, withdrawal] 1. two individuals respond to touch and shadow with withdrawal response. [Video]

Eupentacta quinquesemita: [ossicles] 1. general comments about role of ossicles in defense. [Photo]

Eupentacta quinquesemita: [photo courtesy] 1. photo courtesy Phil Lambert, Royal British Columbia Museum, Victoria. 2. also photograph of spicules of Pseudocnus curatus. Lambert [Photo]

Eupentacta quinquesemita: [osmoconformer, salinity, environmental physiology] 1. observations on osmotic effects of salinity changes in southeastern Alaska. Denoux 1976 [Photo]

Eupentacta quinquesemita: [evisceration, season] 1. seasonally eviscerate in autumn. 2. funtion may be to eliminate "brown-body" wastes. Byrne 1985 [Photo, Graph]

Eupentacta quinquesemita: [evisceration, ultraviolet] 1. describes process. Byrne 1985 [Photo, Drawing]

Eupentacta quinquesemita: [evisceration, neurosecretion] 1. seasonal evisceration under neurosecretory control. Byrne 1985 [Text only]

Eupentacta quinquesemita: [regeneration] 1. describes gut regeneration after seasonal evisceration. Byrne 1985 [Drawing]

Eupentacta quinquesemita: [suspension feeding] 1. brief description of process. [Photo]

Eupentacta quinquesemita: [season, spawning] 1. description of egg strings. McEuen 1988 [Photo]

Eupentacta quinquesemita: [defense, evisceration, toxin] 1. neither viscera nor body eaten by fishes. Byrne 1985 [Photo]

Eupentacta quinquesemita: [evisceration] 1. aspects of evisceration process. Byrne 2001 [Photo]

Eupentacta quinquesemita: [suspension feeding] 1. brief description of process. [Photo]

Eupentacta spp.: [predation] 1. eaten preferentially by sea stars Solaster stimpsoni in the laboratory. Engstrom 1988 [Photo]

Euphysa flammea: [anoxia, oxygen consumption] 1. shows oxyconformation in hypoxic conditions. Rutherford & Thuesen 2005 [Photo, Graph]

Eupolymnia crescentis: [development, juvenile, larva, reproduction, spawning] 1. describes development to juvenile in laboratory culture. 2. compares with 3 other terebellids: Neoamphitrite robusta (a free-spawners), and Thelepus crispus and Ramex californiensis (both internal-tube brooders). McHugh 1993 [Photo]

Eurylepta leoparda: [predator] 1. preys on solitary tunicates Corella willmeriana. Lambert 1968 [Photo]

Eurylepta leoparda: [photo courtesy] 1. photo courtesy Ron Long, Simon Fraser University, Burnaby, British Columbia. Long [Photo]

Euryletpta californica: [aposemetism, photo courtesy] 1. photo courtesy Kevin Lee, Fullerton. 2. research needed on aposematic or warning coloration. Lee [Photo]

Euryletpta leoparda: [carnivore, feeding, food] 1. preys on tunicates Corella willmeriana. Lambert 1968 [Photo]

Euryletpta leoparda: [carnivore, feeding, food] 1. preys on tunicates Corella willmeriana. Ching 1977 [Photo]

Euryletpta leoparda: [photo courtesy] 1. photo courtesy Ron Long, Simon Fraser University. Long [Photo]

Eusergestes similis: [behaviour, mechanism, swimming] 1. describes swimming behaviour. 2. routine swimming speed 8cm per sec. Cowles 1994 [Photo, Drawing]

Eusergestes similis: [photo courtesy] 1. photo courtesy Dave Cowles, Walla Walla University, Washington. Cowles [Photo]

Euspira heros: [borehole, morphology] 1. compare borehole size and morphology in several species of bivalves for 3 species of moon snails including E. lewisii and Neverita duplicata. Grey et al. 2005 [Photo, Graph]

Euspira lewisii: [predator] 1. preys on bivalves, including butter clams Saxidomus gigantea and littleneck clams Protothaca staminea. Pietso et al. 1994 [Photo, Graph]

Euspira lewisii: [predator] 1. when given a choice, preys preferentially upon thin-shelled morphs of littleneck clams Protothaca staminea. Grey et al. 2007 [Photo]

Euspira lewisii: [burrowing] 1. introductory comments about life style. [Photo]

Euspira lewisii: [feeding, borehole drilling] 1. general description of drilling and feeding. [Photo]

Euspira lewisii: [diet, preferences] 1. list of preferred bivalve prey. Peitso et al. 1994 [Photo]

Euspira lewisii: [borehole drilling] 1. not usual to bore into gaper clams Tresus spp. because of large gape in shells. Reid & Friesen 1981 [Photo, Text only]

Euspira lewisii: [mortality] 1. prey sometimes killed by suffocation. Reid & Gustafson 1989 [Text only]

Euspira lewisii: [borehole, morphology] 1. compare shapes and sizes of boreholes in different species of bivalves for 3 species of moon snails, including E. heros and Neverita duplicata. Grey et al. 2005 [Photo, Graph]

Euspira lewisii: [diet, preferences] 1. favoured bivalve prey in Departure Bay, British Columbia are butter clams Saxidomus gigantea. Bernard 1967 [Table of Data]

Euspira lewisii: [diet, preferences] 1. common prey in Barkley Sound, British Columbia are olive shells Callianax biplicata. [Photo]

Euspira lewisii: [quiz] 1. quiz on boreholes in olive shells Calianax biplicata. [Text only]

Euspira lewisii: [diet, preferences] 1. preference shown for thin-shelled bivalve prey Protothaca staminea. Grey et al. 2007 [Photo]

Euspira lewisii: [diet, preferences] 1. preferred prey on Denman and Hornby Islands in British Columbia are littleneck clams Prtothaca staminea. Cook & Bendell-Young 2010 [Photo, Graph]

Euspira lewisii: [growth] 1. few or no growth studies done. [Photo]

Euspira lewisii: [locomotion] 1. brief description of locomotory modes. [Photo]

Euspira lewisii: [burrowing] 1. describes mechanism of burrowing. Bernard 1968 [Photo, Drawing]

Euspira lewisii: [] 1. hypothermia useful as anaesthetic in routine surgery. Bourne 1968 [Text only]

Euspira lewisii: [burrowing] 1. animation video to show burrowing in a gastropod. [Video, Animation]

Euspira lewisii: [response, righting] 1. photo series showing righting response. [Photo]

Euspira lewisii: [burrowing] 1. video showing burial. [Video]

Euspira lewisii: [defense, predation] 1. brief description of defenses against predation. [Photo]

Euspira lewisii: [reproduction] 1. good description of egg-collar formation. Giglioli 1955 [Photo, Drawing]

Euspira lewisii: [sexual dimorphism] 1. males are larger, but their shell masses are relatively less than in females. Bernard 1986 [Photo, Graph]

Euspira lewisii: [development, larva, reproduction] 1. description of larval development. Pedersen & Page 2000 [Photo]

Euspira lewisii: [juvenile] 1. description of early juvenile stage. Page & Pedersen 1998 [Photo]

Euspira lewisii: [defense, intraspecific, larva, protection] 1. large velum is enabled to be pulled into shell through release of fluid from hemocoelic spaces via velar-lobe papulae. Page 2007 [Photo]

Euspira lewisii: [development, larva, metamorphosis, reproduction] 1. extent of shell growth, and increase in radula length and number of ctenidial filaments during delay of metamorphosis in the veliger larva. Lesoway & Page 2008 [Photo, Graph]

Euspira lewisii: [borehole drilling, feeding] 1. description of accessory boring organ and ideas on its function. Bernard & Bagshaw 1969 [Photo]

Euspira sp.: [borehole] 1. statistics on borehole drillings in bivalves in Departure Bay, British Columbia. Bernard 1967 [Text only]

Euspira spp.: [] 1. describes burrowing for European species of moon snail. Trueman & Ansell 1969 [Drawing]

Evasterias retifera: [predation] 1. one of several species of Alaskan asteroids known to be eaten by sea otters Enhydra lutris. Vicknair & Estes 2012 [Drawing, Graph]

Evasterias troschelii: [defense] 1. in Alaska juvenile king crabs Paralithodes camtschaticus may shelter within the arms possibly for protection. Dew 1990 [Photo]

Evasterias troschelii: [feeding] 1. feeding postures. 2. force and time required to open a bivalve Protothaca staminea. Christensen 1957 [Photo]

Evasterias troschelii: [run away] 1. attack by sun stars Solaster dawsonii generally elicits fast escape. Mauzey et al. 1968 [Photo]

Evasterias troschelii: [physiology, saponins, symbiont] 1. effect of saponins on gas exchange in symbiotic worms crawling on the skin. Patterson et al. 1978 [Photo, Graph]

Evasterias troschelii: [photo courtesy, prey capture] 1. photograph courtesy Chris Gunn, Campbell River, British Columbia. Gunn [Photo]

Evasterias troschelii: [arm, regeneration] 1. several photos of regenerating arms. [Photo]

Evasterias troschelii: [preferences, prey] 1. prey preferences in Puget Sound, Washington. Mauzey et al. 1968 [Photo]

Evasterias troschelii: [photo courtesy] 1. photo courtesy Dave Cowles, Walla Walla University, Washingotn. Cowles [Photo]

Evasterias troschelii: [preferences, prey] 1. in San Juan Islands, Washington prefer species of tunicates, especially Chelysoma productum. Young 1985 [Photo, Graph]

Evasterias troschelii: [predation] 1. in the Puget-Sound region are eaten by sea gulls Larus spp.. Rogers & Elliott 2013 [Photo, Graph]

Evasterias troschelii: [photo courtesy] 1. photograph courtesy Bob Armstrong, Alaska and Juneau Empire Newspaper, Alaska. Armstrong 2013 [Photo]

Evasterias troschelii: [predation] 1. general observation that this species may be preyed upon by sea gulls. Dew 1990 [Text only]

Evasterias troschelli: [genetics, reproduction] 1. relationship of genetic variation in sea stars to their mode of reproduction. 2. comparison of 5 species from different locations. Stickle et al. 1992 [Photo]

Evasterias troschelli: [predator] 1. in areas of Washington, 90% of diet consists of tunicates. 2. compares methods of feeding on different prey species. Young 1984 [Photo]

Excirolana chiltoni: [behaviour, swimming, tidal rhythm] 1. laboratory study on swimming behaviour in synchrony with tidal rhythms. Enright 1965 [Photo, Graph]

Excirolana chiltoni: [photo courtesy] 1. photograph courtesy Peter Bryant, University of California, Irvine. [Photo]

Excirolana chiltoni: [behaviour, lunar, swimming, tidal rhythm] 1. discovers lunar involvement in tidal-rhythm swimming behaviour. Enright 1972 [Text only]

Excirolana chiltoni: [behaviour, swimming, tidal rhythm] 1. laboratory study on behavioural entrainment with natural tidal rhythms. Klapow 1972 [Graph]

Excirolana chiltoni: [development, ovoviviparity, reproduction] 1. eggs uniquely held within the uteri during development. Klapow 1970 [Drawing]

Excirolana chiltoni: [moulting, salinity] 1. young released on a fortnightly schedule. 2. stores calcium from old exoskeleton as demoliths under skin. Klapow 1972 [Drawing]

Exosphaeroma sp.: [predation] 1. one of several types of isopods eaten by nearshore fishes in Santa Catalina Island, California. Hobson & Chess 1976 [Text only]

Exosphaeroma sp.: [behaviour, diel, light, locomotion, lunar] 1. moonlight tends to inhibit open-water swimming. Alldredge & King 1980 [Graph]

Fabia subquadrata: [commensalism, parasitism] 1. inhabit horse mussels Modiolus modiolus and several other bivalves in the San Juan Islands, Washington. 2. cause damage to gills. Pearce 1966 [Photo]

Fabia subquadrata: [photo courtesy] 1. photo courtesy Dave Cowles, Walla Walla University, Washington. Cowles [Photo]

Fabia subquadrata: [identification, larva, reproduction, zoea] 1. identification of zoea larvae of 10 genera of crabs in San Francisco Bay. 2. provides a dichotomous key for all 10 genera. Rice & Tsukimura 2007 [Drawing]

Fabia subquadrata: [parasitism] 1. these pea-crabs are parasitic in the mantle cavities of Japanese litteneck clams in sites in British Columbia. Bower et al. 1992 [Text only]

Faricia limnicola: [competition, interference] 1. interspecies competition for space and food, involving palp-fighting, palp-pulling, and biting at encroaching palps. 2. species involved in Mission Bay, California include the spionids Pseudopolydora paucibranchiata and Streblospio benedicti . Levin 1981 [Drawing]

Featherstar : [home] 1. introduction to feather stars in home file for feather-star part of the ODYSSEY. [Text only]

Featherstar : [] 1. snail meets feather star. [Animation]

Featherstar : [map] 1. snail's map with feather star highlighted. []

Featherstar : [classification] 1. brief classification of Class Crinoidea. []

Featherstar : [defense, toxin] 1. note regarding possible chemical defenses in Indo-Pacific crinoid species. Rideout et al. 1979 [Text only]

Ficopomatus enigmaticus: [community, composition, ecosystem engineer] 1. non-native reef-building tubeworm has large influences on community structure in the Elkhorn Slough region of California. Helman & Michell 2011 [Photo]

Ficopomatus enigmaticus: [photo courtesy] 1. photo courtesy Kimberley Helman, Muhlenberg College, Allentown, Pennsylvania. Helman [Photo]

Ficopomatus enigmaticus: [community, composition, ecosystem engineer] 1. aspects of community involvement of a non-native reef-building tubeworm in Elkhorn Slough, California. Helman et al. 2008 [Photo]

Fiona pinnata: [predator] 1. eats pelagic goose barnacles Lepas anatifera. Holleman 1972 [Photo]

Fiona pinnata: [photo courtesy] 1. photo courtesy Bill Rudman, Sea Slug Forum. Rudman [Photo]

Fiona pinnata: [behaviour, feeding, food] 1. description of it feeding on its favourite food barnacle Lepas sp.. 2. no preference for goose barnacles Pollicipes polymerus. Holleman 1972 [Photo]

Fiona pinnata: [photo courtesy] 1. photo courtesy Bill Rudman, Australia. Rudman [Photo]

Flabellina affinis: [defense] 1. defensive spindles in skin are made of chitin and protect against nematocysts of hydroid prey. Martin et al. 2007 [Text only]

Flabellina fusca: [diet, predator] 1. one of its dietary items may be colonies of soft corals Alcyonium spp.. [Photo]

Flabellina fusca: [polyp, predator] 1. in Puget Sound eats the polyp phase of jellyfishes Aurelia labiata . Hoover et al. 2012 [Text only]

Flabellina iodinea: [photo courtesy] 1. photo courtesy Todd Huspeni, California. Huspeni [Photo]

Flabellina iodinea: [aposemetism, defense, mimicry] 1. colours matched by possible Batesian mimic, the amphipod Podocerus cristatus. Goddard 1984 [Photo]

Flabellina iodinea: [photo courtesy] 1. photo courtesy Todd Huspeni, California. Huspeni [Photo]

Flabellina iodinea: [defense, nematocyst, predation] 1. defended in some way from predation by Navanax inermix, but the defense may not be related to nematocyst discharge. 2. Navanax eats 7 other species of nematocyst-bearing aeolids. Paine 1963 [Photo]

Flabellina iodinea: [photo courtesy] 1. photo courtesy Todd Huspeni & Jeff Goddard, California. Huspeni & Goddard [Photo]

Flabellina picta: [food] 1. eats hydroids such as Tubularia spp. and Eudendrium spp.. [Photo]

Flabellina picta: [photo courtesy] 1. photo courtesy Bruce Wight, California. [Photo]

Flabellina sp.: [carnivore] 1. eats hydroids Corymorpha palma. [Photo]

Flabellina sp.: [photo courtesy] 1. photo courtesy Kevin Lee, Fullerton, California. Lee [Photo]

Flabellina spp.: [aposemetism] 1. field tests of aposematic or warning coloration in Papua New Guinea. Gosliner & Behrens 2001 [Text only]

Flabellina spp.: [defense] 1. describe how epidermal spindles might work in defense against prey's nematocysts. 2. work done on European species. Martin & Walther 2003 [Drawing]

Flabellina trilineata: [mimicry] 1. possible Batesian mimicry between an amphipod and Flabellina. Gosliner & Behrens 1990 [Photo]

Flabellina trilineata: [photo courtesy] 1. photo courtesy Jeff Goddard, UC Santa Barbara. Goddard 2000 [Photo]

Flabellina trilineata: [aposemetism, mimicry] 1. possible presence of a Batesian mimic, the amphipod Podocerus cristatus. Goddard & Love 1984 [Photo]

Flabellina trilineata: [photo courtesy] 1. photo courtesy Jeff Goddard, Santa Barbara, California. Goddard [Photo]

Flabellina trilineata: [development, larva] 1. details of early development. Bridges & Blake 1972 [Photo, Drawing]

Flabellina trilineata: [defense, nematocyst] 1. describe method of incorporation of nematocysts derived from food into the cnidosacs of the cerata. Kalker & Schmekel 1976 [Photo, Drawing]

Flabellina trilineata: [defense, nematocyst] 1. describe method of incorporation of nematocysts derived from food into the cnidosacs of the cerata. Kalker & Schmekel 1976 [Photo, Drawing]

Flabellina trilineata: [photo courtesy] 1. drawing of cerata and cnidosac courtesy Kalker & Schmekel 1976 Zoomorph 86: 41. Kalker & Schmekel 1976 [Drawing]

Flabellina triophina: [photo courtesy] 1. photo courtesy Kevin Lee, Fullerton, California. Lee [Photo]

Flabellina triophina: [food] 1. photo of Flabellina eating a bryozoan . [Photo]

Flabellina verrucosa: [food] 1. eats hydroids. [Photo]

Flabellina verrucosa: [food] 1. eats hydroids. Morse 1969 [Photo]

Flabellina verrucosa: [behaviour, copulation, courtship, reproduction] 1. video showing courtship/copulatory behaviour. [Video]

Flabellina verrucosa: [defense, nematocyst] 1. studies showing selective uptake of certain types of nematocysts for incorporation into the cerata when eating different species of hydroid prey. Day & Harris 1978 [Photo]

Flabellina verrucosa: [defense, nematocyst] 1. detailed information on types of nematocysts sequestered from different cnidarian prey. Frick 2005 [Drawing, Table of Data]

Flabellina verrucosa: [nematocyst, preferences, quiz] 1. quiz on features of nematocysts important to an aeolid nudibranch. [Photo]

Flabellina verrucosa: [defense, nematocyst, preferred] 1. tests showing upstream presence of predator will influence the selection of certain types of nematocysts for sequestration. Frick 2003 [Graph]

Flabellina picta : [photo courtesy] 1. photo courtesy Jeff Goddard, UC Santa Barbara. Goddard [Photo]

Flatworm : [home] 1. introduction to Flatworms & Ribbon worms in home file for FLATWORM part of the Odyssey. []

Flatworm : [] 1. snail meets flatworm. [Animation]

Flatworm : [map] 1. snail's map with flatworm highlighted. [Drawing]

Flatworm : [classification] 1. classification of Phylum Platyhelminthes with emphasis on the Polycladida, and of Phylum Nemertea . []

Florometra  serratissima: [swimming] 1. description of swimming. [Photo]

Florometra  serratissima: [swimming] 1. video of swimming motion. [Video]

Florometra  serratissima: [feeding] 1. mechanism of capture of food particles, and formation and transport of food boluses. Byrne & Fontaine 1981 [Photo, Drawing]

Florometra  serratissima: [feeding] 1. formation and transport of food boluses. Byrne & Fontaine 1982 [Photo, Drawing]

Florometra  serratissima: [autotomy, regeneration] 1. description of regeneration events after autotomy. Mladenov 1983 [Photo, Drawing, Graph]

Florometra  serratissima: [autotomy, defense] 1. arm loss in response to attack by potential predatory sea stars Pycnopodia helianthoides and crabs Oregonia gracilis. Mladenov 1983 [Photo]

Florometra  serratissima: [defense, swimming] 1. swims on contact with sunflower stars Pycnopodia helianthoides. Mladenov 1983 [Photo]

Florometra  serratissima: [nutritional content] 1. does poor nutritional yield in a crinoid deter predators?. [Text only]

Florometra  serratissima: [egg, reproduction, sperm] 1. describes reproduction. 2. "dribble" spawner. Mladenov 1986 [Photo]

Florometra  serratissima: [development, doliolaria, larval dispersal] 1. describe unusual swimming in doliolaria larva. Mladenov & Chia 1983 [Photo, Drawing]

Florometra  serratissima: [reproduction] 1. aspects of reproduction. Chia et al. 1986 [Photo, Drawing]

Florometra  serratissima: [development, doliolaria, metamorphosis] 1. metamorphosis of doliolaria to a juvenile cystidea, then growth to a pentacrinoid stage. Mladenov & Chia 1983 [Photo, Drawing]

Florometra  serratissima: [development] 1. developmental information. Chia et al. 1986 [Photo, Drawing]

Florometra  serratissima: [acclimation experiments, development] 1. drawings of developmental stages. McEdward et al. 1988 [Drawing]

Florometra  serratissima: [photo courtesy] 1. photo courtesy Dan Leus, Nanaimo. Leus [Photo]

Florometra  serratissima: [development, energetics] 1. reduction in energy content during development. McEdward et al. 1988 [Drawing, Graph]

Florometra  serratissima: [development, energetics] 1. energy expenditure during development. McEdward & Carson 1987 [Drawing, Graph]

Florometra  serratissima: [attachment, locomotion] 1. explanation of how autotomy occurs in feather stars. Holland & Grimmer 1981 [Photo, Drawing]

Florometra  serratissima: [development, doliolaria] 1. stages in development of ciliated bands. Lacalli & West 1986 [Drawing]

Florometra  serratissima: [development, doliolaria] 1. development of cililary-band patterns. Lacalli & West 1987 [Drawing]

freshwater snail: [feeding] 1. radular scraping while crawling. [Video]

Fusitriton oregonensis: [defense, palatability, predation] 1. protection from predators conferred by unpalatable flesh?. Talmadge 1975 [Photo]

Fusitriton oregonensis: [photo courtesy] 1. photo courtesy Dave Cowles, Walla Walla University, Washington. Cowles [Photo]

Fusitriton oregonensis: [egg-laying, egg case] 1. details of egg-case deposition. Howard 1962 [Photo]

Fusitriton oregonensis: [egg case, gland, gonad, reproduction] 1. aspects of reproduction and relative sizes of reproductive organs. Stickle & Mrozek 1973 [Photo]

Fusitriton oregonensis: [photo courtesy] 1. photo courtesy Ron Long, Simon Fraser University, British Columbia. Long [Photo]

Fusitriton oregonensis: [egg case, oxygen consumption, physiology, reproduction, stress] 1. study on oxygen diffusibility through the egg-case walls. 2. cases become thinner during development, thus increasing oxygen diffusibility. Brante 2006 [Graph]

Gammarus sp.: [reproduction] 1. description of brood chamber. Friend & Richardson 1986 [Photo]

Gasteropteron pacificum: [behaviour, dispersal, reproduction, swimming] 1. seasonal swimming bouts by reproductively mature individuals may aid in dispersal. Mills 1994 [Photo]

Gasteropteron pacificum: [swimming] 1. video of an individual swimming. [Video]

Gastopoda : [defense, development] 1. complete poem entitled, "The ballad of the veliger, or how the gastropod got its twist". Garstang 1928 [Photo]

Gastopoda torsion: [] 1. speculation on the function of torsion in gastropod development. Garstang 1929 [Drawing]

Gastopoda torsion: [development] 1. recommendation to read references section for more studies on torsion in marine gastropods. Page 2002 [Text only]

Gastropoda torsion: [development] 1. recommendation to read references section for more studies on torsion and its function in gastropods. Pennington & Chia 1985 [Text only]

Geitodoris heathi: [photo courtesy] 1. photo courtesy Jeff Goddard, UC Santa Barbara, California. [Photo]

Gemma gemma: [introduction, invasive, shell, size, survival] 1. one of 38 introductions of bivalve species along with shipments of eastern oysters for culture on the west coast that was successful; study of relationship of body size and success at invading . 2. other successful species are Geukensia demissa, Macoma balthica, Mya arenaria, and Petricolaria pholadiformis. Miller et al. 2002 [Graph]

Gersemia rubiformis: [food, predation, preferred] 1. preferred food of nudibranch Tochuina tetraquetra. Wicksten & Demartini 1973 [Photo]

Gersemia rubiformis: [predation, secondary metabolite] 1. this favoured prey of the nudibranch Tochuina tetraquetra provides 5 of 6 terpenoids, possibly used in Tochuina's defense. Williams & Andersen 1987 [Photo]

Gersemia rubiformis: [chemical, defense] 1. possess several diterpenes of unknown function, possibly defense. Williams et al. 1987 [Photo]

Gersemia rubiformis: [identification] 1. may in fact be an undescribed species of soft coral Alcyonium. Fautiin & Hand 2007 [Photo]

Geukensia demissa: [introduction, invasive, shell, size, survival] 1. one of 38 introductions of bivalve species along with shipments of eastern oysters for culture on the west coast that was successful; study of relationship of body size and success at invading. 2. other successful species are Gemma gemma, Macoma balthica, Mya arenaria, and Petricolaria pholadiformis. Miller et al. 2002 [Graph]

Glaucus atlanticus: [defense, nematocyst] 1. nematocysts sequestered in cnidosacs from the nudibranchs prey Physalia species are released on contact with swimmers in Australia resulting in serious stings. 2. obvious defensive role . Thompson & Bennett 1969 [Photo]

Glausaulax reclusianus: [predator] 1. in Mugu Lagoon, California eats bivalves Protothaca staminea. Peterson 1982 [Text only]

Gnorimosphaeroma oregonense: [osmotic regulation, physiological ecology] 1. comparison of osmoregulatory ability with that of Sphaeroma pentodon . Riegel 1959 [Photo, Graph]

Gnorimosphaeroma oregonense: [behaviour, humidity, preferences] 1. describe behaviour to locate high-humidity areas. 2. describe possible humidity sensory cells. Standing & Beatty 1977 [Photo]

Gnorimosphaeroma oregonense: [development, reproduction, protogynous] 1. breed first as females, then change to males. Brook et al. 1994 [Photo, Graph]

Gnorimosphaeroma oregonense: [predator] 1. preferentially eat thin-walled egg cases of whelks Nucella ostrina over thick-walled ones. Rawlings 1994 [Photo, Graph]

Gnorimosphaeroma spp.: [taxonomy] 1. clarification of taxonomy of 2 species. Riegel 1959 [Text only]

Gnorimosphaeroma  oregonense: [digestion, symbiont] 1. comparison with another aquatic species Idotea wosnesenskii and a semiterrestrial species Ligia pallasii. 2. acquisition of gut bacterial symbionts may have aided evolution to terrestrial life in isopods. Zimmer et al. 2001 [Photo]

Gonionemus sp.: [diel, vertical migration, buoyancy] 1. regulation of sulphate ions appears not to be involved in buoyancy during diel vertical migration. 2. same results for several other species. Mills & Vogt 1984 [Graph]

Gonionemus vertens: [photo courtesy] 1. photo courtesy Dave Cowles, Walla Walla University, Washington. Cowles [Photo]

Gonionemus  vertens: [costs, energetics, swimming] 1. compares swimming costs with another hydromedusan Stomotoca atra. Daniel 1985 [Photo, Graph]

Goosebarnacle : [home] 1. introduction to goose barnacle in home file for Goose-barnacle part of the Odyssey. [Photo]

Goosebarnacle : [] 1. snail meets goose barnacle. [Animation]

Goosebarnacle : [map] 1. snail's map with goose barnacle highlighted. [Drawing]

Goosebarnacle : [classification] 1. classification of Infraclass Cirripedia of Subphylum Crustacea. [Text only]

Goosebarnacle : [] 1. disparaging remarks about John Gerard, the author of the goose-barnacle legend . Arber 1953 [Text only]

Gorgonocephalus eucnemis: [feeding, food] 1. foods eaten and feeding method. Patent 1970 [Photo, Drawing]

Gorgonocephalus eucnemis: [] 1. video of basket star feeding. [Video]

Gorgonocephalus eucnemis: [metabolic rate] 1. metabolic rates measured . 2. first study on a suspension-feeder done under natural water-current velocities. LaBarbera 1982 [Photo]

Gorgonocephalus eucnemis: [metabolic rate] 1. metabolic rates measured . 2. first study on a suspension-feeder done under natural water-current velocities. LaBarbera 1982 [Photo]

Gorgonocephalus eucnemis: [gonad index, reproduction] 1. uses "maturity index" to describe seasonality in reproduction. Patent 1969 [Photo, Graph]

Gorgonocephalus eucnemis: [life cycle, reproduction, symbiont] 1. describes remarkable symbiosis of juveniles that take up life during early stages within soft-coral Alcyonium sp. colonies. 2. refers to another paper Patent 1970 Mar Biol 6: 262. Patent 1970 [Photo, Drawing, Graph]

Haematopus bachmani: [predator] 1. in Barkley Sound, British Columbia eat purple urchins Strongylocentrotus purpuratus. Wooton 1997 [Photo]

Haematopus  bachmani: [predator, preferences] 1. in Barkley Sound, British Columbia over 40% of prey is represented by 4 species of limpets Lottia. Hartwick et al. 1976 [Photo]

Haematopus  bachmani: [predation, preferences, prey] 1. diet of adult specialises on limpets Lottia spp., while mussels Mytilus spp. predominate in diet of chicks. Hartwick et al. 1976 [Text only]

Haematopus  bachmani: [predation, preferences, prey, zoea] 1. in Cape Arago, Oregon prefer a diet of limpets, with emphasis on Lottia scutum. Frank 1982 [Table of Data]

Haematopus  bachmani: [mortality, predator] 1. over 7mo feeding season a single bird can potentially eat 21,000 limpets Lottia spp.. Frank 1982 [Photo]

Haematopus  bachmani: [predator, preferences, prey] 1. in St. Nicholas Island, California generally prefer to eat limpets, with preference for Lottia digitalis and L. pelta. Lindbergh et al. 1987 [Graph, Table of Data]

Haematopus  bachmani: [predator, preferences, prey] 1. limpets Lottis spp. are preferred prey for provisioning of chicks in the Gulf Islands, British Columbia. Hazlitt et al. 2002 [Drawing]

Haematopus  bachmani: [predator, preferences, PSPs] 1. these and other shorebirds switch to other diets, such as limpets, when paralytic shellfish poisons become seasonally high in mussel prey Mytilus californianus. Kvitek & Bretz 2005 [Graph]

Haematopus  bachmani: [predator] 1. in Sitka Sound, Alaska mussels M. trossulus and M. californianus comprise about 35% of the bulk of an oyster-catcher's yearly diet. Webster 1941 [Photo]

Haematopus  bachmani: [predator] 1. details of catching and eating limpets Lottia spp. in Sitka Sound, Alaska. Webster 1941 [Table of Data]

Haematopus  bachmani: [photo courtesy] 1. photo courtesy Don DesJardin, California. DesJardin [Photo]

Halichondria panicea: [growth, habitat] 1. better growth in the proximity of coralline algae. Palumbi 1985 [Photo, Graph]

Halichondria panicea: [quiz] 1. quiz relating to enhanced growth of sponges Halichondria panicea in the presence of coralline alga Corallina vancouveriensis. [Text only]

Halichondria panicea: [growth] 1. in areas of greater wave energy tissues grow stiffer and stronger, with higher spicule content than in calm areas. Palumbi 1986 [Photo]

Halichondria panicea: [photo courtesy] 1. photo courtesy Bill Austin, Victoria, British Columbia. Austin [Photo]

Halichondria panicea: [growth, transplants] 1. when transplanted from low- to high-wave energy habitat, growth form changes to one of higher stiffness/strength. 2. a reverse transplant leads to a more crumbly growth form, but only after several weeks delay. Palumbi 1984 [Graph]

Halichondria panicea: [quiz] 1. quiz relating to different growth forms in habitats with different levels of wave energy. [Text only]

Halichondria panicea: [differentiation, regeneration] 1. if a sponge is dissociated by squeezing it through a fine-mesh cloth, the cells dedifferentiate into amoeboid form, then gather into groups and redifferentiate into new tiny sponges. [Photo]

Halichondria panicea: [predation] 1. ecological interactions of prey and predator. Knowlton & Highsmith 2000 [Photo]

Halichondria panicea: [defense, spicules] 1. introductory consideration of spicule defenses. [Photo]

Halichondria panicea: [predation, regeneration] 1. study on speed of recovery from simulated nudibranch woundings in Alaska. 2. good regeneration (70%) after 1mo. Knowlton & Highsmith 2005 [Graph]

Halichondria panicea: [fouling, protection] 1. regularly sloughs off its outer layer, possibly explaining why it is usually free of fouling organisms. Barthel & Wolfrath 1989 [Photo]

Halichondria panicea: [mutualism, zoochlorella] 1. description of symbiotic zoochlorellae cells that live in the sponge's tissues. [Photo]

Halichondria panicea: [predation, symbiont] 1. eaten along with its symbiotic zoochlorella cells by nudibranchs Doris montereyensis. 2. the nudibranch benefits nutritionally from the zoochlorella eaten along with its sponge prey. Knowlton & Highsmith 2005 [Photo, Graph]

Haliclona permolis: [morphology, structure, water flow] 1. describes water flow in relation to structure; compare with Clathria prolifera. Reiswig 1975 [Drawing]

Haliclona sp.: [water flow] 1. passive enhancement of water flow through Bernoulli's principle, through seawater flowing overtop of the chimneys. Vogel 1974 [Photo]

Haliclona sp.: [water flow] 1. passive enhancement of water flow through Bernoulli's principle, through seawater flowing overtop of the chimneys. Vogel 1977 [Photo]

Haliclona sp.: [photo courtesy] 1. photo courtesy Sally Leys, University of Alberta, Edmonton. Leys [Photo]

Haliclona sp.: [genetics, recognition] 1. both adult and larvae are capable of allorecognition, that is, are able to distinguish between genetically identical and genetically distinct tissues. McGhee 2006 [Photo]

Haliclona sp.: [defense, spicules] 1. introductory consideration of spicule defenses. [Photo]

Haliclona sp.: [antibacterial, defense] 1. alcohol extracts reveal presence of antibacterial and antifungal activities. 2. also in Halichondria panicea and Craniella (Tetilla) sp.. Thompson et al. 1985 [Photo]

Haliclystus sanjuanensis: [anchor, habitat] 1. describes possible use of anchors for adhesion. Hyman 1940 [Drawing]

Haliotis : [defense] 1. behaviour during escape from sea stars. Crofts 1929 [Drawing]

Haliotis : [feeding] 1. description of radula function. Crofts 1929 [Drawing]

Haliotis : [animation] 1. cartoon animation of snail meeting abalone. []

Haliotis : [map] 1. snail's map showing route back to the top of the shore. []

Haliotis : [gonad growth] 1. gonadal indices in abalone in California. Boolootian et al. 1962 [Graph]

Haliotis : [gonad growth] 1. gonadal indices in California abalone. Webber 1970 [Graph]

Haliotis assimilis: [behaviour, defense] 1. mucus release from abalones during escape from sea stars. 2. mucus causes flight or irritation responses in conspecifics. Montgomery 1967 [Text only]

Haliotis corrugata: [ecological reserve] 1. best locations to establish marine protected areas for endangered abalone stocks in California. Rogers-Bennett et al. 2002 [Drawing, Graph]

Haliotis corrugata: [fishing, growth, harvesting] 1. growth studies related to recovery time for over-fished populations. Button & Rogers-Bennett 2011 [Photo, Graph]

Haliotis cracherodii: [] 1. description of food-handling and feeding. Crofts 1929 [Photo, Drawing]

Haliotis cracherodii: [harvesting] 1. historical records of abalone harvesting on San Clemente Island, California. Raab 1992 [Photo]

Haliotis cracherodii: [genetics] 1. determination of genetic interconnectivity of populations in California. Gruenthal & Burton 2008 [Photo, Drawing]

Haliotis cracherodii: [predation] 1. in Laguna Beach, California are preyed on by octopuses. 2. characteristic octopus drill-holes are found on the abalone shells. Tissot 1988 [Photo]

Haliotis cracherodii: [genetics] 1. population differentiation of abalones along the central California coast. Hamm & Burton 2000 [Photo, Drawing]

Haliotis cracherodii: [gonad growth] 1. seasonal gonadal indices. 2. effect of temperature. Webber & Giese 1969 [Photo, Graph]

Haliotis cracherodii: [desiccation] 1. holes in shell vary in number with intertidal height. Tissot 1988 [Photo]

Haliotis fulgens: [ecological reserve] 1. relative value of even small ecological reserves for green abalone. Parnell et al. 2005 [Graph]

Haliotis fulgens: [temperature stress, climate change] 1. temperature and food-quality effects on growth, survivorship, and reproduction. 2. relevance to climate change. Vilchis et al. 2005 [Photo, Graph]

Haliotis fulgens: [larval dispersal] 1. larval dispersal on the Californian coast from release points in the Channel Islands. Tegner & Butler 1985 [Photo, Drawing]

Haliotis fulgens: [photo courtesy] 1. photo courtesy Kevin Lee, Fullerton, California. Lee [Photo]

Haliotis fulgens: [growth] 1. best growth of a species at customary habitat temperature, comparing Haliotis fulgens, Haliotis corrugata, and Haliotis rufescens. Leighton 1974 [Graph]

Haliotis kamtschatkana: [defense] 1. escape from sunflower star Pycnopodia helianthoides. [Photo]

Haliotis kamtschatkana: [defense] 1. abalone escapes sunflower star Pycnopodia helianthoides. [Video]

Haliotis kamtschatkana: [defense] 1. abalone escapes sunflower star Pycnopodia helianthoides. [Photo]

Haliotis kamtschatkana: [defense, locomotion] 1. escape crawling speeds from sea stars. James & Nolen 1978 [Table of Data]

Haliotis kamtschatkana: [] 1. photograph of a juvenile . [Photo]

Haliotis kamtschatkana: [feeding, preferences] 1. feeding preferences in British Columbia and Alaska. Paul et al. 1977 [Photo, Drawing]

Haliotis kamtschatkana: [defense, development] 1. apparent lack of defensive function of torsion in abalone larvae. Pennington & Chia 1985 [Graph]

Haliotis kamtschatkana: [locomotion] 1. description of muscular contractions in the foot of an abalone used in locomotion. Miller 1974 [Photo, Drawing]

Haliotis kamtschatkana: [locomotion, energetics] 1. aspects of locomotion in an abalone. Donovan & Carefoot 1997 [Photo, Drawing]

Haliotis kamtschatkana: [photo courtesy] 1. photo courtesy Ron Long, Simon Fraser University, Burnaby, B.C.. Long [Photo]

Haliotis kamtschatkana: [locomotion] 1. comparison of normal and escape locomotory speeds with those of Calliostoma funebralis. Donovan & Carefoot 1997 [Photo]

Haliotis kamtschatkana: [locomotion] 1. locomotory energetics in abalones. Donovan & Carefoot 1997 [Graph]

Haliotis kamtschatkana: [locomotion] 1. contribution of anaerobic energy to costs of crawling in abalone. Donovan et al. 1999 [Graph]

Haliotis kamtschatkana: [energetics, time budget] 1. comparison of seasonal activity and energy budgets. 2. oxygen-consumption studies. Donovan & Carefoot 1998 [Photo, Graph]

Haliotis kamtschatkana: [feeding, nutrition] 1. introductory comments on foods of abalones. [Photo]

Haliotis kamtschatkana: [] 1. video of "outplanting" of cultured abalone larvae courtesy James Mortimer, Bamfield Marine Sciences Centre, Bamfield Huu-ay-aht Community Abalone Project Hatchery, and Department of Fisheries and Oceans, Government of Canada. Mortimer [Video]

Haliotis kamtschatkana: [ecological reserve] 1. assessment of ecological reserves for abalone. Wallace 1999 [Drawing, Graph]

Haliotis kamtschatkana: [quiz] 1. quiz on abalones and ecological reserves. [Text only]

Haliotis kamtschatkana: [fishing, harvesting] 1. failure of abalone fisheries in British Columbia. Campbell 2000 [Graph]

Haliotis kamtschatkana: [fishing, harvesting] 1. workshop on rebuilding abalone stocks in British Columbia. Watson 2000 [Photo, Graph]

Haliotis kamtschatkana: [fishing, harvesting] 1. assessment of population statuses of abalones H. kamtschatkana and H. walallensis in California. Rogers-Bennett 2007 [Photo]

Haliotis kamtschatkana: [fishing, harvesting] 1. assessment of abalone stocks in San Juan Islands, Washington. Rothaus et al. 2008 [Drawing]

Haliotis kamtschatkana: [population] 1. population status in the San Juan Islands, Washington. Rogers-Bennett 2011 [Drawing]

Haliotis kamtschatkana: [defense] 1. abalone crawls quickly away from an attacking sunflower star Pycnopodia helianthoidesl. [Photo]

Haliotis kamtschatkana: [defense, camouflage] 1. colour and camouflaging with algae as possible means of defense. Leighton 1961 [Photo]

Haliotis kamtschatkana: [predation, ontogenetic shift] 1. experiments on possible predators of abalone, and at what age of the prey. Griffiths & Gosselin 2008 [Drawing]

Haliotis kamtschatkana: [density, population] 1. review of population densities after fisheries closure in early 1990s. 2. enhanced survival of juveniles beneath spine canopies of red sea-urchins Strongylocentrotus franciscanus. Tomascik & Holmes 2003 [Photo]

Haliotis kamtschatkana: [defense] 1. juvenile runs from a small sunflower star Pycnopodia helianthoides. [Photo]

Haliotis kamtschatkana: [reproduction] 1. reproduction of abalone. [Photo]

Haliotis kamtschatkana: [development] 1. description of development from egg through to juvenile. Page 1997 [Photo]

Haliotis kamtschatkana: [photo courtesy] 1. photos courtesy Bevelander 1988 Abalone Gross and Fine Structure The Boxwood Press, Pacif Grove, 80 pp.. Bevelander 1988 [Photo]

Haliotis kamtschatkana: [gonad growth, fecundity] 1. comparison of gonadal indices and female fecundity at wave-exposed and wave-sheltered site in Haida Gwai. Campbell et al. 2003 [Graph]

Haliotis kamtschatkana: [] 1. short review of life cycle of abalone with photograph. [Photo]

Haliotis kamtschatkana: [colour, growth, shell] 1. diet involvement in shell colour. 2. wave-effects on growth. Emmett & Jamieson 1988 [Photo, Drawing]

Haliotis kamtschatkana: [shell, coiling] 1. factors involved in initiation of shell coiling. Collin & Voltzow 1998 [Photo]

Haliotis kamtschatkana: [water flow] 1. water flow through mantle cavity assisted by Bernoulli effect. Voltzow 1982 [Photo, Drawing]

Haliotis kamtschatkana: [water flow] 1. water flow through mantle cavity assisted by Bernoulli effect. Voltzow 1983 [Photo, Drawing]

Haliotis kamtschatkana: [acidification, climate change, development, larva, shell] 1. effect of pH on larval shell development . Crim et al. 2011 [Photo, Graph]

Haliotis mariae: [genetics, growth, phylogeography, size] 1. comparison of maximum shell sizes in temperate and tropical abalone species (H. rufescens vs. H. mariae). Estes et al. 2005 [Photo, Graph]

Haliotis rufescens: [habitat] 1. crevice habitation. Lowry & Pearse 1973 [Text only]

Haliotis rufescens: [behaviour, defense] 1. mucus release from abalones during escape from sea-star predators. 2. mucus causes flight or irritation responses in conspecifics. Montgomery 1967 [Text only]

Haliotis rufescens: [feeding, preferences] 1. red algae Palmaria mollis (dulse) is a better food for growth than brown kelps. Buchal et al. 1998 []

Haliotis rufescens: [nutrition] 1. nutritional studies using natural and artificial diets. Garcia-Esquivel & Felbeck 2006 [Photo]

Haliotis rufescens: [energetics] 1. larval energy stores. Jaeckle & Manahan 1989 [Graph]

Haliotis rufescens: [energetics] 1. larval energy supplies & energy balance. Jaeckle & Manahan 1989 [Text only]

Haliotis rufescens: [energetics] 1. energy shortfall during larval development made up from DOM. Shilling et al. 1996 [Photo]

Haliotis rufescens: [climate change, food quality] 1. temperature and food-quality effects on growth, survivorship, and reproduction. 2. relevance to climate change. Vilchis et al. 2005 [Photo, Graph]

Haliotis rufescens: [temperature ] 1. temperature effects on general health and level of expression of withering syndrome. Moore et al. 2011 [Text only]

Haliotis rufescens: [defense] 1. shelter from sea otters in crevices. Lowry & Pearse 1973 [Text only]

Haliotis rufescens: [defense] 1. defenses of abalone against sea otters. Hines & Pearse 1982 [Text only]

Haliotis rufescens: [development] 1. description of embryoinic development to hatching of veliger larva. Carlisle 1962 [Photo]

Haliotis rufescens: [reproduction] 1. size at sexual maturity in relation to legal-limit size. Rogers-Bennett et al. 2004 [Drawing, Graph]

Haliotis rufescens: [reproduction] 1. fertilisation success at different sperm concentrations. 2. spawning occurs in more calm water. Riffell & Zimmer 2007 [Photo, Graph]

Haliotis rufescens: [reproduction, life cycle] 1. description of larval and early life stages. Leighton 1974 [Drawing]

Haliotis rufescens: [metamorphosis] 1. use of GABA to stimulate metamorphosis . 2. GABA works better than natural coralline algae to induce metamorphosis. Morse et al. 1979 [Table of Data]

Haliotis rufescens: [metamorphosis] 1. comparison of the effectiveness of GABA as a metamorphosis inducer in abalones with several other amino-acid neurotransmitters. Morse et al. 1980 []

Haliotis rufescens: [metamorphosis] 1. addition of potassium to holding water increases settlement and attachment of larvae. Baloun & Morse 1984 [Photo, Graph]

Haliotis rufescens: [photo courtesy] 1. photo courtesy Kevin Lee, Fullerton, California. Lee [Photo]

Haliotis rufescens: [larval dispersal] 1. larval transport in currents over bottom rogosities. Boxshall 2000 [Photo, Graph]

Haliotis rufescens: [] 1. photo of inside of shell to introduce topic of Shell & Growth. [Photo]

Haliotis rufescens: [pearls] 1. commercial production of pearls in abalone. Fankboner [Photo]

Haliotis rufescens: [shell, colour] 1. factors involved in shell colour. Olsen 1968 [Photo]

Haliotis rufescens: [parasitism] 1. example of a mollusc that is susceptible to being parasitised by tubeworms. 2. most important families involved are spirorbids, sabellids, serbulids, and spionids. Kuris & Culver 1999 [Photo]

Haliotis rufescens: [parasitism] 1. example of a mollusc that is susceptible to being parasitised by tubeworms. 2. most important families involved are spirorbids, sabellids, serbulids, and spionids. Kuris & Culver 1999 [Photo]

Haliotis rufescens: [attractant, chemical, egg, reproduction, sperm] 1. identity of sperm-attractant chemical confirmed: the amino acid L-tryptophan. Riffell et al. 2002 [Drawing]

Haliotis rufescens: [genetics, growth, phylogeography, size] 1. comparison of maximum shell sizes in temperate and tropical abalone species (H. rufescens vs. H. mariae). Estes et al. 2005 [Photo, Graph]

Haliotis rufescens: [map] 1. study age and growth of individuals in Santa Rosa Island, California. 2. maximum size and age reached in about 10yr. Haaker et al. 1998 [Graph]

Haliotis sorenseni: [fishing, harvesting] 1. failure of abalone fisheries in California. Davis et al. 1998 [Text only]

Haliotis sp.: [development] 1. description of torsion in an abalone larva. Crofts 1929 [Drawing]

Haliotis sp.: [photo courtesy] 1. photo courtesy Kevin Lee, Fullerton, California. Lee [Photo]

Haliotis spp.: [behaviour, defense] 1. behavioral responses to sea-star predators. 2. defensive moving of epipodial tentacles, swelling of epipodium, and twisting of shell. Montgomery 1967 [Drawing]

Haliotis spp.: [feeding, preferences] 1. feeding preferences of California abalone are for kelps, in order, Macrocystis pyrifera, Egregia menziezii, Laminaria farlowii, and Eisenia arborea. Leighton 1966 [Photo]

Haliotis spp.: [defense, development] 1. idea that torsion may function to protect a larva from adverse physical conditions, rather than defense per se. Garstang 1962 [Text only]

Haliotis spp.: [] 1. overfishing of abalone leads to increased interest in aquaculture. [Photo]

Haliotis spp.: [fishing, harvesting] 1. status of abalone fisheries in California. Tegner 2000 [Graph]

Haliotis spp.: [fishing, harvesting] 1. commercial landings of abalone in California 1942-1996. Karpov et al. 2000 [Graph]

Haliotis spp.: [fishing, harvesting] 1. consideration of options for programmes to rehabilitate west-coast abalone stocks. Friedman & Finley 2003 [Text only]

Haliotis spp.: [sensory] 1. description of sensory devices that may be used for predator detection. Crofts 1929 [Drawing]

Haliotis spp.: [] 1. introduction to abalones & relatives section of A SNAIL'S ODYSSEY. [Text only]

Haliotis spp.: [] 1. factors involved in settlement and metamorphosis of larva. Crofts 1937 [Photo, Drawing]

Haliotis spp.: [shell] 1. explanation of shell construction and shell iridescence. [Photo, Drawing]

Haliotis spp.: [water flow] 1. water flow through the mantle cavity and its functions. Crofts 1929 [Drawing]

Haliotis spp.: [borehole, parasitism] 1. describes shell-thickening response of abalone shells to infestation of boring sponges Cliona californiana. Hansen 1970 [Photo]

Haliotis spp.: [genetics, growth, phylogeography, size] 1. phylogeography of body-size evolution in abalones. Estes et al. 2005 [Photo, Graph]

Haliotis  kamtschatkana: [escape, predation] 1. easily outruns predatory sunflower stars Pycnopodia helianthoides. [Photo]

Haliotis  rufescens: [burrowing, parasitism] 1. shells are parasitised by burrowing piddock clams Penitella conradi. Smith 1969 [Photo]

Haliotis  rufescens: [development, larva, pH, temperature stress] 1. effect of pH at present and future predicted levels on survival, development and gene expression in larvae at 4 developmental stages. Zippay & Hofmann 2010 [Text only]

Haliotis  rufescens: [photo courtesy] 1. photo courtesy Larry Friesen, California. Friesen [Photo]

Haliotis  rufescens: [larva, receptor, settlement] 1. searches without success for receptors for GABA (gamma-aminobutyric acid) on the ciliated cells of the velum. Barlow 1990 [Text only]

Haliplanella luciae: [nematocyst] 1. process of discharge of nematocysts. Watson & Hessinger 1989 [Drawing]

Halipteris willemoesi: [age, growth line] 1. maximum age determined from lines on the axial rod suggest life span of up to 50yr. Wilson et al. 2002 [Photo]

Halipteris willemoesi: [predation] 1. eaten by nudibranchs Tritonia diomedea. Malecha & Stone 2009 [Photo]

Halocynthia aurantium: [defense, larva] 1. large study asking the question whether gregarious tunicate species will eat less of their own larvae than will non-gregarious species. 2. the answer is yes. Young 1988 [Photo]

Halocynthia aurantium: [predation] 1. being attacked by predatory sea star Orthasterias koehleri. [Photo]

Halocynthia aurantium: [predation] 1. being attacked by predatory sea star Pycnopodia helianthoides. [Photo]

Halocynthia igaboja: [habitat, protection, spatial refuge] 1. act as spatial refuge for other epizoitic tunicates that are themselves unprotected from predators. Young 1989 [Photo, Graph]

Halosydna  brevisetosa: [functional morphology, gas exchange] 1. function of elytra in water flow for gas exchange. Lwebuga-Mukasa 1970 [Photo, Drawing]

Halosydna  brevisetosa: [photo courtesy] 1. photo courtesy Lovell and Lilbbie Langstroth, California. Langstroth [Photo]

Halosydna  brevisetosa: [photo courtesy] 1. photograph courtesy Lovell & Libby Langstroth, Pacific Grove, California. Langstroth [Photo]

Halosydna  brevisetosa: [reproduction, spawning] 1. in Tomales Bay, California spawns in spring/summer. Blake 1975 [Photo, Drawing]

Hamacantha hyaloderma: [predation, preferences] 1. in Barkley Sound, British Columbia, eaten by nudibranch Diaulula sandiegensis. Penney 2013 [Photo]

Haminoea callidegenita: [development, juvenile, lecithotrophic, reproduction, veliger] 1. develop either to lecithotrophic veligers or crawl-away juveniles. 2. species is now known as H. japonica. Gibson & Chia 1989 [Photo]

Haminoea callidegenita: [egg, hatching] 1. speculation on causes of hatching to either lecithotrophic larvae or to crawl-away juveniles. 2. study was probably done on H. japonica. Gibson & Chia 1995 [Text only]

Haminoea callidegenita: [egg masses, inducer, metamorphosis] 1. natural inducer is green alga Chaetomorpha spp.. 2. aqueous extracts of egg-masses induce settlement/metamorphosis. Gibson & Chia 1994 [Photo, Graph]

Haminoea callidegenita: [egg masses, inducer, metamorphosis] 1. comparison of different induction means. 2. metamorphosis may take place intracapsularly. Gibson 1995 [Graph]

Haminoea japonica: [photo courtesy] 1. photo courtesy Terry Gosliner, California. Gosliner [Photo]

Haminoea japonica: [photo courtesy] 1. photo courtesy Yukari Sato. Sato [Photo]

Haminoea japonica: [egg, hatching, juvenile, larva, lecithotrophic, reproduction] 1. eggs hatch to lecithotrophic larvae or crawl-away juveniles. 2. describe egg infestations. Gibson & Chia 1989 [Text only]

Haminoea sp.: [behaviour, development, larva] 1. aspects of development within the egg mass. 2. spinning behaviour of larvae may aid gas diffusion through mass. Hunter & Vogel 1986 [Text only]

Haminoea vesicula: [] 1. typical planktotrophic larvae. Gibson & Chia 1989 [Text only]

Haminoea vesicula: [egg-laying, substratum] 1. scarcity of egg-laying substrata may represent a hidden cost of benthic development. Von Dassow & Strathmann 2005 [Drawing]

Haminoea virescens: [food] 1. in Puget Sound area eats diatoms and detritus. Gibson & Chia 1995 [Photo]

Haminoea virescens: [photo courtesy] 1. photo courtesy Jan Kocian. Kocian []

Haminoea virescens: [predation] 1. at Newport Beach, California eaten by Navanax inermis. Blair & Seapy 1972 [Photo]

Haminoea virescens: [photo courtesy] 1. photo courtesy Jan Kocian. Kocian [Photo]

Haminoea virescens: [photo courtesy] 1. photo courtesy Jan Kocian. Kocian [Photo]

Hapalochlaena  lunulata: [bite, defense, toxin, urine] 1. note about toxic bites from south-Pacific blue-ringed octopus. High 1976 [Photo]

Hemigrapsus nudus: [photo courtesy, prey] 1. photo courtesy Rebecca Kordas, University of British Columbia. Kordas [Photo]

Hemigrapsus nudus: [defense, predation, zoea] 1. zoeae larvae of crabs Hemigrapsus oregonensis have difficulty in eating the plutei larvae of Strongylocentrotus spp., perhaps because of their spines and erratic swimming behaviour. Rumrill & Chia 1985 [Photo, Graph]

Hemigrapsus nudus: [photo courtesy] 1. photo courtesy Iain McGaw, Memorial University, Newfoundland. McGaw [Photo]

Hemigrapsus nudus: [identification, larva, reproduction, zoea] 1. identification of zoea larvae of 10 genera of crabs in San Francisco Bay. 2. provides a dichotomous key for all 10 genera. Rice & Tsukimura 2007 [Drawing]

Hemigrapsus nudus: [development, larva, megalopa, reproduction, zoea] 1. development from egg to first juvenile stage. Hart 1935 [Drawing]

Hemigrapsus oregonensis: [predator] 1. prey on clams Venerupis philippinarum in culture trays. Smith & Langdon 1998 [Photo]

Hemigrapsus oregonensis: [exoskeleton permeability] 1. comparison in 6 species of west-coast crabs. Gross 1955 [Graph]

Hemigrapsus oregonensis: [feeding, larva, omnivory, reference only, zoea] 1. feeding by larvae on phytoplankton. 2. other species used are Cancer magister, C. oregonensis, and Rhinolithodes wosnessenskii. Shaber & Sulkin 2007 []

Hemigrapsus oregonensis: [prey] 1. in summer comprise main prey of long-billed curlews in estuaries around Humboldt Bay, California. Leeman et al. 2001 [Photo]

Hemigrapsus oregonensis: [colour, defense, morph] 1. introductory report on the variety of colour morphs occurring in San Juan Island, Washington. Folz 2013 [Photo]

Hemigrapsus oregonensis: [antennule, behaviour, chemosensory, scaling] 1. consideration of scaling of antennule size during growth in relation to antennule flicking for chemoreception and relative viscosity of seawater. Waldrop 2013 [Photo]

Hemigrapsus oregonensis: [predation] 1. in Bolinas Lagoon, California are eaten on sand/mud-flats by long-billed curlews Numenius americanus. Stenzel et al. 1976 [Photo]

Hemigrapsus oregonensis: [identification, larva, reproduction, zoea] 1. identification of zoea larvae of 10 genera of crabs in San Francisco Bay. 2. provides a dichotomous key for all 10 genera. Rice & Tsukimura 2007 [Drawing]

Hemigrapsus spp.: [competitive exclusion, non-indigenous] 1. study on space competition between different species of Hemigrapsus. Steinberg & Epifanio 2011 [Text only]

Hemigrapsus  nudus: [defense] 1. is regurgitation of gut juices defensive?. [Photo]

Hemigrapsus  nudus: [claw, efficacy, mechanical advantage] 1. comparison of shell-breaking efficacy of 4 species of crabs. 2. determination of mechanical advantages. Behrens Yamada & Boulding 1998 [Photo, Drawing, Graph]

Hemigrapsus  nudus: [claw, function, mechanical advantage, lever] 1. general description of claw mechanics. [Photo]

Hemigrapsus  nudus: [gas exchange, emersion] 1. effect of air exposure on gill-bailer beat frequency. 2. surface area of gills compared. Greenaway et al. 1996 [Photo, Graph]

Hemigrapsus  nudus: [reference only] 1. acid-base balance, hemocyanin function. Morris et al. 1996 []

Hemigrapsus  nudus: [reference only] 1. acid-base balance, air emersion, hemocyanin function. Morris et al. 1966 []

Hemigrapsus  nudus: [behaviour, physiological ecology, temperature ] 1. some behavioral regulation of body temperature. McGaw 2003 [Photo, Graph]

Hemigrapsus  nudus: [photo courtesy] 1. photo courtesy Iain McGaw, Memorial University, Newfoundland. McGaw [Photo]

Hemigrapsus  nudus: [omnivory] 1. eat algae, diatoms, live prey, scavenging. Knudsen 1964 [Photo]

Hemigrapsus  nudus: [omnivory] 1. in San Juan Islands are mainly herbivores. Birch 1979 [Text only]

Hemigrapsus  nudus: [omnivory] 1. diet includes seaweeds, snails, and amphipods. Lewis et al. 2007 [Photo, Graph]

Hemigrapsus  nudus: [osmotic regulation] 1. good hyperosmotic regulation down to about 20% ocean-strength seawater. Jones 1941 [Graph]

Hemigrapsus  nudus: [osmotic regulation] 1. good hyperosmoregulation but poor hypo-osmoregulation. Dehnel 1962 [Graph]

Hemigrapsus  nudus: [ion regulation] 1. good cation regulation (e.g., sodium) in low salinities. 2. strong magnesiium ion regulation via kidneys. Dehnel & Carefoot 1965 [Photo, Graph]

Hemigrapsus  nudus: [salinity, survival] 1. good survival down to 8 parts per thousand. McGaw 2001 [Graph]

Hemigrapsus  nudus: [exoskeleton permeability] 1. comparative data for 6 species of west-coast crabs. Gross 1955 [Graph]

Hemigrapsus  nudus: [season] 1. females carry eggs between Oct-May at Pacific Grove, California. Boolootian et al. 1959 [Graph]

Hemigrapsus  nudus: [behaviour, reproduction] 1. details of reproduction in the Puget Sound area. Knudsen 1964 [Photo, Graph]

Hemigrapsus  nudus: [photo courtesy] 1. photo courtesy Ron Long, Simon Fraser University. Long [Photo]

Hemigrapsus  nudus: [chemosensory] 1. scent of crabs in field by winkles Littorina scutulata affects their later behaviour in the laboratory. Keppel & Scrosati 2004 [Photo, Drawing, Table of Data]

Hemigrapsus  nudus: [photo courtesy, predator] 1. exposure to crabs in the field causes shells of littorines L. subrotundata to grow thicker. Dalziel & Boulding 2005 [Photo]

Hemigrapsus  nudus: [feeding, predator, preferences] 1. in field experiments involving tethered littorine prey, prefer thin-shelled Littorina subrotundata over thick-shelled L. sitkana. Boulding et al. 2007 [Graph]

Hemigrapsus  nudus: [preferences, prey] 1. smaller sized crabs have greater preference for thin-shelled prey littorine species over thick-shelled ones, and this declines with age of predator. Pakes & Boulding 2010 [Graph]

Hemigrapsus  oregon: [growth, moulting, regeneration] 1. effect of limb regeneration on growth. Kuris & Mager 1975 [Photo, Graph]

Hemigrapsus  oregonensis: [competition, interspecific, salinity] 1. competes with Pachygrapsus crassipes for burrow space. 2. comparison of tidal heights occupied with P. crassipes. Willason 1981 [Photo, Graph]

Hemigrapsus  oregonensis: [aggression, competition] 1. out-competed by introduced green crabs Carcinus maenas. Grosholz & Ruiz 1995 [Photo]

Hemigrapsus  oregonensis: [competition, interference] 1. juveniles out-competed by green crab Carcinus maenas juveniles in interference-type competition for space. Jensen et al. 2002 [Graph]

Hemigrapsus  oregonensis: [competition, space] 1. out-competed for space by green crabs Carcinus maenas over 14yr study. De Riviera et al. 2011 [Photo, Graph]

Hemigrapsus  oregonensis: [behaviour, locomotion] 1. locomotory activity most in the morning. Symons 1964 [Photo, Graph]

Hemigrapsus  oregonensis: [behaviour, locomotion, tides] 1. tide cycle major determinant of daily activity. Batie 1983 [Photo, Graph]

Hemigrapsus  oregonensis: [genetics, haplotypes] 1. two main haplotypes in Oregon. Petersen 2007 [Drawing]

Hemigrapsus  oregonensis: [behaviour, larva, swimming] 1. experiments on larval behaviour. Arana & Sulkin 1993 [Text only]

Hemigrapsus  oregonensis: [feeding, larva, survival] 1. experiments on optimal larval nutrition. 2. comparison with larvae of Cancer magister. Sulkin et al. 1998 [Text only]

Hemigrapsus  oregonensis: [autotomy] 1. aspects of limb autotomy. Easton 1972 [Photo]

Hemigrapsus  oregonensis: [locomotion] 1. video showing locomotion in air. [Video]

Hemigrapsus  oregonensis: [omnivory] 1. eat algae, diatoms, live prey, scavenge. Knudsen 1964 [Photo]

Hemigrapsus  oregonensis: [osmotic regulation] 1. good hyperosmotic regulation down to about 20% ocean-strength seawater. Jones 1941 [Graph]

Hemigrapsus  oregonensis: [osmoconformer] 1. good hyperosmoregulation but poor hypo-osmoregulation. Dehnel 1962 [Graph]

Hemigrapsus  oregonensis: [ion regulation] 1. good cation regulation (e.g., sodium). 2. strong magnesium ion regulation via kidneys. Dehnel & Carefoot 1965 [Photo, Graph]

Hemigrapsus  oregonensis: [autotomy, regeneration] 1. extent to which growth is affected by number of limbs being regenerated. Kuris & Mager 1975 [Photo, Graph]

Hemigrapsus  oregonensis: [fossilisation, predation] 1. considers fossilisation potential of exoskeleton . Stempien 2005 [Photo]

Hemigrapsus  oregonensis: [reproduction] 1. details of reproduction in the Puget Sound area. Knudsen 1964 [Photo, Graph]

Hemigrapsus  oregonensis: [behaviour, copulation] 1. copulatory behaviour of crabs in Coose Bay, Oregon. Lindberg 1980 [Text only]

Hemigrapsus  oregonensis: [parasitism] 1. life-history considerations of being parasitised by nemerteans Carcinonemertes epialti. Shields & Kuris 1988 [Photo]

Hemigrapsus  oregonensis: [parasitism] 1. compares rates of parasitism by nemerteans Carcinonemertes epialti with rates on non-indigenous green crabs Carcinus maenas. Torchin et al. 1996 [Photo]

Hemigrapsus  spp.: [predator] 1. eat juvenile bivalves Saxidomus giganteus, Tapes japonica (Venerupis philippinarum), and Mytilus trossulus. Bourne & Lee 1973 [Text only]

Hemigrapsus  spp.: [predation] 1. affect survival of post-settlement Dungeness crabs Cancer magister. Banks & Dinnel 2000 [Photo, Graph]

Hemigrapsus  oregonensis: [feeding, megalopa, metamorphosis] 1. experiments on food requirements to reach metamorphic competency. Farrelly & Sulkin 1988 [Photo]

Hemigrapsus  oregonensis: [salinity, survival] 1. compares survival in a land-lock lagoon with grapsoid crab Pachygrapsus crassipes. Gross 1961 [Photo, Graph]

Henricia leviuscula: [egg, juvenile, larva] 1. developmental stages may possess defensive chemicals to deter fish predators. Iyengar & Harvell 2001 [Graph]

Henricia leviuscula: [digestion, pyloric cecum] 1. structure and function of digestive system. Anderson 1960 [Photo]

Henricia leviuscula: [preferences, prey] 1. prey preferences in Puget Sound, Washington. Mauzey et al. 1968 [Photo]

Henricia leviuscula: [arm, protection, righting] 1. examination of righting responses in sea stars, including Leptasterias hexactis. 2. tends to right by somersaulting. Polls & Gonor 1975 [Photo, Drawing]

Henricia leviuscula: [photo courtesy] 1. photo courtesy Dave Cowles, Walla Walla University, Washington. Cowles [Photo]

Henricia leviuscula: [reproduction] 1. compares features of reproduction with Henricia pumila. 2. concludes that they represent 2 different species. Eernisse et al. 2010 [Photo, Drawing]

Henricia leviuscula: [righting] 1. comparison of righting times in several west-coast sea stars. Burdi 2012 [Photo]

Henricia leviuscula: [regeneration] 1. description of regeneration of pyloric ceca. Anderson 1962 [Photo]

Henricia pumila: [photo courtesy] 1. photo courtesy Dave Cowles, Walla Walla University, Washington. Cowles [Photo]

Henricia pumila: [brooding, development, reproduction] 1. compare reproduction with related species Henricia leviuscula and determine that the 2 are separate species. 2. H. pumila is a brooding species, while H. leviuscula is a spawning species. Eernisse et al. 2010 [Photo]

Henricia pumila: [righting] 1. comparison of righting times in several west-coast sea stars. Burdi 2012 [Photo]

Henricia sp.: [predation] 1. photograph in connection with tests of its possible role as predator of sea anemone Stomphia. [Photo]

Heptacarpus brevirostris: [photo courtesy] 1. photo courtesy Dave Cowles, Walla Walla University, Washington. Cowles [Photo]

Heptacarpus paludicola: [camouflage, chromatophore, coprophagy, defense] 1. possible use of colorful chromatophores as camouflaging. Bauer 1981 [Photo, Drawing]

Heptacarpus paludicola: [attractant, pheromone, sex] 1. shows evidence of a sex pheromone being present. Bauer 1979 [Text only]

Heptacarpus pictus: [moulting] 1. recently moulted. [Photo]

Heptacarpus sitchensis: [camouflage, chromatophore, coprophagy, defense] 1. possible use of colorful chromatophores as camouflaging. Bauer 1981 [Photo, Drawing]

Heptacarpus sitchensis: [behaviour, grooming] 1. compares grooming behaviour in 5 families of caridean shrimps. Bauer 1978 [Photo, Drawing]

Heptacarpus sitchensis: [photo courtesy] 1. photo courtesy Gary McDonald, Long Marine Laboratory, Santa Cruz, California. McDonald [Photo]

Heptacarpus sitchensis: [behaviour, copulation, spermatophore] 1. nice description of copulatory behaviour, including spermatophore release and egg fertilisation. Bauer 1976 [Photo, Drawing]

Heptacarpus spp.: [camouflage, chromatophore, defense] 1. no evidence for background-matching in either H. sitchensis or H. paludicola. Bauer 1982 [Text only]

Hermissenda crassicornis: [aposemetism, colour, defense] 1. introduction to warning coloration in aeolid nudibranchs. Burgin 1975 [Photo, Drawing]

Hermissenda crassicornis: [aposemetism, colour, defense] 1. how colours are created. Burgin 1965 [Photo, Drawing]

Hermissenda crassicornis: [autotomy, defense] 1. possible role in defense. Zack 1975 [Photo]

Hermissenda crassicornis: [autotomy, cerata, regeneration] 1. details of loss and regeneration of cerata. Miller & Byrne 2000 [Photo, Drawing]

Hermissenda crassicornis: [food] 1. normal diet is hydroids. Harrigan & Alkon 1978 [Photo]

Hermissenda crassicornis: [food] 1. field diet is hydroids. 2. a variety of foods is eaten by laboratory specimens. Avila 1998 [Photo]

Hermissenda crassicornis: [food, neural, perception] 1. experiments on distance and near food perception. Alkon et al. 1978 [Photo]

Hermissenda crassicornis: [food, perception] 1. conclusion that Hermissenda has no distance perception for food is incorrect. Kjerschow Agersborg 1925 [Photo]

Hermissenda crassicornis: [food] 1. hydroids are a favoured food. 2. laboratory specimens have best growth on a diet of sea anemones Metridium senile. Avila & Kuzirian 1995 [Text only]

Hermissenda crassicornis: [food, gut, morphology] 1. usually considered an eater of hydroids, field diets in California are actually highly diversified. Megina et al. 2007 [Photo, Drawing]

Hermissenda crassicornis: [development, larva, reproduction] 1. compares development and aspects of yolk utilisation with aeolid Aeolidia papillosa. Williams 1980 [Photo, Graph]

Hermissenda crassicornis: [density, development, larva, reproduction] 1. experiments on best density for larval cultures. Avila et al. 1997 [Graph]

Hermissenda crassicornis: [diet, ingestive conditioning] 1. tests on ingestive conditioning done in Woods Hole, Massachusetts. Avila 1998 [Photo]

Hermissenda crassicornis: [behaviour, copulation, courtship, reproduction, agonism] 1. describes agonistic behaviour, but later shown by another author to be nothing more than courtship/copulatory behaviour. Zack 1975 [Photo, Drawing]

Hermissenda crassicornis: [photo courtesy] 1. photo courtesy Kevin Lee, Fullerton, California. Lee [Photo]

Hermissenda crassicornis: [agonism, behaviour, reproduction] 1. more on agonistic behaviour, something later shown to be simply courtship/copulatory behaviour. Zack 1974 [Photo]

Hermissenda crassicornis: [nematocyst, technique] 1. describes potentially useful method to produce nematocyst-free individuals. Zack 1975 [Text only]

Hermissenda crassicornis: [behaviour, copulation, courtship, reproduction, time budget] 1. times each component behaviour using video records from field animals. 2. assumes behaviour to be agonistic, as actual copulation not witnessed. Rutowski 1981 [Graph]

Hermissenda crassicornis: [aggression, behaviour, copulation, courtship, reproduction] 1. complex interactive behaviour may lead either to aggression or copulation. 2. attempts a compromise between 2 opposing views. Rutowski 1981 [Text only]

Hermissenda crassicornis: [behaviour, copulation, courtship, reproduction] 1. video records clearly show sperm transfer after precopulatory behaviours that may last up to 30min. 2. actual sperm transfer takes just a few seconds. Longley & Longley 1981 [Photo]

Hermissenda crassicornis: [photo courtesy] 1. photo courtesy Kevin Lee, Fullerton, California. Lee [Photo]

Hermissenda crassicornis: [copulation, courtship] 1. video courtesy Roger and Alison Longley, Friday Harbor Laboratories, Washington. Longley & Longley [Video]

Hermissenda crassicornis: [behaviour, copulation, reproduction] 1. quickness of copulatory event (4sec on average) leads to wastage of sperm. Rutowski 1983 [Photo]

Hermissenda crassicornis: [development, life span, metamorphosis] 1. 4mo life span at 15C. Harrigan & Alkon 1978 [Photo]

Hermissenda crassicornis: [defense, nematocyst] 1. test nematocyst release from cnidosacs against several types of potential predators. 2. conclude that storage in cnidosacs may not be defensive; rather, just a way to rid the body of undischarged nematocysts from dietary intake. Miller & Byrne 2000 [Photo]

Hermissenda crassicornis: [eye, light, perception] 1. description of eye morphology and visual perception. Eakin et al. 1967 [Drawing]

Hermissenda crassicornis: [eye, perception] 1. description of light perception by eyes. Stensaas et al. 1969 [Drawing]

Hermissenda crassicornis: [eye] 1. account of light perception by photoreceptors in eyes. Alkon & Fuortes 1972 [Drawing]

Hermissenda crassicornis: [behaviour, crawling, light] 1. crawling speeds and directions in light and dark. Lederhendler et al. 1980 [Photo, Drawing]

Hermissenda crassicornis: [balance, statocyst] 1. background studies on behaviour. Alkon 1974 [Text only]

Hermissenda crassicornis: [metamorphosis, reproduction] 1. metamorphosis induced by several species of hydroids and sea anemones. Avila 1998 [Photo, Graph]

Hermissenda crassicornis: [inducer, metamorphosis, reproduction] 1. preliminary study on metamorphosis induction. Avila et al. 1994 [Photo, Graph]

Hermissenda crassicornis: [feeding, predator, preferences] 1. cafeteria-style feeding and choice tests, and Y-tube-type tests indicate that colonial tunicates Distaplia occidentalis and jellyfish polyps Aurelia labiata are preferred prey. Hoover et al. 2012 [Photo]

Hermissenda crassicornis: [photo courtesy] 1. photograph courtesy Kevin Lee, Fullerton, California. Lee [Photo]

Hermissenda crassicornis: [feeding, preferences] 1. Y-maze food-preference tests. Tynedale et al. 1994 [Text only]

Hermissenda crassicornis: [egg-laying] 1. gives example of rate of egg deposition. Costello 1938 [Photo]

Hermissenda crassipes: [balance, statocyst] 1. description of statocysts and spatial orientation. Harrigan et al. 1986 [Drawing]

Heterochone calyx: [habitat, technique, glass-sponge reefs] 1. survey of hexactinellid-sponge distributions in British Columbia using submersible Pisces. 2. highest abundances are associated with high levels of dissolved silicate, low light, high levels of oxygen, temperatures of 9-10C, and low levels of suspended sediments. Leys et al. 2004 [Photo, Graph]

Heterochone calyx: [photo courtesy] 1. photos and drawings courtesy Kim Conway, Geological Survey of Canada, Canadian Hydrographic Service, and Environment Canada. Conway [Photo, Drawing]

Heterochone calyx: [distribution, glass-sponge reefs] 1. brilliantly illustrated study of distribution in reefs in the Strait of Georgia. 2. 2 species, A. vastus and Heterochone calyx comprise the bulk of the reefs in the Strait of Georgia. Chu & Leys 2010 [Photo, Drawing]

Heterochone calyx: [predation] 1. in the Strait of Georgia, British Columbia this deep-water glass sponge is eaten by nudibranchs Peltodoris lentignosa and Doris odhneri. Chu & Leys 2012 [Photo]

Heterochone spp.: [parasitism] 1. parasitised by polyps of a hydroid Brinckmannia hexactinellidophila. Schuchert & Reiswig 2006 [Photo, Drawing]

Heterosaccus californicus: [parasitism] 1. parasitises kelp crabs of both sexes and causes reduction in growth. O'Brien [Photo, Graph]

Hippasteria spinosa: [photo courtesy] 1. photo courtesy Randy Shuman, Seattle, Washington in connection with its role as a predator of sea anemone Stomphia. Shuman [Photo]

Hippasteria spinosa: [preferences, prey] 1. preferred prey in Puget Sound, Washington is sea pens Ptilosarcus guernyi. Mauzey et al. 1968 [Photo]

Hippasteria spinosa: [photo courtesy] 1. photo courtesy Randy Shuman. Shuman [Photo]

Hippasteria spinosa: [photo courtesy] 1. photo courtesy Randy Shuman. Shuman [Photo]

Hippodiplosia  sculpta: [parasitism, symbiont] 1. bryozoan Hipplodiplosia growing on the shell of a keyhole limpet Diodora aspera. [Photo]

Hippoglossus  stenolepis: [predator, survival] 1. habitat selection and survival of prey juvenile king crabs Paralithodes camtschaticus in presence of predator. Stoner 2009 [Photo]

Holthuria spp.: [defense, saponin] 1. identifies holothurins (holotoxins) comprised of saponins (steroid glycosides) in the Cuvierian tubules of several species of tropical sea cucumbers. Nigrelli et al. 1955 [Text only]

Humilaria kennerleyi: [prey] 1. eaten by sea stars Pisaster brevispinus. [Photo]

Humilaria kennerleyi: [prey] 1. preyed upon by sea stars Orthasterias koehleri. [Photo]

Humilaria kennerleyi: [predation] 1. in Puget Sound eaten preferentially by sea stars Pisaster brevispinus. Mauzey et al. 1968 [Photo]

Hyas lyratus: [development, megalopa, reproduction, zoea] 1. description of early development. Hart 1960 [Photo, Drawing]

Hydractinia spp.: [predation] 1. eaten by aeolid nudibranch Cuthona divae. Goddard 1987 [Photo]

Hydroid : [home] 1. introduction to Hydroids in home file for hydroid part of the Odyssey. [Photo]

Hydroid : [] 1. snail meets hydroid. [Animation]

Hydroid : [map] 1. snail's map with hydroid highlighted. []

Hydroid : [classification] 1. classification of Order Hydroida in the Class Hydrozoa. []

Hydroid : [] 1. video of hydroid colony. [Video]

Hydroid : [defense, cnidophore] 1. describe a special defensive tentacle, the cnidophore, in certain Mediterranean species. 2. not yet described for west-coast species. Martin & Walther 2002 [Photo]

Hydromedusa : [reference only] 1. reference data on standing stocks of hydromedusae in Saanich Inlet. Larson 1986 [Text only]

Hydromedusa : [salinity] 1. considerations of boundary-layer impediments to vertical movements in hydromedusae. Arai 1976 [Text only]

Idoeta spp.: [distribution] 1. lists 18 species along the west coast. Menzies 1950 [Graph]

Idotea montereyensis: [camouflage, chromatophore, defense] 1. role of chromatophores in camouflage for defense. Lee 1966 [Photo]

Idotea montereyensis: [defense] 1. isopods hiding on a blade of surfgrass Phyllospadix. [Photo]

Idotea montereyensis: [diet, herbivory] 1. primarily eat epidermal layers of surfgrass Phyllospadix scouleri. 2. some animal matter eaten. Lee 1966 [Photo]

Idotea montereyensis: [brooding, reproduction, season] 1. females carry broods in spring and winter. Lee 1966 [Photo]

Idotea montereyensis: [camouflage, chromatophore] 1. mechanism of colour change. Lee 1972 [Photo]

Idotea montereyensis: [photo courtesy] 1. photo courtesy Lisa Needles, University of Oregon. [Photo]

Idotea resecata: [diet, herbivory] 1. grazes on frond surfaces of giant kelps Macrocystis integrifolia. Jones 1971 [Photo]

Idotea resecata: [photo courtesy] 1. photo courtesy Dave Cowles, Walla Walla University, Washington. Cowles [Photo]

Idotea resecata: [speed, swimming] 1. compares with speeds of Idotea wosnesenskii. Alexander & Chen 1990 [Drawing, Graph]

Idotea resecata: [morphology, ontogenetic shift] 1. use of features in taxonomic studies that change ontogenetically during growth are not useful. 2. the authors list better features to use for isopods. Menzies & Waldzunas 1948 [Photo, Drawing]

Idotea resecata: [photo courtesy] 1. photo courtesy Susannah Anderson. Anderson [Photo]

Idotea resecata: [camouflage, colour] 1. mechanism of colour change. 2. emphasis on pigment deposits. Lee & Gilchrist 1972 [Text only]

Idotea sp.: [camouflage] 1. disguised on coralline algae. [Photo]

Idotea sp.: [camouflage] 1. camouflaged against brown kelp. []

Idotea spp.: [camouflage, defense] 1. inhabit algal patches in which they are camouflaged. [Photo]

Idotea spp.: [swimming] 1. description of swimming methods. Alexander et al. 1995 [Drawing, Graph]

Idotea wosnesenskii: [digestion, symbiont] 1. comparison with one other aquatic species Gnorisphaeroma oregonense and one semiterrestria species Ligia pallasii. 2. acquisition of gut bacterial symbionts may have aided evolution to land in isopods. Zimmer et al. 2001 [Photo]

Idotea wosnesenskii: [diet, herbivory, preferences] 1. in areas around Anacortes, Washington prefer green alga Ulva spp.. Van Alstyne et al. 2006 [Photo]

Idotea wosnesenskii: [osmotic regulation, physiological ecology] 1. uses silver staining to identify locations of osmoregulation on the pleopods. Holliday 1988 [Photo, Drawing, Graph]

Idotea wosnesenskii: [swimming, speed] 1. compares swimming speeds with those of Idotea resecata. Alexander & Chen 1990 [Drawing, Graph]

Idotea wosnesenskii: [swimming] 1. compares hydrodynamic drag in species of Idotea. Alexander & Chen 1990 [Graph]

Idotea  spp.: [swimming] 1. uses pleopods 1-3 for swimming. Alexander 1988 [Drawing, Graph]

Idotea  wosnesenskii: [digestion] 1. comparison of ability to digest cellulose and lignins in selected isopods, including Gnorisphaeroma oregonense and Ligia pallasii. Zimmer et al. 2002 [Text only]

Ilyanassa obsoleta: [preferences] 1. preferred shell domicile of hermit crabs Pagurus hirsutiusculus in San Francisco Bay. Wicksten 1977 [Photo]

Ilyanassa obsoleta: [competition, competitive exclusion, interference] 1. account of competitive exclusion of an endemic species of mud snail Cerithidea californica by a non-indigenous species. Race 1982 [Photo]

Ilyanassa obsoleta: [burial, defense, protection] 1. many species of mud snails bury themselves for protection from sea birds, sea stars, and fishes. [Photo]

Ilyanassa obsoleta: [omnivory] 1. description of omnivorous diet. 2. have a crystalline style. Curtis & Hurd 1981 [Photo]

Ilyanassa obsoleta: [behaviour, mucus, physiological ecology] 1. trail-tracking behaviour. Trott & Dimock 1978 [Photo, Drawing]

Ilyanassa obsoleta: [function, mucus, physiological ecology, trail following] 1. experiments on trail-following and suggestions for function. Trott & Dimock 1978 [Photo]

Ischnochiton asthenes: [brooding, reproduction] 1. early reference to brooding in chitons. Smith 1966 [Text only]

Ismaila belciki: [egg-laying, egg capsule, egg masses, parasitism, reproduction] 1. detailed study of the effects of presence of a copepod parasite on the reproductive biology of its nudibranch host Janolus fuscus. Wolf & Young 2014 [Photo]

Ismaila belciki: [sexual dimorphism] 1. features of this nudibranch parasite include an incomplete gut, soft external appendages, and large egg sacs in the female. Belcik 1965 [Drawing]

Isopod : [home] 1. introduction to isopods in home file for Isopod part of the Odyssey. [Text only]

isopod : [] 1. snail meets isopod. [Animation]

Isopod : [map] 1. snail's map with isopod highlighted. []

Isopod : [classification] 1. classification of intertidal and semiterrestrial isopods in the Order Isopoda. [Text only]

Isopod : [aesthetasc, behaviour] 1. review of endogenous behaviour patterns in isopods and animals in general. Enright 1970 [Text only]

Isopod : [exretory, ammoniotelism] 1. review of ammonia excretion in isopods. Dresel & Moyle 1950 [Text only]

Isopod : [bacteria, nutrition, nutritional content] 1. brief overview of potential role of gut bacterial symbionts in nutrition for herbivores eating nutritionally poor diets of seaweeds. [Text only]

Isopod : [colonisation of land, moulting, quiz] 1. quiz on advantage of biphasic moult in oniscid isopods. [Text only]

Isopod : [colonisation of land, humidity, salinity, tolerance] 1. comparison of several species from aquatic to terrestrial habitats. Brusca 1966 [Text only]

Isopod : [reproduction] 1. brief overview of reproductive events. Brusca et al. 2001 [Drawing]

Isopod : [amplexus, copulation, reproduction] 1. males are larger than females. [Photo]

Janolus  fuscus: [development, juvenile, larva, metamorphosis] 1. development of larvae cultured from eggs to metamorphosis. Wolf & Young 2012 [Photo, Graph]

Janolus  fuscus: [adult, food, larva] 1. food of larvae in culture and of adults. Wolf & Young 2012 [Photo]

Janolus  fuscus: [egg-laying, egg capsule, egg masses, parasitism, reproduction] 1. detailed study of the effects of presence of a copepod parasite Ismaila belciki on the reproductive biology of its nudibranch host. Wolf & Young 2014 [Photo]

Jellyfish : [home] 1. introduction to jellyfish in home file for jellyfish part of the ODYSSEY. [Photo]

Jellyfish : [] 1. animation of snail meeting jellyfish. [Animation]

Jellyfish : [map] 1. snail's map with jellyfish highlighted. []

Jellyfish : [classification] 1. classification of Class Scyphozoa with details on Order Stauromedusae and Order Semaeostoma. []

Kaburakia excelsa: [crawling] 1. crawling in laboratory dish. [Video]

Katharina tunicata: [density, ecological reserve, habitat, map] 1. investigate factors of habitat important in establishing ecological reserves. Solomon et al. 2006 [Graph]

Katharina tunicata: [age, growth, growth line] 1. comparison of growth and age in chitons, including the gumboot Cryptochiton stelleri, collected from California, Oregon, and Washington. Lord 2012 [Photo, Graph]

Katharina tunicata: [distribution, gene flow, map] 1. genetics analysis of individuals from 5 sites on Vancouver Island, British Columbia show no significant genetic differentiation. Doonan et al. 2012 [Photo]

Katharina tunicata: [community, interactions, technique, consumer guild] 1. development of a technique for estimating interaction strengths in a community. Paine 1992 [Graph]

Katharina tunicata: [metabolic rate, scaling] 1. measures of oxygen consumption and scaling exponents for 6 species of sympatric chitons, also including Cyanoplax dentiens, Mopalia lignosa, M. muscosa, Tonicella lineata, and Placiphorella velata. 2. data suggest that the concept of a universal scaling law relating to metabolism and body size is invalid. Carey et al. 2013 []

Katharina  tunicata: [habitat, water flow] 1. distributions of 5 species of chitons in relation to degree of water movement. Linsenmeyer 1975 [Graph]

Katharina  tunicata: [wave exposure, tenacity] 1. relationship of tenacity to body size and wave exposure. Stebbins 1988 [Photo, Graph]

Katharina  tunicata: [shell, fossilisation] 1. comparison of taphonomic features of shell valves with those of Mopalia muscosa. Puchalski & Johnson 2009 [Photo]

Katharina  tunicata: [competition, food] 1. competition with limpets Lottia spp.. Dethier & Duggins 1984 [Graph]

Katharina  tunicata: [freshwater, osmotic regulation] 1. comparison of freshwater tolerance with Mopalia muscosa. 2. both species are osmoconformers. Rostal & Simpson 1988 [Text only]

Katharina  tunicata: [diet, energetics, preferences] 1. dietary preferences with focus on energy intake when eating several seaweed species. Himmelman & Carefoot 1975 [Photo, Graph]

Katharina  tunicata: [diet] 1. compares diets of 6 species at Deception Island, Washington. Piercy 1987 [Graph]

Katharina  tunicata: [diet] 1. diet in San Juan Island Washington is 50% Hedophyllum sessile. Burnaford 2001 [Photo]

Katharina  tunicata: [competition, herbivory] 1. on Oregon shores feeds on red algae Mazzaella splendens . 2. competes with limpets Lottia pelta. Gaines 1985 [Photo, Graph]

Katharina  tunicata: [competition, herbivory] 1. investigation of role of chitons in mediating competition between marine plants. Duggins & Dethier 1985 [Photo, Graph]

Katharina  tunicata: [herbivory, removal] 1. effect on removal on community ecology. Dethier & Duggins 1988 [Graph]

Katharina  tunicata: [density, ecology, herbivory, community] 1. manipulate densities and observe effects on food alga Hedophyllum sessile. Markel & DeWreede 1998 [Photo]

Katharina  tunicata: [homing, radula] 1. discovery of magnetite in the radula of chitons. Lowenstam 1962 [Text only]

Katharina  tunicata: [feeding, radula, function] 1. new idea on radular function. Padilla 2003 [Photo]

Katharina  tunicata: [larva, settlement, inducer] 1. larva settle in response to crustose coralline algae. 2. GABA gamma-amino-butyric acid also effective stimulus. Rumrill & Cameron 1983 [Photo]

Katharina  tunicata: [larva, morphology, ocelli] 1. details of ocellus morphology. 2. function may include mechano- and chemoreception, as well as photoreception. Rosen et al. 1979 [Photo, Drawing]

Katharina  tunicata: [orientation] 1. unpublished observations on orientation in magnetic fields. Carefoot 1962 [Text only]

Katharina  tunicata: [orientation, compass] 1. orients to magnetic north. Tomlinson 1980 [Graph]

Katharina  tunicata: [gonad index, season, spawning] 1. spawn in July. Giese et al. 1959 [Graph]

Katharina  tunicata: [energetics, gonad growth] 1. lip involvement in gonad growth. Giese & Araki 1962 [Photo]

Katharina  tunicata: [gonad index, season] 1. spawn in springtime correlative with plankton bloom. Himmelman 1978 [Photo, Graph]

Katharina  tunicata: [recruitment, season, settlement] 1. recruitment in northern California mainly in summer/autumn. Stebbins 1988 [Photo, Graph]

Katharina  tunicata: [repair, shell] 1. comparison with Cryptochiton stelleri. Tucker & Giese 1959 [Photo]

Katharina  tunicata: [photo courtesy] 1. photo courtesy Linda Schroeder, Pacific Northwest Shell Club, Seattle, Washington. Schroeder [Photo]

Katharina  tunicata: [heat-shock proteins, shelter, temperature stress] 1. association with kelps Hedophyllum sessile, in addition to providing food, may proved shelter from light, temperature stress, and desiccation. 2. measures heat-shock protein levels in response to temperature. Burnaford 2004 [Drawing, Graph]

Katharina  tunicata: [heat-shock proteins, temperature stress] 1. shading effects of food alga Hedophyllum sessile is beneficial. 2. use of cage treatments. Burnaford 2004 [Graph]

Katharina  tunicata: [population, predation] 1. populations in areas of Alaska preyed on both by sea otters and humans. 2. historical data included. Salomon et al. 2007 [Photo]

Kelletia kelletii: [feeding] 1. exploitation of common food resources with sea stars Pisaster giganteus. Rosenthal 1971 [Photo]

Kelletia kelletii: [photo courtesy] 1. photo courtesy Gerald & Buff Corsi, California. Corsi [Photo]

Kelletia kelletii: [competition, predation] 1. eaten by sea stars Pisaster giganteus in San Diego region of California. 2. may compete with P. giganteus for common prey items. Rosenthal 1971 [Photo]

Kelletia kelletii: [photo courtesy] 1. photo courtesy Gerald and Buff Corsi, and California Academy of Sciences. Corsi [Photo]

Kelletia kelletii: [dispersal, distribution, map] 1. discussion of possible factors influencing northwards expansion in distribution. Zacherl et al. 2003 [Drawing, Graph]

Kelletia kelletii: [dispersal, distribution, genetics, map, model] 1. interesting modelling study of genetic spread along and across the Santa Barbara Channel in California. White et al. 2010 [Drawing]

Kelletia kelletii: [feeding, proboscis] 1. shows long extension of proboscis to seek out prey. [Video]

Kelletia kelletii: [development, egg capsule] 1. description of egg cases and emergence of hatchlings. Rosenthal 1970 [Photo]

Kelletia kelletii: [chemical fingerprint, larval dispersal, map, technique] 1. use of technique of trace-elemental analysis for tracking of larvae from natal sources. Zacherl 2005 [Drawing]

Kelletia kelletii: [chemical fingerprint, larval dispersal, map, technique] 1. use of technique of trace-elemental analysis for tracking of larvae from natal sources. Zacherl et al. 2003 [Drawing]

Kelletia kelletii: [chemical fingerprint, larval dispersal, map, technique] 1. use of technique of trace-elemental analysis for tracking of larvae from natal sources. 2. use the larval statolith for analysis. Lloyd et al. 2008 [Drawing]

Kurtziella sp.: [photo courtesy] 1. photo courtesy Roland Anderson and Seattle Aquarium, Washington. Anderson [Photo]

Lacuna carinata: [predation, prey] 1. eaten by sea stars Leptasterias hexactis in surfgrass habitats in northern California. Fishlyn & Phillips 1980 []

Lacuna carinata: [predation] 1. preferentially eaten by nudibranchs Dirona albolineata over other snails Pupillaria pupillus and Margarites helicinus. Robilliard 1971 []

Lacuna marmorata: [defense, run away] 1. describe response to attack by predatory sea stars, involving twisting, tentacle-waving, and releasing attachment. Fishlyn & Phillips 1980 [Photo]

Lacuna marmorata: [photo courtesy] 1. photo courtesy Trampus Goodman. Goodman 1980 [Photo]

Lacuna porrecta: [photo courtesy] 1. photo courtesy Linda Schroeder, Pacific Northwest Shell Club, Seattle, Washington. Schroeder [Photo]

Lacuna porrecta: [photo courtesy] 1. photo courtesy Linda Schroeder, Pacific Northwest Shell Club, Seattle, Washington. Schroeder [Photo]

Lacuna sp.: [mimicry] 1. possible Batesian mimicry between an amphipod and a snail Lacuna sp.. Field 1974 [Photo]

Lacuna spp.: [dispersal] 1. juveniles use mucous threads to disperse. Martel & Chia 1991 [Photo]

Lacuna spp.: [feeding, food, radula] 1. data on replacement rates of radula in L. vincta and L. variegata. Padilla et al. 1996 [Photo]

Lacuna spp.: [predation] 1. eaten by cottids Artedius spp. and other fishes. Norton 1988 [Photo]

Lacuna variegata: [dispersal] 1. juveniles use mucous threads for dispersal. Martel & Chia 1991 [Photo, Graph]

Lacuna variegata: [morphology, plasticity, radula] 1. radular morphology varies depending on food being eaten. Padilla 1998 [Photo]

Lacuna variegata: [photo courtesy] 1. photo courtesy Linda Schroeder, Pacific Northwest Shell Club, Seattle, Washington. Schroeder [Photo]

Lacuna vincta: [dispersal] 1. juveniles use mucous threads to disperse. Martel & Chia 1991 [Photo]

Lacuna vincta: [dispersal] 1. juveniles use mucous threads to disperse. Martel & Chia 1991 [Photo]

Lacuna vincta: [dispersal] 1. juveniles use mucous threads to disperse. Martel & Chia 1991 [Photo]

Lacuna vincta: [dispersal] 1. juveniles use mucous threads to disperse. Martel & Chia 1991 [Photo]

Lacuna vincta: [dispersal] 1. juveniles use mucous threads for dispersal. Martel & Chia 1991 [Photo, Graph]

Lacuna vincta: [photo courtesy] 1. photo courtesy N. Elder and Linda Schroeder, Pacific Northwest Shell Club, Seattle, Washington. Elder & Schroeder [Photo]

Lacuna vincta: [morphology, plasticity, radula] 1. radula morphology varies depending on food being eaten. Padilla 1998 [Photo]

Lacuna vincta: [photo courtesy] 1. photo courtesy N. Elder and Linda Schroeder, Pacific Northwest Shell Club, Seattle, Washington. Elder & Schroeder [Photo]

Lacuna vincta: [aging, reproduction, settlement, spawning] 1. de