title for limpet section of the Odyssey

Sexes are separate in most limpets.  Spawning occurs in late winter/springtime in most species, and development leads to a free-swimming, non-feeding veliger larva. 

NOTE  sex ratios in limpets are rarely mentioned.  In one study on Lottia limatula at Palos Verdes, California a ratio of 1.7 male: 1 female is reported (in 486 specimens).  Seapy 1966 Veliger 8: 300.

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Larval life

  Topics on reproduction in limpets & relatives include larval life considered here, and SPAWNING & EARLY DEVELOPMENT and SETTLEMENT & RECRUITMENT considered in other sections.
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Research study 1

Although most limpet species have a planktonic veliger stage and possess ciliated bands for photograph of limpets Lottia peltaphotograph of limpets Lottia scutumlocomotion, few if any appear capable of feeding.  Studies on larvae of limpets Lottia pelta and L. scutum at Friday Harbor Laboratories, Washington suggest that although feeding currents seem to be generated by cilia and particles are observed in motion, the currents seem mainly to have a cleansing function.  Moreover, when plastic microspheres and microalgal cells of several species are provided to the veligers, none is found in the stomachs, yet the particles are readily eaten by veligers of other gastropods (e.g., Lacuna spp.).  The authors suggest that if the ciliation in these limpets and its proposed function represent the ancestral condition, then these cleansing cilia may have been modified for feeding later in evolution.  Hadfield et al. 1997 Invert Biol 116: 313.

  veligers of 2 other primitive gastropod species included in the study, Diodora aspera (a patellogastropod) and Calliostoma ligatum (a vetigastropod) also appear not to feed

NOTE  the algal particles are observed with fluorescence microscopy, which causes the chlorophyll in the algal cells to fluoresce bright red-orange